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THE 7 


O R 

Hiftory of England, 

From the earlieft TIMES, 

T O T H E 

Reftoration of King CHARLES II. 


From the RECORDS, the ROLLS of Parliament, the JOURNALS 
of both Houfes, the Publk LIBRARIES, Original MANU- 
SCRIPTS, fcarce SPEECHSS, and TRACTS j all compared 
with the feveral Contemporary Writers, and connected, 
throughout, with the Hiftory of the Times. 



VOL. XXI. . 

From the Meeting of Cromwell's third Parliament, in Seflehitxr, 1656, 
to the great Confufions in Ofiofar, 1659. 


Printed for J. and R. TONSON, and A. MILLAR, in the 
Strand; and W. SANDBY, in Fleet -Jlreet, 


*,*** * ,*S * * ,*x * 


Parliamentary Hiftory 

O F 


Vigorous Profecution of theXVar with 
fy<7/tf, requiring large Supplies, the 
Protestor was neceffitated to call a 
Parliament : But left a new one (hould 
prove as refractory as thelaft, which, 
in January, 1654, he had diflblv'd in 
high Difguft, he refolved to leave no Means unat- 
tempted to pack together an Aflembly of Men de- 
voted to his own Ambitious and Arbitrary Defigns. 
In effecting this his Major-Generals of Counties, of 
which new Kind of Officers we have taken parti- 
cular Notice in our laft Volume, were highly fer- 
viceable"; not only in procuring, by their Influence 
and Authority, themfelves and their Dependents, 
fuch as Governors of Caftles and Garrtfons, Colo- 
nels of Regiments in the Army, Captains of County 
Troops, Civil Officers, and Relations of the Lord 
Vet. XXI. A Fro. 

inter- regaum, 
l6 5 6 - 

Vol. XX. 



2 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Prote&or, to be chofen ; but alfo in preventing the 
6 5 6 - Election of many Gentlemen of the beft Families 
c-.- v ~j anc j Fortunes b . Yet finding, neverthelefs, that a 
' Se P tember - great Number of Members of the laft Parliament, 
who had been the moft refolute Oppofers of his Mea- 
fures, were return'd to ferve in the prefent; and ap- 
prehenfive he fhould not, therefore, be able, by a 
Legiflative Sanction, to ratify and eftablifh his Go- 
vernment, which had hitherto no Authority but 
what was derived from the Sword, he determined 
that not a Man mould be permitted to fit in thtf 
Houfe, without firft producing a Certificate of his 
being approved by the Council of State. 

This Tyrannical Project of Cromwell's, betngthe 
higheft Infringement of the Liberties of the Nation 
we have yet met with, in the whole Courfe of thefe 
Inquiries, we fhall endeavour to inveftigate, and 
bring together, every authentic Circumftance that 
can pofiibly contribute to illuftrate fo important a 

To this End we exhibit a Lift of the Members 
of this Parliament, diftinguifhing all fuch as were 
the Dependents or Relations of Cromwell ; and alfo 
thofe who, though duly return'd by the Sheriffs, 
were not permitted to fit in the Houfe. -, 

b In the Fifth Volume of Tburloc's State Papers, is a Copy of a 
Pamphlet, intituled, England's Remembrancer, or a Word in Seafoit 
to all Englifhmen about their Eleflior.s of Members for the approach- 
ing Parliament. This Piece, great Numbers whereof were difperfed 
all over the Nation, feems to have been calculated to fpirit up the 
People againft the Protector and his Government. 

In that Colleftron alfo are feveral Letters from Lord Broghilt, Henry 
Cromwell, Monck, c Jt>ur!oe, M'halley. Lilburne, Haynes, Di/browe, 
Kelfey, Gaffe, Berry, Bridges, feff. from the Perufal of which may be 
form'd a juft Idea of the arbitrary Meafures made ule of to fecuie a 
Majoiity of Members in the P. elector's Intereft, to be return'd 

for England, Scotland, and Ire/and. We lhall give an Extract of 

one only, as a Specimen of the left. 

London, Aug. 12, 1656. 

" All our Newes is about the Choyce of Members for Parliament. 
Where our honeft Soldiers can appeare, a reafonable good Choyce is 
Inade, but the farther off from London the worfe ; for even here 
amongft us, under our Nofes, the Ill-affected are fo bould and in- 
gratefull, as, at Elections, to cry out, Noe Souldiers, noe Courtiers: 
But curft Cowes have fli.:>rt Homes ; and the Prudence of our Gover- 
nors, by the fending for up of the reft of the Army, will doubtleii 
fecure us agaiuft the jaew and old Malignants boaUV' 

Gf E N G L A N D. 3 

Ttie NAMES of the PERSONS returned to ferve in the Parliament 

appointed to meet at Weftminfter, September 17, 1656, fo-i 


CINQUE PORTS, of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, 

and Ireland. c 

The Members in the Italic Char after were denied Admittance into 
the Houfc ; and tbofe witl? k prefixed, voted for CromwellV 
being King. d 

BEDFORDSHIRE. OIR William Boteler, Knt. 

John Harvey, Efq; 
Richard Wagftaffe, Efq; as Captain of Fcot, 

!, per Ann. and Captain of a County 
Troop, iooA 
k Samuel Bedford, Efq; one of the Receivers cf 

the Public Revenues, 300 /. per Ann, 
Richard Edwards, Efq; 
Bedford T. Thomas Margets, Efq; Judge- Advocate of the 

Army, 2737. 15*. par Ann. 
BERKSHIRE. k William Trumbull, Efq; 
John Southby, Efq; 

k Edmund Dunch, of Eaft- Wittenham, E6j; 
/- Capt. John Dunch, related to the Lord Pro- 

tector by Marriage. 
k William Hide, EJq-, 
Mngdon B. Thomas Holt, Efq; 

A 2 Rj e d. 

c Extracted from the Journals, Dr. Willit's Not i tin ParltAmeistaria, the Diaries of 
the Times, Tburloe, &c. 

The Account of the feveral Offices, &c. of which th* Members were poflefled, 
with their refpe<ftive Value, are taken from a Pamphlet publirtied immediately after 
the Dillblutioo of the Parliament. - This Piece, which is wrote with equal Truth 
and Refentment, is intituled, A Narrative of the latt Parliament, (ft called) their 
flefiion and Appearing 5 the Stcfajion of a great Part of then ; the Sitting of the rejt. 
tfitb an Account of tbf Places of Profit, Salaries, and Advantages, ivbtcb t&ev bold 
and receive under the prefent P fiver. With feme Queritt thereupon ; and upon the mojl 
material Aeit 'and Proceedings paff'ed by them. All Jbumtly prefuifcd to Confederation ; 
publified for Information of tbe People, hy a Friend to the Commonwealth, and to its 
J^dr-bought Right; end L:l>t>tict. It was communicated b> tlic Rev. Dr. Birch, Se- 
cretary to the Royal Society ; to whom ihe Authors of this Work are much obliged 
for feveral valuable Materials. 

d It is remarkable that fome of thofc Members who were denied their Seats in the 
Houfe, at the Opening of the Parliament, afterwards voted for making of Croimuetl 
King. - That they were at firft refnftd Admittance, as not being approved by the 
Council, is copfitm'd by the Journals ; and yet, from the frequent Mention of their 
Names in thofc Authorities afterwards, as Tellers, (&c. it is evident they got in by 
fome Means or other. It is not improbable, therefore, that their promiJTnp tovotj 
fat the Pjotcftor's Advancement to the Crown, was the Price of their Admjdiou 

Aylefbury B. 
Dipping - fff 

comb B. 

4 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Reading B. Daniel Blagrave, Efq; 

BUCKINGHAM- k Rt. Hon. Bulftrode Whitlocke, as Commif- 
SHIRE. fioner of the Treafury, iooo 7. per Ann. his 

Son a Colonel in the Army, and made a 

Knight by the Lord Protector, Jan. 6, 1656* 
Sir Richard Piggot, Knt. 
Richard Grenville^ Efa; 
k Richard Ingoldfby, Efq; Colonel of Horfe, 

4747. ioj. per Ann. The Protector's Kinf- 


k Richard Hampden, Efq; 
Buckingham T. k Francis Ingoldfby, Efq; a Relation to the Lord 


Thomas Scott^ of Lamleth-Houfe^ Efq; 
Maj. Gen. Tobias Bridge, Colonel of Horfe, 

4747. 10 s. per Ann. 

k Sit Francis Rufiel, Bart. Chamberlain of Che- 
Jter, 500 7. per Ann. One of his Daughters 

married the Lord Protector's fecond Son. 
Robert Caftle, Efq; 
Henry Pickering, Efqj 
k Robert Weft, Efq; 
Rt. Hon. Lord Richard Cromwell, Chancellor 

of the Univerfity. Eldeft Son of the Lord 


Richard Tymbes, Alderman. 
k Rt. Hon. John Thurloe, Principal Secretary 

of State, and Poftmafter of England. 
William Fijher, Efq; 
Sir George Booth, Bart. 
Thomas Marbury, of Marbury, Efq; 
k Richard Legh, ofLyme, Efq; 
k Major Peter Brooke, of Reddifli. 
Edward Bradfhaw, Efq; 
Rt. Hon. Francis Roufe^ as one of his High- 

nefs's Council. iooo7. per Ann. and Provoft 

of Eaton College, 500 7. 
Anthony Nichols, of Penrofe, Efq; 
k Richard Carter, of Colomb-Major, Efq; 
Thomas Ceeley, of Trevifham, Efq; 
William Braddon, Efq; Captain of a County 

Troop, 1 00 7. ptr Ann. 


Cambridge Uni- 

Cambridge T. 
Me of 7. 


Chefler C. 



Launcefton B. 
Truro B. 
Penryn B. 

John St. Aubyn, of Clowance, Efq; 

Col. Anthony Roufe, Vice -Admiral of the 
North and South Coafts of Cornwall. 

Walter Moyle, of Bake, Efq-, 

Thomas Gewen, of Bradridge^ Efq; 

Walter Vincent, Efq- t 

John Fox, Efq; Recorder of this Borough, 
Governor of Pendennis Caftle, and Captain 
of Horfe. The Protector's Kinfman. 

MiddIeTem P le 
CUMBERLAND, k Maj. Gen. Charles Howard, as Colonel of 
Foot, 3657. per Ann. and Captain of a Coun- 
ty Troop, ioo/. alfo Governor of Berwick , 
Carlijle, and Tinmsuth. 
k William Brifcoe,Efq; Colonel of Foot, 3657. 

per Ann. 

Carlijle C. k George Downing, Efq; as one of the Tellers 

of the Exchequer in England, 500 /. per Ann. 
and, as Scout- Mafter General of Scotland, 

DERBYSHIRE. John Cell, Efq\ 

Sir Samuel Sleigh, Knt. 

Thomas Saunders, Efq; 

German Pole, Efq; 

Derby T. k Gervafe Bennet, Efq; one of the Committee 

for the Prefervation of the Excife and Cuf- 
toms, 300 /. per Ann. alfo a valuable Place 
in the Wine-Office, and one of the Commit- 
tee for the Army. 
DEVONSHIRE. Sir John Northcot, Bart. 

Sir John Young, Knt. 

Robert Rolle, Efq; 

Arthur Upton, Efq; a Commiflioner of the Cuf- 
toms, fuppofed to be worth near 8oo/. per 

Thomas Reyncll, Efq; 

William Morrice, of Werrington y Efq\ 

Capt. Henry Hatfel, Commiflioner of the Navy 
at Plymouth, 300 /. per Ann. 

Edmund Fowel, Efq; 

A 3 John 

Exeter C. 
Plymouth B. 

Cll f ton l & art ; 
mouth, Hard- 

nejs, is. 
Totnefs B. 


Tiverton B. 
Honyton B. 

Weymoiitb and 

The Parliamentary HISTORV 

John Hele, Efy; 

"John Dodderidge, Efq\ 

Thomas Saunders, Efq; Major of Foot, ancf 

Governor of Plymouth. 

Thomas Bampfield, Efq; Recorder of this City. 
Thomas Weftlake, Gent. Town-Clerk. 
Job* 1 Maynard, Serjeant at Law, call'd to the 

Bar by a Writ of the Lord Proteftor^ Jan. 19, 

Timothy Alfop, Merchant. 

Ed ward Hopkins, Efq; a Commiffioner of the 
Admir , ltyj 5OO /. ^ ^ 

Chriftopher Maynard, Merchant, 

Sir John Copplefton, Colonel of a County Re- 
giment. Knighted by the Lord Prote&or, 
June I, 1655. 

Robert Shapcot, of Broadmarfh, Efq; 

Major Samuel Searle. 

Rt. Hon. William Sydenham, as one of his 
Highnefs's Council, iooo/. per Ann. and as 
a Commiffioner of the Treafury, iooo /. be-r 
fides the Government of the Ifle of JVight. 

k Col. John Bingham, Governor of Guernfey. 

Robert Coker, Efq; 

Col. John Fitz- James. 

James Dewey, Efq; 

John Trenchard, Efq; 

John Whiteway, Efq; 

Dennis Bond> E(q . Comptroller of the Re* 
CeiptS in the Exchec l uer > 5 0/ - P er Ann - 
Lyme-Regis B. k Edmund Prideaux, Efq; Attorney-General to 
the State. His Fee for every Patent and 
Pardon, 5/. each. His Place fuppofed worth 
near 6000 /. per Ann. 
Poole T. Edward Boteler, Efq; one of the Receivers of 

the Public Revenues, 300 /. per Ann. 
DURHAM. k Thomas Lilburn, of Ufferton, Efq; Captain 

of Horfe, 2737. per Ann. 
James C layering, Efq\ 

Durham C. k Anthony Smith, Alderman, Mafter of an 



Hofpital, and one of the Regifters of Mar- 
riages, &c. there, 2OO /. per Ann, 
llesEX. Sir Thomas Honeywood, Knt. 

Dionyfius Wakering, Efq; 
Henry Alildmay, of Graces, Efq; 
Carew Mildmay, Efq; 
Sir Richard Everard, Bart. 
Robert Barringron, of Weftminfter, Efq; a 

Relation of the Lord Protector. 
Dudley Temple, Efq; 
Oliver Raymond^ Efq', 
Edward Turner, Ejq; 
Sir Thomas Bowes, Knt. 
Hezekiah Haynes, Efq; Major of Horfe, 3587. 

13*. 4^. per Ann. 
John Archer, Efq; 
Sir Harbottle Grimjlon, Bart. 
Colchefler B. Rt. Hon. Henry Lawrence, Prefident of the 

Lord Protedlor's Council, loool.-prr Ann. 
John Maidftone, Efq; Steward of his High- 

nefs's Houfliold. 

Maiden B. Joachim Matthews, Efq; Recorder. 

GLOUCESTER- George Berkeley, Efq; 
SHIRE. John Howe, Efq; 

John Crofts, Efq; Captain of a County Troop, 

IOO/. per Ann. 

Baynham Throckmorton, Efq; 
William Neaft, Efq; 

Gloucefler C. Rt. Hon. Maj. Gen. John Difbrowe, made 
his Election for Somerfetjhire. In his Place, 
k James Stephens, Alderman. 
Thomas Pury, jun. Efq; 
Tewk/bury B. Francis White, of Weftminfter, Efq; Colonel 

of Foot, 365 /. per Ann. 

Cirencejler B. k Capt. John Stone, of Weftminfter, as Teller 
in the Exchequer, 500 /. per Ann. as Re- 
ceiver-General of the Taxes, 300 /. and as 
Comptroller of the Excife and Cuftoms, 
400 /. alfo a Commiffioner of the Wine- 

HEREFORD- Major-General Berry, made his Election for 
SHIRE. jyorcejlerjbire. 

Parliamentary HISTORY 

Edward Harley, Efq; 

Bennet Hofkins, Efq; one of the Welch Judge? 
for the Shires of Pembroke, Carmarthen, and 
k Benjamin Mafon, Efq; Lieutenant of a 

County Troop. 
Hereford C. Col. Wroth Rogers, Governor of this City, 

and Captain of a County Troop. 
LeominJIer B. Jahn Birch, Efq; 
HERTFORD- k William Earl of Soli/bury. 
SHIRE. k Sir Richard Lucy, Bart. 

Sir John JPitteiurong, of Harding , Knt* 
Sir John Gore, Knt. 
Rowland Litton, of Knebworth, Efq; 
St. Allans B. Col. Alban Cox, Captain of a County Troop, 

ioo/. per Ann. 

Hertford T. Ifaac Pulter, Efq; 

HUNTINGDON- k Rt. Hon. Edward Montagu, as one of his 

SHIRE., Highnefs's Council, iooo/. per Ann. as a 

Commiflioner of the Treafury, iooo/. and 

General at Sea, 1095 /. 

h Col. Henry Cromwell, jun. of Ramfay. The 

Protestor's Nephew. 
Nicholas Pedley, Efq; a Commiflioner of the 

Wine-Office at IVeftminftcr. 

Huntingdon T. John Barnard, Efq; of this Borough. 
KENT. JohnDixwell, Efq; 

William James, Efq; 
Henry Oxenden, Efq; 
Sir Thomas Style, Bart. 
John Boys, of Eettejhanger, Efq; 
Lambert Godfrey, Efq; Recorder of Maidjlone* 
Richard Beale, Efq; 
John Selliard, Efq; 
Ralph Welden, Efq; 
Richard Meredith, Efq; 
Daniel Shatterden, Efq; 
Canterbury C. Thomas St. Nicholas, Efq; 

Vincent Denn, Efq; 
Rochefter C. Hon. John Parker, one of the Barons of the 

Exchequer, iooo/. per Ann, 
Maid/lone B. John Bankes, Efq; 

Lancafttr T. 
Prejhn B. 
Liverpool B. 
Manckejler B. 


Ltutjler T. 



Queenborough B. Gabriel Livefey, Efq; 
LANCASHIRE. Sir Richard Houghton, Bart. 

k Col. Gilbert Ireland, Captain of a County 
Troop, loo/, per Ann. 

Col. Richard Holland. 

Col. Richard Standifh. 

Major Henry Porter. 

Col. Richard Shuttleworth. 

Thomas Birch. Efq; 

Richard Radcli/e, Efq\ 

Col. Thomas Beaumont, of Stoughton* 

k Francis Hacker, of Oakham, in Rutland- 
fhire, Efq; Colonel of Horfe, 474.7. IOJ. per 

William Quarles, ofEnderby, Efq; 

Thomas Pochen, of Barkely Thorpe, 

Sir Arthur Hafierigg, of A cjely y Bart. 

William Stanley, Efq; 
LINCOLNSHIRE. Thomas Hall, of Dunnington, Efqj 

Thomas Lifter, of Colby, Ejq\ 

Thomas Hatcher, of Carleton, Efq; 

Edward Rofiiter, of Somerby, Efq; 

Charles Hall, of Kettlethorpe, Elq- y 

William Woolley, ef Will, Efq; 

k Francis Clifton, <7//rfjFiennes, of Great Stour- 
ton, Efq; Captain of a County Troop, 100 /. 
per Ann. 

William Savile^ of Newton, Efq\ 

William Welby, of Denton, Ejq; 

Charles Hujfey, of Hunnington, Efq\ 

Origen Peart, Efq; 

Humphrey Walcot, Efq; 

Sir Anthony Irby, Knt. 

William Ellis, Efq; Solicitor- General to the> 

State, worth about 3000 /. per Ann. 
Stamford R. John Weaver, Efq', 
Grim/by. William Wrav, Efq; 

MIDDLESEX. Sir John Barkftead, as Captain of Foot, 1467. 
per Ann. Major-General for Middlesex and 
Weftminfter, 6661. i$s. d- and as Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower, 250 /. Salary, befides 


Lincoln C* 

Eoftcn T. 
Grant ham B. 

lo *Tfo Parliamentary HISTORY 

the Perquifites of that Office, about 2000 /. 
per Ann. more. Knighted by the Lord Pro- 
tector Jan. 19, 1655. 

k Sir William Roberts, Knt. as one of the 
Committee for Prefervation of the Excife and 
Cuftoms, 300 A per Ann. and as Comptrol- 
ler of the Exchequer, 600 / alfo a Com- 
jniffioner of the Wine- Office, and one of 
the Committee for the Army. 
Chaloner Chute, Efq; 
Col. William Kiffen, Captain of a County 

Troop, ioo/. per Ann. 

Weflminfter C. Col. Edward Grofvenor, Quarter-Mafter Ge- 
neral, 4IQ/. lOs. per Ann. e 
Edward Carey, Efq; Deputy to the High Stew- 
ard of this City and Liberties. 
London C. k Thomas Foot, Alderman. . 

k Sir Chriftopher Packe, Alderman. Knighted 
by the Lord Protector September 20, 1655. 
Thomas Adams, Alderman. 
Richard Brown, Efq; 
Theophilus Biddulph, Efq; 
John Jones i Efq; 

'MoNMOUTH- Major-General Berry, made his Election for 

SHIRE, Worcefterjhire. In his Place, Nathaniel 

Waterhoufe, of Weftminfter, Efq; Steward 

to the Lord Protector for his Highnefs's 

Lands in Wales. 

Capt. John Nicholas, Governor of Chepftow 
Caftle, Captain of Foot, alfo of a Militia 
Troop, and Treafurer- General of South- 
Wales. He married the Lord Protector's Niece. 
k Sir Edward Herbert, Knt. Overfeer, or Chief 
Bailiff, of the Lord Protector's Lands in Wales. 
NORFOLK. Rt. Hon. Charles Fleetwood, as one of his 

Highnefs's Council, iooo/. per Ann. Lord 
Deputy of Ireland, 36407. Colonel of Horfe 
there, 474 /. IQS. and of Foot, 3657. Alfo 
Colonel of Horfe in England, 474 /, IOJ. 
and Major-General of the Counties of Ox- 


c In order to carry this Eleftion many of the Soldiers threw off their Uniform, put 
on other Clothes, and polled as Houfekeepers. Narrative before cited. 

Norwich C. 


ford) Buckingham, Hertford, Cambridge and 
Ifle of Ely, E/ex, Norfolk, and Suffolk ; the 
Protestor's Sen -in- Law, having, married his 
cldeft Daughter, Bridget, Irctons Widow. 

Sir John Hobart, Bart. 

Sir William D'Oiley, Knt. 

Sir Ralph Hare, Bart. 

Sir Horatio Townftiend, Bart. 

Philip Woodhoufe, Efq; 

k Col. Robert Wilton. 

k Col. Robert Wood. 

k John Buxton, Efq; 

Thomas Mother ton, Efq; 

Bernard Church, Efq; 

John Hobart, Efq; 

T. Major-General Difbrowe, made his Election 

for Somerf etjhire. In his Place, Guibbon 
Goddard, Efq-, Recorder. 
Rt. Hon. Philip Skippon, as one of his High- 
nefs's Council, 1000 A per Ann. and Major- 
General of London, 666 /. 1 3 s. 4.0". 

Great Yarmouth Charles George Cocke, one of the Judges of 
T. the Admiralty, 500 /. per Ann. and as Com- 

miflioner of the Prerogative Court, 300 /. 
Major William Burton. 

NORTH AMP- Rt. Hon. Sir Gilbert Pickering, Bart, as one 
TONSHIRE. of his Highnefs's Council, iooo/. per Ann. 

alfo Chamberlain of the Court, and High 
Steward of Weflminjler. 

k Rt. Hon. John Lord Cleypole, Son-in-Law 
to the Lord Protedror, having married his fe- 
cond Daughter, Elizabeth; and Matter of 
the Horfe to his Highnefs. 
William Boteler, Efq; as Major of Horfe, 3587. 
13*. 4</. per Ann. and Major-General of 
the Counties of Northampton, Bedford, Rut" 
land, and Huntingdon, 6661. 13*. 4 d. 
James Langham, of Cottefbrooke, Efq; 
Thomas Crew, of Stene, Efq; 
Alexander Blake, Efq; one of the Receivers of 

the Public Revenues, 300 /. per Ann. 
Peterborough C. Francis St. John, Efq; 




12 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Northampton T. Francis Hervey, of Wefton-Favell, Efq; 

L- William Fenwick, of Wallington, Efq; Mafter 
of Sherborn Hofpital. 

Rt. Hon. Sir Thomas Widdrington, Knt. Re- 
corder of York, as Speaker of the Houfe, 
35 /. per Week, befides 5/. for every private 
Act patted, and 5/. for every Stranger na- 
turaliz'd ; alfo a Commiffioner of the Trea- 
fury, 1000 /. per Ann. 

Robert Fenwick, of Bedljngton, Efq; 

Rt. Hon. Walter Strickland, as one of his 
Highnefs's Council, IOOO/. per Ann. alfo 
Captain of his Grey-Coat Foot- Guard at 

Col. George Fenwick^ of Brenkbornfy Governor 

of Leith. 

NOTTINGHAM- Edward Whalley, Efq; as CommifTary- General 
of the Horfe, 273 /. 155. per Ann. as Colo- 
nel of a Regiment of Horfe, 474.7. ioj. and 
as Major- General of the Counties of Lincoln, 
Nottingham, Derby, Warwick, and Leicejier^ 
666 7. 13 s. Afd. 

Edward Cludd, Efq; one of the Committee for 
the Army. 

Edward Nevil, Efq; 

Peni/lon Whalley, Efq\ 



Nottingham T. Col. James Chadwick, one of the Judges of 

the Peverel Court at Nottingham, an old op- 

preflive Office newly revived by the Lord 


William Drury, Alderman. 
. Lord Deputy Fleetwood, made his Election for 

k William Lenthall, Efq; late Speaker of the 

Long Parliament, Mafter of the Rolls, worth 

about 2OOO /. per Ann. 
k Robert Jenkinfon, Efq; 
k Miles Fleetwood, Efq; one of the Clerks of 

the Privy-Seal, about 500 /. per Ann. 
k Sir Francis Norris, Knt. 
k Rt. Hon. Nathaniel Fiennes, as one of his 

Highnefs's Council, icoo/. per Ann. a 


Oxford Univer- 

(food/lock E. 


Bridgnortb B, 

Ludlow B, 

Bath C. 


Commiffioner of the Great- Seal iooo/. and, 
as Keeper of the Privy-Seal, fuppofed iooo/. 

k Richard Croke, Efq; Recorder. 

Major- General William Packer, as Colonel of 
Horfe, 474 /. ioj. per Ann. 

William Shields, Efq; 

Abel Barker^ Efq-, 

Thomas Mackworth, Efq; Farmer of the Ex- 
cife in Lancajhire. 

Philip Young, Efq; 
, Col. Samuel Moore. 

Col. Andrew Lloyd. 

Col. Humphrey Maekworth, Governor of the 
Garrifon there. 

Samuel Jones, Efq\ 

Edward Waring, Efq; Captain of a County 
Troop, ioo/. per Ann. and a Farmer of the 

John AJlon, Efq\ 

Rt. Hon. Major-General John Difbrowe, as 
one of his Highnefs's Council, iooo/. per 
Ann. General at Sea, 10957. Col. of Horfe, 
474 /. 10 s. as Major-General of the Coun- 
ties of Gloucejier> Wilts, Dorfet, Somerfet* 
Devon^ and Cornwall^ 666 /. 13*. 4</. He 
married the Lord Protector's Sifter. 

John Euckland, Ef& 

Alexander Pop ham , Efq; 

Robert Long, Efq', 

k Col. John Gorges, Captain of a County 
Troop, iQol.perAnn. 

Francis Luttrell, Efq; 

k John Afhe, Efq; 

John Harrington, Efq; 

k Sir Liflebone Long, Recorder of London^ 
Knighted by the Lord Prote&or Dec.i 5, 1665, 

William Wyndham, Efq; 

Francis Rolle, Efq; 

k Robert Aldworth, Efq; 

John Doditeridge* Efq\ 

James Aflje, Efq; Recorder, 


Welh C. 

The Parliamentary HISTORY 

John Jenkyn, Efq; Captain of Horfe, 2737. per 


Taunton B, Robert Blake, Efq; as General at Sea, 1095 ^ 

per jinn, befides other Advantages. 

Col. Thomas Gorges, one of the Commif- 
iioners for the Taxes upon new Buildings 
about London and IVeftminJler* 
Bridge-water B. k Sir Thomas Wroth, Knt. 
SOUTHAMP- Rt. Hon. Lord Richard Cromwell, made 'his 
TONSHIRE. Election for the Univeriity of Cambridge. 

Major- General William Goffe, as Colonel of 
Horfe, 474/. IGJ. per Ann. and as Major- 
General of the Counties of SuJJex^ Southamp- 
ton, and Berks, 6661. 13*. \d. 

Robert Wallop, of Hurfley, Efq; 

Richard Norton, of South wick, Efq; Colonel of 
a Regiment of Foot, and Governor of Portf* 

Thomas Cole, of Lifs, Efq; 

John Bulk ley i of Over-Burget, Efa 

Richard Cobb, of King's- Gate- Street, Efq; - 

IVincheftr C. 

Edward Hooper, of South-Stoneham, 
John Hildefley, of Hinton, : 

Portfmoutb T. 
Ifaot Wight. 

Efq; aCommiifion- 

er of the Prerogative Office, 300 /. per Ann. 

and one of the Committee for the Army. 
Southampton T. k Rt. Hon. John Lifle, one of the Commiffion- 

ers of the Great Seal, iooo/. per Ann. 
k Thomas Smith, Efq; Commiffioner of the 

Navy, 300 /. per Ann. 
Col. William Sydenham, made his Election 

for Dorfet/hire. In his Place, Roger Hill, 

Efq; one of the Barons of the Exchequer, 

IOOO/. per Ann. 
k Capt.Thomas Bowerman, Deputy-Governor 

of the Tfle of Wight, with the Command of 

the Caftles of Sandotvn and Weymouth^ alfo 

a Captain of Foot. 

Thomas Huffey, of Huno;erford-Park, Efq; 
k Rt. Hon. Sir Charles Wolfeley, Bart, as one 

of his Highnefs's Council, iooo/. per Ann. 
Thomas Crompton. Efq; 
k Thomas Whitegrave, Efqj Captain of a 


Andover B. 

Litcbfield C. 
Sta/ord T. 

Newcajlle un- 
der Line. 

Of E N G L A N D. 15 

County Troop, ioo/. per Ann. 
Thomas Minors, Efq; 
k Martin Noel, of London, Scrivener. Has a 

Share in the Pott- Office with Secretary 


John Bowycr, Efq\ 

Sir Henry Felton, ofPlayford, Bart. 
SirThomasBarnardifton, of Keddington, Knt. 
Henry North, of Wyckombrook, Efq\ 
Edmund Harvey , of Wyckombjkeyth, Efq\ 
Edward Le Neve, of Bre ttenham, Efq\ 
John SickUmore, of Ipfwich, Efq\ 
William B/oys, of Ipjwich, Efq; 
William-Gibbet, of Stoke- Nayiand, Efq\ 
k Robert Brewfter, of Wrentham, Efq; 
Daniel Wall, of Stratford, Efq; 

tpfivtch T. k Nathaniel Bacon, 

St. Edmundf- 
bury B. . 

Dunwicb B. 
Sudbury B, 

Maers of 


Southward B. 

Samuel Moody, Efq; 

John Clarke, Efq; as Colonel of Foot, 3657. 
per Ann. as a Commiflioner of the Admi- 
ralty, 500 /. He married Secretary Tkurfae's 

Francis Brewfter, of Wrentham, Efqj 

Col. John Fothergill. 

k Sir Richard Onflow, Knt. 

Arthur Onflow, Efq; 

k Francis Drake, Efq; 

Maj. Lewis Audley, a Place in the Ordnance- 
Office, 300 /. per Ann. Captain of a County 
Troop, and a Deputy-Major-General for 
this County and Kent. 

k George Duncomhe, Efq; 

Capt. John Black well, Treafurer of the Army, 
600 /. per Ann. 

Samuel Highland, Efq; 

k Peter De la Noy, Efq; 

Maj. Gen. Kelfey, made his Election for Do- 
ver. In his Place, John Hewfon, Efq; Co- 
lonel ttf Foot, and Governor of Dublin. 



JRyegate B. 


fbe Parliamentary HISTOHV 

Sir Thomas Pryde, an Colonel of Foot, 365 / 
per Ann. belide? his great Profit as Brewer to 
the State. His Daughter married a Nephew 
of the Protedtor, who knighted him Jan. 19, 

Clichefter C. 
Lewes B. 
Arundel B. 


Coventry C. 

Warwick B. 




nt. A Relation of the 

Herbert Morley^ ofG/yne, Efq\ 
Sir John Pelham, Bart. 
John Fagg, of Whiflon^ Efq; 
JohnStapley, Efq; 
Anthony Shirley, fq; 
George Courthorpe, ofTyfeburJl^ Efqi 
Sir Thomas Riven* Bart. 
Sir Thomas Parker, Knt. 
Samuel Gott, Efq\ 
Henry Peckham, Efq- 9 
Anthony Scapley, fq; 
.kJohn Goodwin, Efq\ 
k Sir John Trevor, Kn 

Lord Protestor. 

k Richard Lucy, Efq; a Commiflioner of the 
Prerogative Office, 300 /. per Ann. and one 
of the Committee for the Army* 
Sir Roger Burgoyne, Knt. 
Edward Peyto, E-q; 
Jofeph Hawkfworth, Efq; Governor of War- 

wick Caftle, and Captain f Foot. 
t Major Robert Beake, a Commiflioner of the 

Admiralty, 500 /. per Ann. 
Col. William Purefoy. 
k Clement Throckmorton^ Efq\ 
Chriftopher Lifter, Efq; one of the Tellers e 

the Exchequer, 500 /. per Ann* 
Thomas Burton, E(q; 
Sir Anthony Ajhiey Cooper* Bart. 
Sir Walter St. John, Bart. 
Sir Alexander Popham, Knt. 
Thomas Grove, Efq; 
Alexander Thiftlethwaite, Efq; 
John Bulkley, Efo 
Richard Grubharn Howe, Efq; 
William Ludlow, of Clarendon-Park, Efq; 
Captain of a County Troop, ioo/. per Ann. 


Of E N G L A N D. 17 

Henry Hungerfordy of Farleigh-CaJIIe y Efq\ 

k Gabriel Martin, Efqj 
SalfiuryC. Edward Tooker, Efq; 

James Heeley, Efq; Lieutenant of a County 

Marlborough B. Jeremy Sankey, Efq; Colonel of Horfe in 7r*- 

landy 474 / IOJ. />*r v/. 
Devizes B. Edward Scotten, Efq; Captain of Horfe, 273/. 

/>*r y/. 

WORCESTER- Maj. Gen. James Berry, Colonel of Horfe, 

SHIRE. 474 /. \ss.perAnn. and Major- General of 

the Counties of JVorceJler, Hereford^ and Sa- 

lop, and alfo of North-Wales^ 6661. 13 s. ^d. 

k Sir Thomas Roufe, Bart. 

k Edward Pitt, of Kiere-Park, Efq; 

Nicholas Lechmere, Efqj Attorney of the 
Duchy of Lancafler. 

John Nanfan, Efq; 

Edmund Giles, Efq; one of the Mafters in 
Chancery. He married a Relation of the 
Lord Protector. 

William Collins, Efq; 

Sir William Strickland, Bart. 

Col. Hugh Bethell, 

Richard Darky , Efq; 

Henry Darley^ Efq; 

Rt. Hon. Lord Lambert, as one of his High- 
nefs's Council, iooo/. per Ann. a Major- 
General of the Army, 3657. Colonel of a 
Regiment of Horfe, 474 /. los. of a Regi- 
ment of Foot, 365 /. and, as Major-General 
of the fiveNorthern Counties, 666A 13*. 4</. 
alfo one of the Lords of the Cinque Ports. 

Francis Thorp t Efq; Serjeant at Law. 

Ccl. Henry Ternpejl, 

Henry Artkingtcn, Efq; 

Capt. Edward Gill, 

'Jchn Stanhope, Efq; 
North-Riding. George Lord Eurc. 

Maj. Gen. Robert Lilburne, Colonel of Horfe, 

474 /. 10 s. per Ann. 
VOL. XXI. B Luke 

Worccfier C. 





1 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Luke Robinfon, Efq; 
Francis Lafcelles, Efq; 

York C. Sir Thomas Widdrington, Knt. made his Elec- 

tion for Northumberland, In his Place Johri 
Geldart, Alderman : He was Lord Mayor 
of York in 1653, and prefented an Addrefe 
of Congratulation from that City to Crom- 
Ivelly upon his Advancement to the Protec- 
torate. See Vol. 20, p. 277. 
Sir Thomas Dickenfon, Alderman. Knighted 
by the Lord Protedtor, March 3, 1656. 

KingJJon on Hull. William Lifter, Efq; Recorder. 

Beverley B. Francis Thorpe , Efq; Serjeant at Law. 

Scarbrtugh B. Edward Salmon, of Havering in Effex, Efq; as 
Colonel of Foot, 3657. per Ann. and Com- 
miflioner of the Admiralty, 500 /. 

Richmond B. k John Bathurft, M. D. 

Leeds. Adam Baynes, Efq; as Captain of Horfe, 273 /. 

per Ann. and as one of the Committee for 
Prefervation of Excife and Cuftoms, 300 /. 

Halifax. Jeremy Bentley, Efq; 


Dover. Lieut. Col. Kelfey, as Commiflioner of the 

Admiralty, 500 /. per Ann. as Major-Ge- 
neral of the Counties of Kent and Surrey, 
6661. 131. 4</. alfo Governor of Dover 

Sandwich. James Thurbarne, Efq- y 

Rye. William Hay, Efq; 

ANGLESEY. k Col. George Twifleton. 

k Griffith Bodville, Efq; A Commiflioner of 

the Wine- Office at Weftminfter. 

BRECON. Rt. Hon. Col. Philip Jones, made his Election 

for Glamorgan/hire. In his Place, Robert 
Nicholas, Efq; one of the Barons of the Ex- 
chequer, i ooo /. per Ann. 
Evan Lewis, Efq; Captain of a County Troop. 
CARDIGAN. Col. James Philips, made his Election for Pern- 
brokejhire. In his Place, Col. James Lewis. 


O/* ENGLAND. 19 

k Col. John Clarke, one of the Commiffioners 

of the Admiralty, 500 /. per Ann. 

CARMARTHEN. Rt. Hon. Lord Cleypole : Made his Election 
for Northamptonjlnre. In his Place, Robert 
Atkins, Efq; 

Col. Rowland Dawkins, as Maj. Gen. of Man- 
mouthjhire and South-Wales, 6667. 13*. 4^. 
per Ann. alfo Governor of Carmarthen. 
CARNARVON, k Henry Lawrence, Efq; Son to the Lord Pre- 

fident of his Highnefs's Council, 
k Robert Williams, of Conway, Efq; a Rela- 
tion of the Lord Protector. 

DENBIGH. Col. John Jones, made his Election for Meri- 

oneth. In his Place Col. Simon Theloall. 
k Col. John Carter. 
FLINT. k Rt. Hon. John Glynn, Lord Chief Juflice of 

the Upper Bench, 1000 /. per Ann. 
k John Trevor, Elq; a Relation of the Lord 

Protect or. 

GLAMORGAN, k Col. Philip Jones, as one of his Highnefs's 
Council, 1000 /. per Ann. Steward of the 
Lord Protector's Lands in Wales, and Cuftos 
Rotulorum of two Counties there. 
Edmund Thomas, Efq; 
Caerdlff T. John Price, Efq; Receiver-General of South- 


MERIONETH. Col. John Jones, Governor of the Ifle of Angle- 
fey. He married the Lord Protector's Sifter. 
MONTGOMERY. Hugh Price, Efq; Captain of a County Troop, 

and Governor of Red-Cajlle. 
k Charles Lloyd, of Garth, Efq; 
PEMBROKE. k Col. James Philips, one of the Committee of 

the Army. 

Col. John Clarke, made his Election for Car- 
digunjhire. In his Place, Sir John Tho- 
roughgood, Knt. one of the Truftees for dif- 
pofing of Augmentations for the better Main- 
tenance of Miniftersi for which he has a 
confiderable Salary. 

llt.i-erford-iyejl.k John Upton, Efq; one of the Commiilioners 
of the Cuftoms, 

B 2 RAD- 

20 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

RADNOR. George Gwynn, Efq; 

Henry Williams, Efq; 


Rofs, Sutherland, znACromarty^ Dr. Thomas Clarges, ofWefl:- 

Invernefs, Thomas Fitch, Efq; Colonel of Foot, 3657. per Ann. 

and Governor of Inverness. 
Bamjfi k Dr. Alexander Douglas. 

Aberdeen^ William Mitchel, Efq; Colonel of Foot, 3657. per Ann. 
Forfar and Kinkardine, k Colonel David Barclay, of Urie. 
Fife and Kinrofs, k Sir John Wemyfs, of Bogie, Knt. Tenant to 

the State for the Salt Pans near Leitb, a very benefi- 
cial Place. 
Perthy Sir Edward Rhodes, one of his Highnefs's Council for 


Linlithgow, Stirling, and Clackmannan, k Godfrey Rhodes, Efq; 
Dumbarton, Argyle, and Bute, k Capt. John Lockhart. 
Aire and Renfre^v, k William Lord Cochran, of Dundonald. 
Lanerk, k Col. William Lockhart, of Lee, one of his High- 
nefs's Council in Scotland. 
Mid-Lothian, Samuel Difbrowe, Efq; one of his Highnefs's 

Council in Scotland, Son to the Major- General. 
Merce, John Swinton, of Swinton, Efq; one of the Judges of 

Scotland, 600 /. per Ann. 
Roxborough, William Ker, of Newton, Efq; 
Selkirk and Peebles, Henry W T halley, Efq; Judge-Advocate of 

the Army \nScotland, 273!. i$s. per Ann. Brother 

to the Commiflary-General. 
Dumfries, George Smith, Efq; one of the Judges in Scotland,,, 

600 /. per Ann. 
Wigton, Sir James MacDowel, of Garthland, Knt. one of the 

Commiffioners of the Cuftoms at Leitb, about 300 /. 

per Ann. 

Eaft-Lothian, k John Earl of Tweedale. 
Orkney, Zetland, and Caithnefs, Col. Robert Stewart. 
Elgin and Nairn, k Richard Beake, Efq; He married the Lord 

Protector's Niece, and a Captain in his Highnefs's 

Life- Guard, 51 1 /. per Ann. 




Edinburgh k Roger Boyle, Lord Broghill, Prefident of his High- 
nefs's Council in Scotland, made his Election for the 
County of Cork in Ireland, k Andrew Ramfay, Efq; 
Lord Provoft of Edinburgh. 

Dornoch, Tayne, Invernefs, Dingwall, Nairn % Elgin, and Forres 9 
k Robert WooJfely, Efq; Commiflary of Airjbire. 

Banff and Aberdeen, ^Stephen VVinthorpe, of Aberdeen, Efq; 
Colonel of Horfe, 474 /. JO*, per Ann. 

Forfar, Dundee, Aberbrothock, Msntrofe, and Brechin Sir Alex- 
ander Wedderburn, of Blacknefs, Knt. 

Linlithgow, Queen's -Ferry, Perth, Culrofs, and Stirling, k Col. 
Henry Markham, one of the Commiffioners for let- 
ting the forfeited Eftates in Ireland, 300 /. per Ann. 

St. Andrews, Dyfart, Kirkaldy, Coupar, AnJJruther-EaJler 9 
P'tttniueen, Crail, Dumfermling, Kinghorn, Anjtru- 
ther-iyejler, Innerkeithing, Kilrenny, and Burnt- Jfland 9 
Col. Nathaniel Whetham, one of the Council in Scot- 
land, about 500 /. per Ann. 

Lanerk, Glafgow, Rutherglen, Rothfay, Renfrew, Aire, Irvin, 
and Dumbarton, George Talbot, Efq; Col. of Foot, 
365 /. per Ann. 

Dumfries, Sanquhar, Lochmaben, Annan, IVigton, Kirkcud- 
bright, lyhitehorn, and Galloway, Col. Salmon, made 
his Election for Scarborough. In his Place, Col. 
Thomas Talbot. 

Peebles, Selkirk, "Jedburgb, Louder, North-Berwick, Dunbar^ 
and Haddington, George Downing, Efq; Scout- Mafter 
General, made his Eledion for Carlifie. In his Place, 
John Vincent, of Warnford, in Northumberland, Efq; 



Meath and Lowth, k John Fowke, Efq; Colonel of Foot, 365 A, 
per Ann. and Governor of Dragheda. k Major Wil- 
liam Afton. 

Kildare and ff'icklow, Sir Hardrefs Waller, Knt. as a Major- 
General in the Army, 365 /. per Ann. and Colonel 
of Foot ; made his Election for Kerry, Limerick, and 

83 k Anthony 

22 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Anthony Morgan, Efq; Major of Horfe, 3587. 
13 s. tfd. 

Dublin, k John Byfle, Efq; Recorder of Dublin. 

Catherlsugb, Wexford, Kilkenny, and Queen's County, Thomas 
Sadler, Efq; Colonel of Foot, 365 /. per Ann. 
Daniel Redman, Efq; Major of Horfe in Ireland, 
358 1 13*. 4 </. 

Weft-Meatb, Longford, and King's County, k Sir Theophilus 
Jones, Knt. Major of Horfe, 358 /. 13 s. ^d. 
k Henry Owen, Efq; Major of Horfe, 358 7.13. f. 4</. 

Dawn, Antrim, and Armagh, Thomas Cooper, Efq; Colonel of 
a Regiment of Foot in Scotland, and another in Ireland '; 
alfo Governor of Carickfergus. 
Lieutenant- Colonel James Trayle. 

Derry, Donegal, and Tyrone, k Lieutenant- Colonel Triftram Ee- 
resford, ofColerane. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Newburgh, ofLiffbrd. 

Cavan, Fermannagb, and Monoghan, Richard Blaney, Efq; 

Kerry, Limerick, and Clare, Sir Hardrefs Waller, Knt. 

Henry Ingoldfby, Efq; Colonel of Foot, the Protec- 
tor's Kinfman. 

Cork, k Roger Boyle, Lord Broghill, as Prefident of the Coun- 
cil in Scotland, 1000 /. per Ann. befides otherAdvanta- 
ges ; and, as Colonel of Horfe in Ireland, 474. /. 10 s. 

Tipperary and Waterford, k Sir John Reynolds, as Commiflary- 
General of Horfe in Ireland, 273 /. per Ann. and as 
Colonel of Horfe there, 474 /. 10 s. Knighted by thq 
Lord Protector June n, 1655. 
Daniel Abbot, Efj; Colonel of Dragoons in Ireland. 

Sligo, Rofcommon, and Le Tjrirn, Sir Robert King, Knt. Commif- 
fary of the Mufters. 
k John Bridges, Efq; Captain of Foot, 146 /. per Ann. 

Gal-way and Mayo, Sir Charles Coot, Knt. and Bart. Prefi- 
dent of Connaught. 
k Lieutenant-Colonel John Bret. 


Dublin, k Richard Tigh, Efq; Mayor of the faid City. 
Limerick and Killmallock, k Walter Waller, Efq; Son of Sir Har- 
drefs Waller. 
Waterford and Clonmel, k Capt. William Halfey. 


'Of E N G L A N D. 23 

CarickfergM* and Belfajl, John Davies, Efq; Inter-regnum. 

Cork and Toughal, k Maj. Gen. William Jephfon. l6 5 6 - 

Bandon and Kingfalt, k Vincent Gookyn, Efq; one ''~ 
of the Commifiioners for letting the for- 
feited Eftates in Ireland, 300 /. per Ann. 

Derry and Colerane, Ralph King, of Londonderry, 
Efq; one of the Commiflioners for letting 
the forfeited Eftates in Ireland, 300 /. per 

The foregoing Lift confirms Mr. Ludlow's Ob~ 
fervation, * That tho' about one hundred Englijh 
Members, elected by their Country, were kept out 
of the Houfe ; yet thofe for Scotland and Ireland, 
being chofen by the Sword, were admitted without 
Scruple.' f 

Having thus endeavoured to exhibit the beft Idea 
we could of the Characters of the Members which 
conftituted this Partial and Unconstitutional AfTem- 
bly, we (hall now give an Account of their Pro- 

On the iyth of September, being the Day ap-The Meeting of 
pointed for the Meeting of the Parliament, the- r T w// ' s lhird 
Journals inform us, That the Lord Protedor, at- a ' 
tended by his Council, with the Officers of State 
and of the Army, the Gentlemen of his Houmold, 
and his Guards, came to the Abbey Church, about 
Ten in the Morning ; where the Members being 
met, a Sermon was preached before them by Dr. 
John Owen, Vice-Chancellor of the Univermy of 
Oxford, on this Text, What Jhall one then anfwer 
the MeJJengers of the Nation? That the Lord hath 
founded Zion, and the Poor of his People Jball trvfl 
in it. Ifaiah xiv, v. 32. 

After Sermon, the Lord Protector and the Par- 
liament alTembled in the Painted-Chamber, whete 
his Highnefs was pleafed to communicate to them 
the Occafion of their Meeting. 


f Abmolrs, Vol. II. p. 579. 

See alfo Lord Brogbill and Henry Crwwf//'s Letters to Secretary 
Iburloi, relating to the Eleftiom in Scttlar.J and Ireland. 

Tburlie, Vol. V. p. 195, 303, 311, 3*7. 

24 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum, Upon the ftricteft Refearch, we have not been 
l_ , lwj a ^ e to ni eet with Cromwell's Speech at the Open- 
September * n ^ tn ' s P^iament; nor is there the leaft Sketch 
of it in the Journals of the Houfe, the Diaries, or 
the Contemporary Writers. From hence we are in- 
clined to think that, for Reafons of State, it was 
never printed. 

However, a Letter to Cardinal Mazarin, from 
the French Ambaffador at London, informs us g , 
* That the Lord Protector very much enlarged him- 
felf againft Spain; exaggerating all the Enterprizes, 
which the Spaniards had formerly attempted againft 
England, and the Motives which obliged him to 
break with that Nation : That he alfo feemed to be 
perfuaded that his Catholic Majefty and the Duke 
of Newburgb had engaged to furnifli the King 
[Charles II.] with 9000 Men, to be tranfported in- 
to England : But that, in regard there were very 
few Advices conformable to this, many believed it 
an Invention of Cromwell's, calculated to raife an 
Alarm, and to keep the Army united to his Inte- 

refts at this prefent Conjuncture.' Thefe few 

Hints being all we have been able to collect of the 

Lord Protector's Speech at opening the Seflion, we 

proceed to obferve, that his Highnefs having fintih'd 

his Harangue in the Painted- Chamber, the Members 

repaired to their Houfe ; where, to the Surprize of 

all thofe that were not in the Secret, fpme Perfons, 

by the Lord Protector's Appointment, attended at 

Several Members t j ie J) oor> to receive of each Member the following 

Set inio the Certificate, before he was permitted to enter: 

Sept. 17, 1656. 
County of 

Thefe are to certify, That A. B. is returned, by 
Indenture, one of the Knights to ferve in this prefent 
Parliament for the faid County, and is approved by 
his Highnefs's Council. 

Clerk of the Commonwealth in Chancery. 


g M. de Bourdeattx's Letter to Cardinal Maxarin, dated Sept. 28, 
1656, N, S. f burke" s State Pafert, Vol. V. p. 427. " 

Of E N G L A N D. 25 

Lord Clarendon writes, ' That Cromwell impofed 
a Subfcription upon the Members before they fat, 
purporting, * That they would a5t Nothing preju- *~7 

' dicul to the Government, as it was eftabliftied CFta 
4 under a Protector \ and that the major Part frankly 
fubmitted and fubfcribed h . This appears to be a 
Miftake, for no fuch Teft was offered ; but they were 
obliged to produce a Certificate as above recited : 
Indeed the Members of the Parliament elected in 
Stptember^ 1654, were required to fubfcribe only 
fuch a Declaration as his Lordlhip mentions ; but, 
in this Parliament, the Matter was carried much 

Such of the Members as produced their PafTport 
from the Council, having taken their Seats in the 
Houfe, the Lord Gommiflioner Lijle put them in 
Mind, That their firft Work was to chufe a Speaker \ 
and propofed Sir Thomas lyiddrtngton, Serjeant at 
Law, as a Perfon of great Integrity and Experience 
in relation to Parliamentary Bufinefs, and every 
Way qualified for that Service: Which being ap- 
proved of, he took the Chair accordingly; but with- 
out being prefented to the Lord Protector for his 
Approbation: A Circumftance of Royalty, which 
Cromwell never thought fit to affume. 

The next Day the Houfe appointed a Faft to be 
held on the 24th of this Month, by the Members 
thereof, in Margaret'^, Church, Wejlminfter\ and an 
extraordinary Number of Preachers were affigned for 
this Solemnity. The 2gth Day of Ottober enfuing 
was alfo appointed for a General Faft, throughout 
the three Nations, by a Declaration ordered to be 
drawn up and fet forth for that Purpofe. 

The Houfe alfo appointed Committees on feveral 
Occafions ; for Privileges and Elections ; for Reli- 
gion ; Courts of Juftice, and for Trade. Sir Cherries 
jydfeley prefented a Bill, For renouncing and difan- 
nulling the pretended Title of Charles Stuart to tie 
Crown of England, &c. which was read twice, and 


h ttijtory, Vol. VI. f. 587. 

26 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter-regnum. The fame Day an Affair of great Confequence 
l6 sf- happened, which fo engaged the Attention of the 

*""*" I "'^T Houfe, as to prevent all other Proceedings for fome 
Time. Sir George Booth prefented a Letter, di- 
rected to the Speaker, which he was ordered to read 
privately firft ; and, afterwards, it was read openly, 
in thefe Words : 

S I R, 

They prefer a TftTE whofe Names are fubfcribed, with others, be- 
" S c "f en -> and accor d in gly returned, to fervc 

r o M 
Speaker Sir with you in this Parliament ; and, in Difcharge of 

Thomas Wid- our Tru/l, offering to go into the Houfe, were, at 
the Lobby Door, kept , back by Soldiers : Which, left 
we Jhould be wanting in our Duty to you and to our 
Gauntry, we have thought it e>fpedient to reprefent 
unto you, to be communicated to the Houje, that we 
may be admitted thereinto. * 

On the Reading of this it was ordered, That the 
Clerk of the Commonwealth in Chancery be com- 
manded to attend the Houfe the next Morning, with 
all the Indentures of Returns of Knights, Citizens, 
and BurgefTes, chofen to ferve in this Parliament, 
when they would take this Bufmefs into farther Con- 

Accordingly, September 19, the Deputy-Clerk of 
the Commonwealth attending at the Door, he was 
called in; and, by Order of the Houfe, the Speaker 
demanded of him, Where 'the Clerk of the Common- 
wealth was ? To which he anfwered, That he was 
at his Houfe out of Town when the Warrant came ; 
that he expected him that Morning, and fo did not 
fend for him ; but that he did not come. Being 
afk'd, Whether he had all the Indentures with him 
for England and Wales ? He anfwer'd, Yes ; and, 
by Command of the Speaker, produced that for 
the Election in Norfolk, and read it ; in which was 
returned Sir Ralph Hare. Being afk'd, Why that 


i The Names of the Members who figned this Letter, are not 
entered in the Journals : We fuppofe they were the fame Perfons 
who fubfcribed the following Remonftrance. 



Of E N G L A N D. 27 

Gentleman was not returned to Parliament? He faid, Inter-regnum. 
Secaufe he had no Certificate of Approbation for him j 
and gave the like Anfwer as to all the reft of the 
Members, who had been refufed Admittance into the 
Houfe. The Deputy-Clerk being withdrawn, the 
Speaker informed the Houfe, That he had called 
over all the PLces for whom any Perfon was chofen, 
whofe Name was fubfcribed to the foregoing Letter, 
and found them all to have been returned in the re- 
IpecYive Indentures. 

Soon after the Clerk of the Commonwealth, him- 
felf, attended the Houfe, when the Speaker ac- 
quainted him, ' That, upon Perufal of the Inden- 
tures, it appeared that divers Perfons elected were 
not returned to the Houfe : And demanding, By 
what Order it was not done ? He anfvvered, That he 
received an Order from his Highnefs's Council., to 
deliver Tickets to all fuch Perfons ', and fuch only, as 3 . 
being returned to ferve in Parliament, Jhould be cer- 
tified unto him, from the Council, as Perfons by them 
approved : And that he did receive fever al Orders of 
Approbation for feveral Perfons, and made out the 
Tickets accordingly. Being afk'd, If he had the Or- 
der itfelf? After fome Evafion he produced it, fub- 
fcribed by Mr. Je/op, Clerk of the Council; which 
was read. And then the Houfe adjourned till the 
next Morning; when, the Debate being refumed, 
it was refolved, That the Council be defircd to give, 
on the Monday next, their Reafons why thofe Mem- 
bers, returned from the feveral Counties and Bo- 
roughs, were not approved, and why they were not 
admitted to come into the Houfe. In Anfwer to 
which Requelr, on the 22d, the Lord Commiflioner 
Fiennes reported, by Word of Mouth, from the 
Council, That he was commanded by them to re- 
turn this humble Reply : That whereas, by the lift 
Article a/" The Government of the Commonwealth k , 
the Clerk of the Chancery was required to certify the 
Names of the Perfons returned to him, and the Places 
for which they were chofen, unto the Council, why 
were authorized to perufe the faid Returns, and exa- 
k The whole of this Inftrument is in our aoth Volume, p. 248. 

28 The Parliamentary HISTORV 

-Inter- regnum. mine whether the Perfons fo elefled and returned were 
1656. agreeable to the Qualifications therein prefcribed, and 

V* "** ' not difabled thereby ; and that no Perfons Jhould be 
September. Emitted f Jit in Parliament , but what were fo ap- 
proved of by the major Part of the Council: And that 
yvbereas, by the ijtb Article, it was declare d. That 
the Perfons to be elecJed to Jerve in Parliament Jhould 
le fuck, and no other than fuch t as were Perfons of 
known Integrity^ fearing God, and of good Converfa- 
jion 9 and being of the Age of twenty-one Years 

That the Council, in purfuance of their Duty, and 
according to the Truft repofed in them, had exa- 
mined the faid Returns ; and had not refufed to ap- 
prove any who appeared to them to be within the 
Defcription of the faid Article : And as to thofe who 
were not approved, his Highnefs the Lord Protector 
had given Orders to fome Perfons to take Care that 
they fhould not come into the Houfe*' A Motion 

bdn then made to ad J ourn ti!1 the next Morning, 
it was carried in the Negative by j 15 Voices againft 
80. And then it was refolved, by a Majority of 
125 againft 29 only, That the Perfons returned from 
the feveral Counties, Cities, and Boroughs, to ferve 
in this Parliament, who have not been approved, be 
referred to make their Application to the Council 
for Approbation ; and that the Houfe do proceed 
with the great Affairs of the Nation. 

This laft Queftion being carried by fo great a 
Majority, fufficiently (hews what Influence the Pro- 
tector had in this Aflembly : However, the fecluded 
Members did not reft fatisfied with, nor fubmitted 
tamely to, this arbitrary Vote ; for they publifhed 
a noble and fpirited Remonftrance againft this out- 
rageous Act of Injuftice, which will be beft under- 
ftood by its own Words : 

Whereupon thcy< "T T THEN our worthy Anceftors have met in 
ft U raI! a aSnft n " C VV Parliament, and have found Oppreflion 
this injurious * and Tyranny fupported by fuch ftrong Hands that 
Treatment. y they could not prevail to fecure their Country, 
' Lives, and Liberties by wholefome Laws, they 

* have 


* have often made their Proteftations againft fuch Inter-regmitu. 

* Injuftice and Oppreflion, and forwarn'd the People l6 5 6 - 

* of their Danger. To omit other Inftances, fo did ^ ~*~, 7* 
c the Commons in Parliament, in the third and 

* fourth Year of the late King ; for when he chal- 

* lenged a Power to take Tonnage and Poundage 
' without the People's Confent in Parliament, they 

* made their Proteftation, That whofoever foould 
' counfel or advife the levying of Tonnage and Pound- 

* age for the King, not being granted to him by the Par- 

* liament, or Jhould aft, or be an Inftrument therein^ 

* Jhould be refuted a capital Enemy to the Kingdom 
' and Commonwealth : And alfo that whatsoever Mer- 

* chant, or other Perfon, Jhould voluntarily yield cr 
' pay Tonnage or Poundage^ not being granted by Par- 

* Parliament, Jhould be reputed a Betrayer of the Li- 

* berties of England, and an Enemy to the fame. 

* In like Manner we, who have been duely cho- 

* fen by the People to be Members of the Parlia- 
' ment that (hould now have met, have an un- 
' doubted Right to meet, fit, and vote in Parlia- 
' ment, although we are opprefled by Force of 
' Arms, and {hut out of the ufual Place of Parlia- 
' ments fitting ; yet, having Hearts fenfible of that 

* higheft Truft repofed in us, and being filled with 

* Cares for the Church and Commonwealth, which 
' with Grief of Heart we behold bleeding, we do 
' hold ourfelves bound in Duty to God and our 

* Country, to declare unto the People of England 
' their and our woful Condition, and the moft evi- 

* dent Danger of the utter Subverfion of Religion, 
' Liberty, Right, and Property. 

4 We believe the Rumour is now gone through 

* the Nation, that armed Men, employed by the 

* Lord Prote&or, have prevented the free meeting 
' and fitting of the intended Parliament ; and have 
' forcibly fhut out of Doors fuch Members as he 
' and his Council fuppofed would not be frighted, 
" or flattered to betray their Country, and give up 
' their Religion, Lives, and Eftates, to be at his 
c Will to ferve his lawlefs Ambition. But we fear 
' that the Slavery, Rapines, Opprcflbns, Cruelties, 


30 The Parliamentary HISTORY 
Jnter-regnum. Murders, and Confuflons that are comprehended 
i ,i5 5 . f in this one horrid Fadl, are not fo fenfibly difcern- 
September. ' ec ^ or * muc ^ 1^ to Heart as the Cafe requires : 

* And we doubt not but (as the common Practice of 

* the Man hath been) the Name of God and Reli- 
4 gion, and formal Fafts and Prayers, will be made 
4 ufe of to colour over the Blacknefs of the Fa& : 

4 We do therefore, in Faithfulnefs unto God and 

* our Country, hereby remonftrate, 

' Flrfti That whereas, by the Fundamental Laws 
' of this Nation, the People ought not to be bound 
4 by any Laws but fuch as are freely confented unto 

* by their chofcn Deputies in Parliament ; and it is 

* a moft wicked Ufurpation, even againft the very 

* Laws of Nature, for any Man to impofe his Will 

* or Difcretion upon another as a Rule, unlefs there 
' be fome Pad!:, or Agreement, between the Parties 
4 for that Intent : And whereas, by the Mercy 
' of God alone, in preferving this Fundamental 

* Law and Liberty, the good People of England 
4 have, beyond Memory of any Record, preferved 

* their Eftates, Families, and Lives, which had 
4 otherwife been defttoyed, at the Will of every 

* wicked Tyrant ; and, by keeping this as their un- 
' doubted Right, they have been kept from being 
' brutifh Slaves to the Lufts of their Kings, who 

* would otherwife have defpoiled them of their Per- 
4 fons, Lives, and Eftates, by their Proclamations, 

* and the Orders of themfelves and their Courtiers, 
4 as they pleafed ; and, by virtue of this their un- 

* doubted Right, the People have commonly dif- 
4 puted, refifted, and made void the Proclamations 

* of their Kings and the Orders of their Council 

* Table, where they have crofted the Laws unto 

* which they have confented in their Parliaments : 

4 Now the Lord Protector hath, by Force of 
4 Arms, invaded this Fundamental Right and Li- 

* berty, and violently prevented the meeting of the 
' People's chofen Deputies in Parliament. And he 
4 and his Council boldly declare, That none of the 
4 People's Deputies fiall meet in Parliament, unlefs 
4 they agree to the Meafure of their Fantacies, Hu- 

* mours, 

Of E N G L A N D. 31 

e mours, or Lujls : They now render the People inter-regnu. 
fc fuch Fools, or Beads, as not to know who are .J^^^f 
' fit to be trufted by them with their Lives, -Eftates, September . 
6 and Families. But he and his Council, that daily 

* devour their Eftates and Liberties, will judge who 
' are fit to counfel and advife about Laws to pre- 
4 ferve their Eftates and Liberties : Thus doth he 

* now openly aflume a Power to pack an Aflembly 

* of his Confidents, Parafites, and Confederates ; 
' and to call them a Parliament, that he may thence 
' pretend that the People have confented to become 

* his Slaves, and to have their Perfons and Eftates 
c at his Difcretion. And if the People fhall tamely 
c fubmit to fuch a Power, who can doubt but he may 
' pack fuch a Number as will obey all his Com- 

* mands, and confent to his taking of what Part of 
' our Eftates he pleafeth, and to ifnpofe what Yokes 
1 he thinks fit to make us draw in. 

Secondly, And whereas the Parliament of Eng- 

* landj confifting of the People's chofen Deputies* 
' always have been, and ought to be, the Ordainers 
< and Creators of Dignities, Offices, and Authori- 
' ties in this Nation ; and have always, of Right, 

* exercifed the Power of difpofing even the Kingly 

* Office, and an Authority to enlarge and reftrain the 

* Kingly Power ; to queftion, make void, or con- 

* firm, all Commiffions, Proclamations, Charters, 

* and Patents of any of our former Kings ; and have 

* queftioned, cenfured, and judged even the Per- 
' fons of our Kings for abufmg their Trufts, and in- 
' vading the People's Laws, Rights, and Liberties; 

* and by this Means the higheft Officers, and the 

* Kings themfclves, have acknowledg'd their Power 

* to be only trufted to them for the People's Wel- 
' fare ; and they have always dreaded the People's 

* Parliaments, who could call them to an Account 
' for any Injuftice or Violence done upon the Per- 

* fon or Eftate of any Man ; and hereby the People 

* were fecured, under the Laws, from the Rapine and 
4 Oppreflion of the higheft Grandees and Courtiers j 

* even the Kings themfelves, fearing the People's 

* Complaints in their Parliaments, and well know- 


$2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

jnter-regnum. ' ing the People's Cuftom to chufe for their Depu- 
1656. ties the molt known Champions for their Liber- 
~ * *' es a g am ft tne arbitrary Powers and Injuftice of 
^ fj n g s am j t ^ e j r (J ourt j ers . anc ] no ne of the 

' moft wicked Kings, in their higheft Hope to erecl: 
' a Tyranny, ever dared, fmce Members were fent 
' to Parliaments by Elections, to throw afide, by 

* Force, as many of the chofen Members as they 

* thought would not ferve their Ends ; they know- 
' ing it to be the undoubted Right of the People to 
' truft whom they think fit, and as much the Right 
' of every Man, duly chofen and trufted, to meet 
' and vote in Parliament without afking their Leave 
' or begging their Tickets. 

' And although there hath been, frequently, fe- 
' cret Deflgns, for many Years, to fubvert Religion, 

* Liberty, and Property in this Nation; and to that 

* End the Defigns of Tyranny nave attempted to 
4 deftroy fometimes the Being, and fometimes the 

* Power, Privileges, and Freedom of Parliaments ; 

* yet the Mercy of God hath almoft miraculoufly 

* preferved the Being, Privileges, and Authority of 

* Parliaments ; and therein Religion, Liberty, and 

* Property, untill the Time of the Lord Protector : 

* But now he hath aflumed an abfolute arbitrary So- 

* vereignty (as if he came down from the Throne 
' of God) to create in himfelf and his Confederates, 
' fuch Powers and Authorities as muft not be under 

* the Cognizance of the People's Parliaments. His 
6 Proclamations he declares fliail be binding Laws 
' to Parliaments themfelves ; he takes upon him to 

* be above the whole Body of the People of Eng- 
' /and, and to judge and cenfure the whole Body and 
' every Member of it, by no other Rule or Law 

* than his Pleafure, as if he were their abfolute 

* Lord, and had bought all the People of England 

* for his Slaves. 

4 Doubtlefs, if he would pretend only to have 

* conquered England at his own Expence, and were 
' there as much Truth as there is Falfehood in that 

* Pretence, yet he could not but know that the 

* Right of the People's Deputies in Parliament, to 


Of E N G L A N D. 33 

6 their antient Powers and Privileges, would remain 

* good againft him, as againft their public capital 

* Enemy, whom every Man ought to deftroy; wntijl, 
' by fome Agreement with the Body of the People in 

* Parliament, fome Sort of governing Power in him 
' were fubmitted unto ; that hereby he might ceafe 

* to be a public Enemy and Deftroyer, and become 
* a King or Governor, according to the Conditions 
' accepted by the People ; and if he would fo pre- 

* tend, he could not be fo difcharged from his public 

* Enmity by any Conditions or Agreement made 
' with a Part of the People's chofen Deputies, whilft 

* he (hut out the other Part ; for no Part of the Re- 
' prefentative Body are trufted to confent to- any 
4 Thing in the Nation's Behalf, if the Whole have 
1 not their free Liberty of debasing and voting in the 
4 Matters propounded. 

c If he would pretend no higher than to be our 
6 Conqueror, who, for Pe^ce and his own Safety's 

* Sake, was content to ceafe from being a public 

* Enemy, and to be admitted a Governor, he could, 
' not compafs thofe Ends by forcibly excluding (as 
fc now he hath done) whom he pleafed of the Re- 

* prefentative Body of the People, who were to fub- 

* mit to him in the People's Behalf; therefore h& 

* either takes upon him to be fuch a Conqueror as 

* fcorns the People's Acceptance of him, by their 
6 Reprefentative, as their Governor, and fears not 

* to remain a public Enemy; or elfe he takes himfejf 

* to be fuch an unheard-of Sovereign, that againft 

* him the People have no Claim of Right, or Pro- 

* perty in themfelves, or in any Thing elfe ; for he 

* hath now declared, That the People's Choice 

* cannot give any Man a Right to fit in Parliament, 

* but the Right mud be derived from his gracious 
1 Wijl and Pleafure with that of his Counfcllors t 
' and that his C^lerfe's Ticket, only, muft be the it 

* Evidence for it. 

* Thus hath he exalted himfelf to a Throne like 
' unto God's, as if he were of himfelf, and hi? 

* Power from himfdf, and we were all made fof 

* him, to be commanded and difpofed pf by him, to 

Vo|,.XXI, ^ ' ' 

Inter- regnum. 


34 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 work for him, and only to ferve his Pleafure and 
4 Ambition. 

' Seeing therefore this total Subverfion of all Law 
c and Right, and the Diftrations, Miferies, Blood, 
' and Confufions that will be the moft certain Con- 

* fequences of it ; and withall remembering the late 
' Effufion of Blood upon no other Account than to 
' fecure Religion, Liberty, and Property, and the 
' Freedom, Power, and Privileges of Parliament, as 
' the Bulwarks thereof; and that by thofe very 
' Hands, who now overturn the very Foundation 
' of all Liberty, Right, and Property, and of the 

* Being of Parliaments ; and our very Souls trem- 

* bling at the loud Cries of that Sea of Blood, and 
' at the horrid Clamours of the many falfified Oaths 
' and Promifes made upon the fame Account : 

' For the acquitting of our own Souls, in the 

* faithful Difcharge of our Duties to our Country, 
' in fuch Manner as we are capable under this high 
4 Oppreflion, we do hereby, moft folemnly, re- 

* monftrate and protefl. unto all the good People of 
< England, 

' Ftr/t) That the violent Exclufion, by any Go- 

* vernor, or pretended Governor, of any of the 

* People's chofen Deputies, from doing their Du- 
' ties, and executing their Truft freely in Parlia- 

* ments, doth change the State of the People from 

* Freedom unto a meer Slavery; and that whofo- 
' ever hath advifed, affifted, or adhered unto the 
' Lord Protector in fo doing, is a capital Enemy to 
' the Commonwealth ; and our Anceftors have fo 

* declared and adjudged the Advifers of fome of our 
' Kings to Attempts not fo deftructive or dangerous 
' as this of his. In the nth Year of Richard the 

* Second, Chief Juftice Trcfilian and Juftice Blake 

* were convicted of High Treafon by the Parlia- 

* ment, and executed at Tyburn, chiefly for advi- 
'fag the King that he might, when he plea fed ^ diflohe 
' the Parliament, and command the Members to de- 
' part under the Penalty of Treafon '. And we be- 

' lieve 

1 See and compare the i ith of Richard the Second with the 2 ift 
of Richard the Second, Chap, xii, And the firft of Henry the Fourth, 
Chap, iii, iv, A r t!(f in the QrigitxiU 


* Jlcve every Man can difcern how much it Is more Inter-regnum. 
e mifchievous for a King, or any other, to com- j 6 5 j* 

* numl one, two, or three hundred of the Members * 

* to depart, and call the reft a Parliament, to give 

* Countenance to his Oppreffion. 

* If our Kings might have commanded away, from 
1 the Parliaments, ail fuch Perfons of Confcience, 

* Wifdom, and Honour, as could not be corrupted, 
' frighted, nor cozened by them to betray their 
' Country, our Anceftors could not have left us 
' cither Liberties or Eftates to defend. 

' Secondly, We do further likewife proteft, That 

* all fuch chofen Members for a Parliament, as (hall 
' take upon them to approve of the forcible Exclu- 

* fion of other chofen Members, onfhall lit, vote, 
' and adl by the Name of the Parliament of England* 

* while, to their Knowledge, many of the cbofen 

* Members are fo by Force ihut out ; we fay fuch 

* ought to be reputed Betrayers of the Liberties of 

* England^ and Adherents to the capital Enemies of 
c the Commonwealth. 

4 Thirdly t We do hereby further proteft, That 

* the prefent Aflembly at Wejlminjler is not the Re- 

* prefentative Body of England ; and alfo that they 

* fit upder the daily Awe and Terror of the Lord 
' Protector's armed Men, not daring to confult or 

* debate, freely, the great Concernments of their 
4 Country, nor daring to oppofe his Ufurpation and 
' Oppreflion : And that, therefore, untill there can 
' be a free Parliament, we do proteft againft all 
' fuch Votes, Orders, Ordinances, or Laws, as fhall 

* be pretended to be made or enacted by the prefent 
' Aflembly at Jfa/lminjhr, as being null and void in 
' themfelves, and of no legal EfFect or Power. 

* Neither can any of them, according to the Laws 

* of God, or the Fundamental Conftitutions of our 
' Country, be impofed upon any Man ; neither 
' can Tax or Tallage be juftly, or lawfully, raifed 

* by them. 

' And to avoid all further vain Pretences of a Ne 

* cefHty, at prefent, to a<5t in extraordinary Way* 

* fur prefejH Safety, we do further declare, That a 

C 2 Fret 

36 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. < Free Parliament is the only Judge of fuch Dangers 

_ 5 . ' and Neceffities of this Commonwealth, as may 

September. ' warrant any extraordinary a&ing befide or againft 

' the Laws : And if the Kingly Power, that was in 

' England^ were lawfully fettled in the Lord Pro- 

* teitor, yet had he no Colour of Right to judge of 

* the Cafes of Neceflity that fhould make it lawful 
' for him to tranfgrefs the known Laws; but, by 

* the known Judgment of Parliaments, thofe that 
' Ihould fo advife him were guilty of High Treafon. 

* We do therefore appeal unto God, and all the 
' good People of England^ for Affiftance and Pro- 
' tection in their Service ; hereby declaring our 
' Readinefs and earneft Defires to attend upon our 
' Country's Service, and to expofe our Lives and 
' Eftates to the uttermoft Hazards therein, to pre- 
' vent the Ruin and Confufion that now threatens 
' it, if it fhall pleafe God to enable them to redeem 
' themfelves from the prefent Opprefiion ; that their 
' chofen Deputies may meet and confult how to ad- 

* vance the Glory of God, promote the true Reli- 
' gion, and provide for the Safety, Liberty, Peace, 
' and Happinefs of the Commonwealth And, in 
' the Interim, we (hall endeavour to pour out our fad 
' Complaints before the Lord againft our powerful 

* OpprefTors ; humbly hoping that he will come 
' forth fpeedily, to redeem his People out of the 
' Hands of wicked and deceitful Men. m 

Arthur Hajlerigge* Thomas Saunders 9 

Thomas Scott y Henry Darley^ 

John Bulkley, John Weaver* 

John Birch, Alexander Popbam, 

George Fenwick* John Goodwyn^ 

Anthony Irby^ Francis Thorpe^ 

Thomas Lifter* Anthony AJhley Cooper* 

Thomas Birch* John Southby y 

Thomas Adams* Richard Grenvil/e, 


i" Mr. WLltloclic has given us a Copy of this Remonftrance 5 and, 
amongft the Subfcnbers to it, mentions Mr. Herb/rt Morfey and 
Mr. John Fagg : But. by Letters in Tburloe's Colt'efiions, it appears' 
that, tho' thofe two Gentlemen were denied Admittance into the 
Houfe, they either disproved, or had not Courage to fign, this 
e. r burh', Vol. V. p. 490. 

Of E N G 

Richard Browne, 
Richard Darley, 
Thomas St. Nicholas^ 
William James, 
John Boys, 
Charles Hall, 
John Jones, 
William Woolley, 
Richard Radcliffe, 
William ^avile, 
Theophilus Biddulph, 
Henry Mildmay, 
Harbottle Grimfton, 
William IVelby, 
Charles Hu/ey, 
Edmund Harvey, 
John Sicklemore, 
'William D'Oiley, 
Ralph Hare, 
John Hobart, 
Oliver Raymond, 

?eremy Bentley, 
hilip Woodhoufe, 
John Buxton, 
William Bloys, 
William Gibbs^ 
Thomas Sotherton t 
Thomas Bowes, 
Edward Harley, 
Clement Throckmorton, 
Daniel Wall, 
Henry North, 
Richard Lucy, 
John Wittewrong, 
George Courthorpe^ 
Samuel Got, 
John Buckland, 
Robert Long, 

LAND. 37 

John Northcott, 
John Young, 
John Dodderidge, 
Henry Hungerfordy 
Edward Tooker, 
William Morris 9 
John Hele, 
Edward Turner^ 
Chaloner Chute, 
Daniel Shatterden^ 
Thomas Styles, 
Richard Beale, 
John Sell'ard, 
Walter Moyle, 
Walter Vincent, 
John Gell, 
Henry Artbington % 
Henry Tempe/l, 
Jomes Clavering) 
john Stanhope, 
PeniJIon IPhaley, 
Abel Barker, 
Samuel Moore, 
Thomas Minors^ 
John Bowyer, 
Samuel Jones y 
John Ajfton, 
Andrew Lloyd, 
Edward Hooper^ 
Thomas Rivers, 
Henry Peckham, 
Charles Lloyd, 
John Thurbarne, 
"William Fijher, 
John Gore, 
Rowland Litton. 

Inter* rcgnunit 



Animated by this gallant Remonftrance, and re- 
fenting the infamous Behaviour of a pack'd Majo- 
rity, fo many Members, alhamed of their Compa- 
C 3 nions, 

38 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

nions, left the Houfe, that, in order to fave Appesr- 
1656. ances, it was refolv'd, on the 2gth of this Month, 
*- v "-^ That all Perfons who had been return'd to ferve in 
Oaober, t hj g Parliament, and had been, or might be, ap- 
proved by the Council, fhould give their Attend- 
ance within feven Days. As to thofe who had been 
excluded for Want of fuch Approbation, no farther 
Notice was taken of them : But the reft proceeded 
to appoint Committees on public Bufmefs, particu- 
larly Scots and Ir'ijh Affairs : And, to give the Pro- 
tector ftill greater A durances of their Attachment to 
his Government, a Bill was brought in, and read 
once, intitled, An Al for the Security of his Higb- 
nefs the Lord Protestor's Perfon, and Continuance of 
the Nation in Peace and Safety. A Bill was alfo or- 
dered to be brought in, For taking away the Court 
of Wards and Liveries , and Tenures by Knight- 

A Bill pafTed for Nothing occurs more in the Journals^ but regu- 
fenouncing the lating of double Returns, &c. till the 26th of this 
Stuart Family. Month, when the Bill for renouncing and difannul- 
ling the pretended Title of Charles Stuart, &c. was 
read a third Time; and feveral Additions were pro- 
pofed, which were, That the King's Titles fhould 
not only be abrogated, but all the Titles that ever 
belonged to his eldeft Son, or any of the Family ; 
as Prince of Wales^ Duke of Cornivall, Prince of 
Scotland^ Duke of Albany, Duke of Rothefay, Duke 
of York, or Duke of Clcuce/hr. Afterwards the 
Bill, with thefe and other Amendments made to it, 
being put to the Queftion, puffed ; and, as the Jour- 
nals have it, netnine contradicente. It was ordered^ 
at the fame Time, That the Lord Protector's Af- 
fent be defired to this Bill. Laftly, a Committee 
was appointed to confider of the Way of Addrcfs to 
his Highnefs, with Bills, and report it to the Houfe. 

^ Q&ofar I. The faid Report was made ; on which 
for the'pfotec- ^ was rdolved, i. ' That a Copy of every Bill that 
tor's Coafent. ftiall pafs the Houfe, be made, and carefully examin- 


Of E N G L AND. 39 

cd by the Clerk of the Parliament, with the Origi- Inter-regnunu 
nal, and figned by him: That the Speaker, with the ' J 
whole Houfe, fhail attend the Lord Protestor; and, 
in their Name, prefent the Bills to his Highncfs for 
hisConfent: That the Clerk (hall read the Titling 
cf the Bills ; and, if the Lord Protestor requite it, 
the Bills alfo : And then the Speaker (hall deliver 
to his Highnefs the Copy. 

2. ' That the Place of Meeting for the Lord Pro- 
tcftor to pafs Bills, fnall be the Painted- Chamber. 

3. ' That when the Lord Protedor (hall pafs a 
Bill, the Form of Words to be ufed (hall be thefe, 
The Lord Protefior doth confenty which; Words fhall 
be entered " upon the Bill. 

4. ' That the Lord Protector may require the 
Judges and fuch Officers of State to attend him, at 
the Time of prefenting and patting of Bills, as his 
Highnefs (hall think fit. 

5. ' That it be referred back to the fame Com- 
mittee, to confider what Words are fit to be ufed 
when a Bill is rirft parted by this Houfe ; and to be 
indorfed by the Clerk thereupon : How Notice (hall 
be given to the Houfe, when his Highnefs comes to 
pafs Bills : What Words {hall be ufed when, in 
cafe the Lord Prote&or doth not confent in twenty 
Days, a Bill is to become a Law : And how Bills 
may be pafled in cafe of the Lord Protestor's Sick- 
nefs or Abfence.' 

A War with Spain having been entered into byrhe Parliament 
the Protestor and his Council, it was, at the fame 3 PP rov * olthe 
Time, thought proper to communicate this Affair Warwith5/W * g 
to the Parliament; who, having heard the Report, 
it was refolved, That the War againft the Spa- 
niard was undertaken upon juft and necefiary 
Grounds, and for the Good of the People of this 
Commonwealth : That the Houfe doth approve 
thereof; and will, by God's Bleffing, affift his 
Highnefs therein : And a Committee was appointed 


The Word Entered was infertcd inflcad of the Wcrd InJorftd 
And this Note is Britten againft it in the Margin, " Aineiwlcd \ 
Order, upon the Q^eftion, the zotli of Ntrvtmbtr, 1656. 

46 *fhe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- reghum. to prepare a Declaration to fliew the Juftice of thl 
War, and the Neceffity of carrying on the fame.' 

oaober. The ver y next Day L etters f rom t h e Admiral? 
Blake and Montague, to the Protector > were com* 
municated to the Houfe by Mr. Secretary Tburlod^ 
giving Intelligence of a confiderable Victory over 
A great Viftory the Spanijh Weft- India Fleet, and of the taking of 
obtained over f ev eral of their Ships, On which News a Day of 
Thankfgiving was appointed by the Houfe, to blefs 
God for his great Mercies on this Occafion ; and a 
Declaration ordered to be drawn up as a Narrative 
of this Succefs, to be prefixed to the Order for the 
Thankfgiving. The Thanks of the Houfe were 
alfo voted to Admiral Montague^ who that Day took 
his Seat in Parliament j and the fame Compliment 
was afterwards paid to Admiral Blake, 

A Bill fat Secu- Off. 9. Great Debates were this Day on the Bill 

rity of the Pro- for the Security of the Protector's Perfon, and many 

tefor's Perron, Additions and Amendments made to it ; after 

which, being put to the Queftion, and pafied, it 

was ordered, ' That his Highnefs's Confent be de- 

fired thereto.' The Houfe was alfo at this Time 

employed about feveral other Bills, of different Na- 

tures, of which Notice will be taken in the Sequeh 

Ofi. i t. This Day a Letter, or rather a Meflage, 
from the Lord Protector, was delivered to the 
Speaker; which, for its having all the Attributes of 
Regal Style, more than for the Matter of it, we 
give as follows : 

To our Right Trufty and Right Well-beloved 
Sir THOMAS WIDDRINGTON, Knight, Speaker 
of the Parliament^ 


Right Trufty and Right Well-beloved, we greet 

you well, 

Creat Officers of fT being exprejfid in the thirty-fourth Article of 
ttm appointed. / ^ Q overnment ^ That the Chancellor, Keeper, 


In our Twentieth Volufte, p. 260, 

Of E N G L A N D. 41 

Or Commitiioners of the Great Seal, the Trea- 
furer, Admiral, Chief Governors of Ireland and 
Scotland, and the Chief Juftices of both the 
Benches, fhall be chofen by the Approbation of 
Parliament ; and in the Intervals of Parliament, bjr 
the Approbation of the major Part of the Coun- 
cil, to be after approved by the Parliament ;' and 
ive having, before the Meeting of the Parliament* 
appointed, with the Approbation of the Council, our 
Right Trujly and Right Well- beloved Nathaniel 
Fiennes and John Lifle, Commijfiotttfi of the Great 
Seal of England ; and our Right Trujly and Well- 
beloved John Glynne, Chief 'Jujlice of the Upper 
Bench, I have thought it necejjary to tranfmit to you. 
the Names of thofe Perfons, to the end that the Refo- 
lution of the Parliament may be known concerning 
their Approbation ; which I dejire may be with fucb 
Speed as the other public Occafions of the Common- 
'tucalth will permit : And fo 1 bid you heartily fare- 

Given at Whitehall^ the loth of Oclober^ 1656. 

The Confequence of this Meflage was, that the 
three Perfons recommended by his Highnefs, were 
all approved by three leveral Relblutions of the 

The Spanijb War continuing to be carried on 
With Vigour, the Houfe went upon Ways and Means 
to raife Money for that Purpofe; and, after con- 
fidering how to retrench fome fupernumerary Ex- 
pences, &c. they fell, as their Predeceflbrs had 
done on like Occafions, to raife farther Contribu- 
tions upon the Eftates of Papifts and Delinquents. 
In order thereto they appointed Committees to in- 
quire ftri&ly into any Frauds or Collufions ufed in 
the Compofitions for thofe Eitates; as alfo into any 
other Methods relating to the Excife or Cuftoms, 
that they could find for raifing Money for this War. 

The Remainder of this Month was chiefly em- 
ployed in the above-mentioned Expedients, And, 


42 The Parliamentary PIi STORY 

Inter-regnum. Nov. 7. A Report was made from the Protector 
l6 5 6 - and his Council, That an Account had been drawn 
Vr~~ v T~" 11 '' up of what would be neceflary for carrying on the 
1 "' Spanijb War another Year, and how far the pre- 
fent public Revenues would reach to the defraying 
of that Charge. This Account was foon after re- 
ferred to a Committee, to coniider how to anfwer 
the Expence, and to prefent their Propofitions for 
it to the Houfe as fpeedily as poilible. 

Nov. 27. Several Bills being now ready for the 
Lord Protector's AfTeut, a Committee was appoint- 
ed to wait upon him, and defire to know the Time 
when he would pleafe to have them prefented to him 
The Lord Pro- f or t h at p u ,-p O fe. His Highnefs appointed Ten 
CL?tofcie. ' Cloc , k: that Morning in the Painted Chamber; but 
ral Bills. before the Houfe went up thither, they thought 

proper to read another Bill three Times, and pals it; 
which was, That bis f Higbnefs's pajfing of Bills 
Jboitld net be any Determination of this Sejffign of 
Parliament. They alfo ordered, 4 That this Bill 
be the firft that fliould be prefented to his Highnefs 
for his Confent.' It was fo done; and accordingly 
ftands firft in the Acts of this Seflion. P 

So extraordinary a Caution jfhews very plainly, 
that the Houfe, though thoroughly purged and 
modelled, had fome Jealoufy that the Protedor 
might intend to diflblve them : However, it hap- 
pened otherwife ; for now the Serjeant at Arms 
bringing Word that Serjeant Dendy was at the 
Door with a Meffage from his Highnefs, he was 

called in : The Ceremonial on this Occafion 

was as follows : 

The Ceremonial ' Having made two Obeifances to the Parliament 
thereof. when he came into the Middle of the Houfe, with 

his Mace in his Hand, he declared to the Speaker, 
That he was commanded by the Lord Protector to 
let this Parliament know, that his Highnefs was in 
the Painted-Chamber^ and defired to fpeak with 
that Honourable Houfe there j and withdrew. 

* Then 

P SeobelPs Ctlle&ions, p. 371. 




* Then the Speaker with the whole Houfe (the Inter- 
Clerk with the Bills in his Hand, and the Serjeant l6 S 6 - 
with his Mace, going next ami immediately before ^""*"" v ~ 
him) went up to the Painted- Chamber ; where his 
Highnefs, attended by the Lord Prefidcnt and the 

reft of the Council, the Lords Commiiiioners of the 
Great Seal and of the Treafury, the Lord Chief 
Juftice of the Upper Bench, the Mailer of the Rolls, 
the Lord Chief Juftice of the Common Pleas, and 
the reft of the Judges, were expecting the Parlia- 

4 The Serjeant carried his Mace upon his Shoul- 
der up to the Table, where was a Chajr fet for the 
Speaker, and a Form for the Clerk. 

4 Then the Speaker, addrefling himfelf to his 
Highnefs, gave an Account of the Employment of 
the Houfe during their Sitting: That many Bills for 
the Public Good were upon the Anvil, feme where- 
of were compleated ; and of thefe he made a parti- 
cular Relation. The ftrft of which was an Aft, 
Ibat the puffing of Bills Jhall not determine this pre- 
fent ScJJion of Parliament : This he fryled a Bill for 
the Parliament's Prefervation. The next, which 
was an At For renouncing and difannulling the pre- 
tended Title of Charles Stuart, &c. he called a Bill 
for quieting the Pofleffion of the Government. The 
third, For the Security of his Highnefs the Lord Pro- 
tcftor's Perfon, and Continuance of the Nation in 
Peace and Safety^ he faid was for a Security to 
every Perfon in the Nation, all their feveral Intc- 
refts being comprehended in that of his Highnefs. 
The Fourth., an At For taking away the Ceuit of 
Wards and Liveries^ he ftylcd an At of Manumit 
fiun. The fifth was an Act For granting Liberty 
to export federal Commodities of the Breed^ Growth^ 
and Manufacture of this Ccnitn^mueaith^ the good 
Intentions whereof were felf- evident; and that there 
were alfo feveral more Bills of private Concernment 
to particular Perfons. 

* After this the Clerk read the Title of the firuV 
Bill prefented to the Lord Piotcctor, which his 
Highnefs ordered to be read through, and declared 


Inter- regnum, 



44 tte Parliamentary HISTORY 

to the Clerk his Confent to the fame, in thefe 
Words, We do conjent ; and, thereupon, the Clerk 
made this Entry thereof on the Bill, The Lord Pro- 
teftor doth conjent ; and read the fame over again. 
Then the Clerk read the Titles of the reft of the 
public Bills firft, and next the private Bills, to each 
of which the Lord Protector's Confent was de- 
clared, entered, and publifhed, as before. 

' The Serjeant at Arms attending his Highnefs, 
and likewife the Serjeant attending the Parliament, 
flood all this Time with their Maces on their 
Shoulders ; and his Highnefs having made a fhort 
Speech, the Speaker, with the reft of the Members, 
departed, in the like Order as they came thither, to 
the Parliament Houfe.' --- But no Entry is made of 
this Speech in the Journals^ or any other Authority 
we have yet met with. 

December. The Parliament now proceeded upon 
other Bills, both public and private; amongft which 
was carried on, in a Committee of the whole Houfe, 
a Bill for uniting the Kingdoms of England and 
Scotland into one Commonwealth. An Affair which 
had long taken up the Attention of this and prece- 
ding Parliaments. 

The Be g innin g of this Month James Naylor* 
* by the Diaries of thefe Times, The Quakers 
le^ was brought up from Briftol, and feveral of 
his Female Followers along with him. On the 6th 
he was brought to the Bar of the Houfe j where, 
keeping on his Hat, the Serjeant, by Command of 
the Speaker, took it off. Being afked, If his Name 
was James Naylor ; anfwered, He was fo called : 
and being alfo afked, How long he had been called 
fo; anfwered, Ever fmce he could remember. The 
Particulars of his Confeffion being read to him, and 
afked if it was his, he acknowledged it all. The 
next Day, on Debate, the Houfe voted him guilty 
of horrid Blafphemy ; that he was a grand Impoftor, 
and a great Seducer of the People. 


O/ E N G L A N. D. 45 

But after this the Parliament feem'd to be under Inter-regntun. 
fome Dilemma what Puniihment to infliit upon l6 5 6 - 
him, for it was debated feveral Days, without co- < ^*T V TT J 
ming to a Conclufion ; till, on the i6th of this 
Month, the Queftion being put, That the Punifli- 
ment of James Naylor, for his Crimes, (hall be by 
Death, and that a Bill be brought in for that Pur- 
pole, it pafled in the Negative, by 96 againft 82. 
Then a Motion being made, That Part of his Pu- 
nifhrrlent be to have his Hair cut off, it pafled in 
the Negative, without Divifion. After which the 
Houfe came to the following Refolution : 

* That James Nay/or be fet on the Pillory, with 
his Head in the Pillory, in the New-Palace\ Ifcy?- 
minjler, during the Space of two Hours, on Tlntrf- 
4uy next ; and (hall be whipp'd by the Hangman 
through the Streets, from Wtflnditfter to the Old- 
Exchange^ London ; and there likewife be fet upon 
the Pillory, with his Head in the Pillory, for the 
Space of two Hours, between the Hours of Eleven 
and One, on Saturday next ; in each of the faid 
Places wearing a Paper containing an Infcription of 
his Crimes : And that at the Old Exchange his 
Tongue (hall be bored through with a hot Iron; and 
that he be there alfo ftigmatized in the Forehead 
with the Letter B. That he be afterwards fent to 
Brijfol) and conveyed into and through the faid Ci-~ 
ty, on a Horfe bare ridged, with his Face backward ; 
and there alfo publickly whipped the next Market- 
Day after he comes thither : That from thence he 
be committed to Prifon in Bridewell^ London^ and 
there reftrained from the Society of all People, and 
kept to hard Labour, till he (hall be releafed by 
Parliament ; and during that Time be debarred 
from the Ufe of Pen, Ink, and Paper, and (hall 
have no Relief, but what he earns by his daily La- 


1 Upon thU Occafion there was publifljed by Authority of the 
Parliament, the following Paper, intitleo, A brief Actfunt of Jarne 
Naylor, the Quaker j and the uttering of many horrible LUafpbemiei, 
tte Jtk:-, for at! Circumflancet, nevtr beard of in any Agt brfite, viitb 

the Judgment pronaunctd upon him by Mr. Speaker, be being biougl-t 

46 The Parliamentary HISTORY" 

nCXt ^^ 7 amcs Naylar being brought up to 
receive his Sentence, a Motion was made, that he 
might be afked, Whether he had any Thing to offer 
why Judgment fhould not be pronounced upon him ? 


t tie Bar in toe Commons Hcxfe, for toale bigb Crimes wbercofkc bad 
teen guilty, Dec. ij, 1656. At tbeTop of this Sheet is a Print engra- 
ved by Hollar, reprefenting the Manner of Kaylar's Sentence being 
put in Execution. Then follows tlie Account itfeif, in bat Verba. 

'James Baylor, the Qu-kcr, having been releafed out of Exeter 
Coal, he began immediately to play his P.anks at divers Places in 
the Weft j among the reft, he paiTcd by ffelts and Glafienlury, thro* 
which Towns he rode on Horfeback, a Man going bare before him, 
and others walking on Foot on each Side of his Stirrup, and others 
Brewing their Garments in the Way ; from thence he took his Way 
towards Brifto!, and coming to a little Village call'd Bcdrnnfier, about 
a Mile fcom Brijiil, he rode through that Place likewife, a young 
Wan lare-headeci leading his Hone by the Bridle, and another Man 
before with his Hat on. 

' There accompanied him two Men, with each a Woman behind 
him on Horfeback 5 which Women alighted when they came to the 
Suburbs vfBrifnl, and footed it along on each Side ofNaylor's Horfe, 
the Man ftiii bare-headed leading the Horfe; and as they advanced 
along they furg;, and entered Bnftol finging, Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord 
Csd oflfrae/j and then the Women led the Hone with the Reins in 
their Hands, up to the High-Crofs of Brifal, and from thence to 
tr.e WL:tt-Uart Inn in Broadftrfet. 

' The Magistrates fending for Naylor and his Companions, they 
came finging all the Way Ucj'ar.r.a, and Holy, Holy, Holy, &c. His 
Name that went bare before'him was T:m!>tby Wedlock, a Devtnjbirt 
Wan. The one Woman was named Martha Symonds, Wife oflhamcu 
Symonds, Stationer of Landau j the other Hannah Strangcr, Wife of 
John Stranger, of London, Comb-maker. 

' The Magiftrates having convened NayJ&r and the reft, divers 
flrange blafphemous Letters and Papers were found about there, 
wherein it appeared, that this Deceiver had fo far gained upon his 
Followers by his Impoftures, that they afcribed to him Divine Ho- 
ours, and gave him in Scripture Phrafe the fame Titles which ere 
applicable to none but Cbrift himfeif. 

* In a Letter of one Richard airman, from Dorchejier GoaJ, to 
Way lor, we-e thefe horrid Expreflions, / am filed with Jcy and Rejoi- 
cing laben I behold tbee in the ctsrnal Unity. O my boul it melting 
within ntt, ivhtn I behold thy Beauty and Itinocexcj, dear and precious 
Sen of Z ion, -u/bofe Mother is a Virgin, and vfafe Birth is imacrta/. 

* Another writes of him thus, Mil the ivife Menjhailfeek for him, 
and -when they have found him, they Jhall open their Ears, and flail 
give unto him of their Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh. 

' The fame Woman, in another Letter to him, proceeds thus, 
tbeu fat reft ofTen Ibfufand: 1'bcu inly begotten Son of God, bow my 
Heart panieth after tbee, flay me ivitb flagons, and comfort me 
ioitb Wine. My Well beloved, tbou art like a Roe, or young liart t 
uptn the Mountains of Spices. Then, by way of Poftfcript, her Haf- 
J;nd, John Strs.r.ger t adds this, Tby A'amt is mare tt in called 
James but Jefus. 

Of E N G L A N D. 47 

it pafTcd in the Negative, by 107 againft 85 ; which inter- r^mim. 
arbitrary Vote feems to jtiitify Mr. Wbitkctft Ob- >6s6. 
fervation, ' That many thought he was loo fiercely ^***~*'~' "^ 
profeeuted by rigid Men.' J anuar *' 

Thus much tor this Enthufiaft. 

The reft of this Month, and Part of the next, 
was chiefly taken up in hearing of Petitions relating 
to private Affairs, and going upon Ways and Means 
to raife Money for the Spanijh War. But, 

About the Middle of January , Secretary, Tbur- A Thankfgivini; 
Joe alarmed the Houfe with a wicked Defi^ti to take 
away the Lord Protector's Life, and fire /^**<?/> 
and read the Examination of divers Perfons con- 
cerned in the faid Plot, taken before the Council : 
For the happy and timely Difcovery hereof the 
Parliament ordered a Day of Thankfgiving to be 
held, fir II by the Houfe, and afterwards by the three 
Nations. A Declaration, by way of Narrative of 
this dangerous Confpiracy r , was ordered to be 


' Alfr> a Maid, named Dorcas Erbury, being examined, declared 
J.imes Nay/or to be the Holy One of Ifrjcl, the only begotten Son ot" 
tied j and that (he pulled off his Stockings, and put her Cloaths un- 
der his Feet, becaule he was the floly Lord of Ifrael, and that flic 
knew no other Saviour but him ; affirming moreover, That the Spirit 
of the Lord within her commanded her to call him Lord and Mailer, 
and to ferve him : That, in Exeter Goal, he had railed her frr.m the 
Dead after (he had been dead two Days : And that Janes Naybr 
Aall fit at the Right Hand of the Father, and judge the World. " 

' Thus you fee how this wretched Importer hath prevailed upon his 
Followers, to bewitch them to the committing of flrange Abfurdi- 
tjes. An Account whereof I had hitheito fbrborn, but have now 
given it in brief", that the Honour and Juftice of the Parliaments Sen- 
tenet; paftrd uppn him, may be evident to the People.* 

It was called Synder comic's Plot, which is taken Notice of 
by moft of our Hiftorians. TlysMan was found dead in his Bed the 
Morning before his intended Execution. Whether he poifoned hira- 
fclf, as was given out by public Authority at this Time ; or wa 
fmothereil, by private Orders from Cromwell, for lear he ftiould make 
fome Difcovecies at the Callows to the Prejudice of the Protestor, 
(as charged upon him by Col. Titus, in his Killing no Murder) re- 
mains yet a Queftion. We fliall therefore content ourfclvcs xvith 
remarking, That, in the 5th and 6th Volumes of Tburloc'a Su:t 
Papers, there are Letters from Lockbatt, Ooww^/'s Amballador in 
Franc*, to 'Tburlot^ and from him to lltr.ry CromzocK, in Ireland^ 
with ft-. rial Examinations and other Papers teh ing to this Defiga 
againft the Protector's Life ; which fcems to have beta, in &me 
xncafurc, encouraged by the Court *f Spain. 

48 *be Parliamentary HISTORY 

fcte-regnum. drawn up and publifh'd ; wherein the Minifters were 
enjoined, on all Occasions for the future, to pray 
for the Lord ProtccJor^ and all that are in Authority 
in this Commonzuealtb. The Parliament alfo voted 
their Thanks to Secretary Thurloe^ for his great Di- 
ligence in tracing out this Plot ; and relolved to 
congratulate the Lord Protector upon his happy 
Efcape. This was done by the whole Houfe, with 
the Speaker at their Head ; who, in his Harangue 
upon the Occafion, fet forth the terrible Confe- 
quences which might have enfued, had it not pleafed 
Almighty God to defeat this Confpiracy j as, 
I/?, The Danger and Ruin of the Reformed 
Churches abroad, and three Nations at home, who 
were all ftruck at by this intended Blow. idly-> The 
cunning Secrecy of it, no more than two knowing 
the whole Defign. 3%, The Extenfivenefs of it, 
for, if they failed in one Place, they rejolved to do 
it in another. He concluded with faying, That, if 
Cicero were living, he would want Expreflion to fet 
out the Danger, or the Mercy; fo unparallel'd, fo 
unprecedented a Mercy, that the Parliament's Hymn 
was, O cantemus Canticum novum^ Q come let us 
fmg a new Song unto the Lord | 

The Difcovery of this Confpiracy furnifhed the 
Protector and his Council with a frefh Pretence for 
opprefiing theRoyalifts; for, in confequence there- 
of, we find a Bill was ordered to be brought in For 
continuing and ajjeffing a Tax for the Payment of the 
Militia Forces in England and Wales, raijed for 
the Security and Prefervatisn of the Commonwealth j 
the Debate upon which was opened to the Houfe ? 
by Secretary Tburloe^ hi a Speech to this JEftecl : * 

Mr. Speaker, 

Secretary T*r- s fTl H E Scope of this Bill is to fet an extraor- 
ids Speech for J^ dinary Tax upon the old Delinquent Party, 
(SSny'nknF- w ^ a R et rofp e & by wa y of Approbation of what 

on thefcoyatffts, hath 

9 From the 5th Volume of Tburhe's State Papers; in which 

there being fome Hiatus', we have endeavouitid to fupply therrij and 

to cjear up a few Pafisges w&ch feem to have cfJ>?4 t h ? Car? pf 

tie TrajjjTciiber. 

Of E N G L A N D. 49 

hfitn been done of this Kind by his Highnefs and Inter-r^n 
the Council ; fo that we are to confider, l6s 

1. What Reafons his Highnefs and Council had t ~T^ 
to lay the Charge. 

2. ' Upon what Grounds it (hall be continued 
by Acl of Parliament. 

1 What moves me to fpeak in it is, the Place I 
have the Honour to bear. 

' The Occafion was, the laft Infurrec~lion made 
by the old Delinquent Party. Who thefe old De- 
linquents are, I fuppofe Nobody needs any Infor- 
mation ; they are defcribed in the Bill, to be thofc 
who were in Arms for the late King againu the Par- 
liament, or for Charles Stuart the Son ; or have 
adhered to, aflifted, or abetted the Forces raifed 
againft the Parliament ; or whofe Eftates have beert 
fequeftered for Delinquency. 

4 You know, Sir, much better than I, and fo do 
molt Men here, what the Defign was before the 
Long Parliament. It was to alter our Religion, and 
to fubvert the Fundamental Laws. 

The Biftiops, fo they might cnflave our Con- 
fciences, and have us at their Will to impofe their 
Ceremonies, which were but Inlets to Popery, 
were content we mould be at the King's Will for 
our Perfons and Eftates. I remember myfelf, and 
many here remember much better, how many 
were baniftied into foreign Parts, that they might 
ferve God without Fear, which they could not do 
here. Many good Minifters were imprifoned, others 
filenced : If two or three Chriftians met together to 
pray, this was a Conventicle, and they were haled 
before the then Powers. 

* I fear thefe Things are forgotten, and we value 
not the Liberty we have in thefe Cafes. I know 
what Thoughts we had then j that that was the 

* And fo in the State, the Prerogative was tery 
high, but the People's Liberty was very low. We 
have not forgot the German Horfe that were to be 
brought over, and the Army in Ireland that was 
to be raifed to enflave them firft, and then to do the 

VOL. XXI. D fame 

5 o *Fhe "Parliamentary HISTORY 

fnter-repnum. fame here. What was doing in Scotland many Gerc- 
l6 5 6 - tlemen here, I doubt not, that rejoice to fee this 
V "T~ V J Day, can tell you large Stories of. 

' Parliaments were fet afide : How many had ye 
between 3 and 16 Car. in thirteen Years toge- 
ther ? Not one ; no, they had got a Way to govern 
without Parliaments ; and the Laws in Weftminftfr- 
Hall began to be of little Ufe. The Judges, that 
were honeft and true to the People's Liberties, were 
either removed or difcountenanced, that ad Placl- 
tum Regis fmt Sententits Legis : Other Courts flou- 
rifhed ; the Marches otlVales, the Prefidentftiip of 
Tork^ the Star-Chamber, the Council-Board, the 
High-Commiflion, and, I am loth to name, the 
Chancery ; but good Ufe was made of that too, 
for their Purpofes that were arbitrary ; and the De- 
fign was to rack all Things fo, that a Man could 
not be met with there that would hear Reafon". 

' The Truth was, the Defign was to govern us 
fcy a Power that might be turned againft us ; and 
it was faid, quod placuit Principi Legis Vim habet. 

( Things were almoft become defperate ; and all 
Men who loved their Country thought, all, either 
of fuffering, or of flying. This, I fay, was the 
firft Defign. To do an arbitrary A6t, out of Ne- 
ceflity to fave the whole, that's another Thing ; but 
this was Matter of Choice. 

' In this Conjunture of Affairs the Long Parlia- 
ment comes j queftions the King's Counfellors ; 
undertakes the Caufe of the Nation, and advifes the 
King : Inftead of liflening to them, he takes the 
Advantage of railing an Army in Profecution of his 
former Defign, and to defend thofe who were the 
Inftruments thereof. A great Part of the Nation, 
whom he and his Counfellors had debauched, and 
who were feafoncd with the fame Principles, in Ha- 
tred to the Spirit of Reformation and Liberty, which 
appeared in the Parliament, adhered to him ; took up 
Arms with him, and in his Caufe ; and I believe 
Nobody here hath forgot how much Blood and 
Treafure this Courfe hath coft this Nation in a Ten- 
years War i for near fo long hath this Party of 



Men held up their Caufe aforefaid, againft the good 
People of this Land, by an open War; and what 

Havock hath been made of the Lives and Eftates of 

i r i i <-> January. 

many a good Patriot during this Time, is yet to be 

lamented ; and the Lofs of your Relations, the 
Emptincfs of your Purfes exhaufled in this War, 
the ftgnal Deliverances which God hath given you, 
w.ll not fuffer you to forget what our Condition had 
been, if we had been given up into the Hands of 
thefe Men. 

* Thefe are the Men, Sir, this is the old Delin- 
quent, that we have to do with in this Bill. 

' In the Management of this War, we have had 
many Divifions and Subdivifions amongft ourfelves : 
4 In the Church, Prefbyterians, Independents, 
Anabaptills ; in the State, bad Commonwealth's- 
mcn ; fuch as mercenary Soldiers, Lawyers, Fifth 
Monarchy-men ; every one labouring for their own 
Interefts ; but none of all thefe are now in Queftion. 
Lut 'tis the old Enemy; Men that would bring irf 
the Hierarchy again, and with it Popery ; Perfecution 
for Confcience Sake ; bring in 'I^yranny over our 
Perfons and Eftates ; who endeavoured to have made 
the Land defolate, rather than not have brought this 
to pafs ; brought in all Manner of Profanenefs and 
Debauchery: I wifti we do not forget what Manner 
of Men they were. We did all once agree againft 
them, and I hope we {hall do fo again, fo long as 
they retain their old Principles. 

* I fay, the worft in this Bill is, to make thefe 
Men pay an extraordinary Tax for the Support of 
the public Charge. 

4 Aye, but 'tis faid they have compounded ; many 
of them have, for their Delinquency; and they have 
had an A61 of Oblivion; and are now, in Juftice, to 
be looked upon as the reft of the Nation f 

4 That fure is not hard to anfwer. Their Com- 
pofition was but for what they had done : Sure it 
was not for all they mould do. The Pardon was 
but of Offences part ; it was not like the Pope's 
Pardons, that are of all Sins committed, and to be 
committed > fo that if they be guilty of new Offen- 

D 2 CCo, 

52 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Tnter-regnum. ces, it is juft to fubject them to new Penalties ; and 

1656. they to be dealt with, as if they had made no Com- 

*~T~*~ ~~* portion, nor had any fuch Pardon granted them. 

But then the greater Queftion is, What thefe Men 

have done, which may juftly cancel their former 

Grants ; and how this comes to be a common Cafe; 

if forne of them have offended, muft all fufferf 

' In Anfwer to this, I would premife two Things: 

1. ' The Queftion is not about Confifcation of 
Life and Eftate, which the former War fubjected- 
them to; and which, without their Compofition or 
Pardon, might have been inflicted ; that Offence was 
capital ; but it is only, whether they (hall pay fome- 
what more to the public Charge, than thofe that 
have been of the other Party ? 

2. ' Exception is propounded to thofe, who 
cither have or (hall give Evidence of their having 
forfaken their former Intereft. 

4 The Onus probandi is put orr their Side, and ma- 
ny have had the Fruit of this : His Highnefs and the 
Council, having had good Satisfaction concerning 
jnany of them, have difcharged their Decimation ; 
and I fuppofe this Bill is not, or ought to be, to reach 
to thefe ; fo that the Queftion will not be of every 
individual Man, but of fuch only as have not nor 
can give any Teftimony of their having changed 
their Interefts and Principles; on the contrary, have 
given a juft Ground of Sufpicion that they do retain 

* For thofe who have actually had a Hand in- 
defigning, contriving, acting, or abetting in the 
late Infurrection, and can be convicted thereof by 
Teftimony, that is under another Confideration, 
and will not be pertinent to be fpoke of under this 

4 Then to anfvver that Queftion, What have they 
tlone ? It's true, there was an Infurrection, and 
of fome of the Party, Wagftaffe^ Wtlmott, &c. but 
are all therefore to be punimed ? What hath the 
whole Party done ? This I would fay, in general, 
that the old Delinquent Party have not only the 
fame Intention^ that they had, when they were in 


O/* ENGLAND. 5 3 

open Arms, and notorioufly manifefted it to the inter-regnum, 
Confciences of all Men who will confider it, but lfirfi 
they do retain their old Principles, and ftill adhere 
to their former Intereft (what that is I have fpoke 
before); and have been all along hatching newDi- 
Iturbances, to trouble the Peace of the State : And 
although the Teftimonies do not extend to fuch a 
Proof 'as is necetfary to a legal Conviction, ^et fo 
much is known of the Actions and Converfation of 
the whole Party, as may fatisfy any indifferent Man, 
(efpecially a State, who ought rather to be too 
jealous than too fecure) that they were generally in- 
volved in the late Defign ; and ought, in Reafon, 
to have the Charge laid upon them. 

' To evince that, take a View of this Party ever 
fmce the Battle of Worcefter. There you knov/ 
their Hopes were broken ; and the Lives and Eftates 
of that whole Party, in the Three Nations, fubjectetl 
to your Power. What, Doth the Parliament apply 
themfelves to heal and cement, and to take away 
the Seeds of Divifion ? Hence it is, that not only 
JufHce is done them all, but an Act of Grace is 
granted to them, and that by the Government. 
What do they meditate ? The Overthrow of thofe, 
\vhofe Favour they were, by the Providence of God, 
compelled to feek ; for, from that very Day, untHl 
the late Infurrection broke forth, they have been m 
Agitation of ill Defigns. 4 

Notwithftanding the Arguments alledged, by the which 
Secretary of State, in favour of this Bill "for levying is rejected by the 
a Tax upon the Royalifts; yet there being a ftrongjj^. f own 
Sufpicion m the Houfe, that the real Tendency Relations, 
thereof was to fupport and increafe the Authority of 
the Major-Generals, it met with great Oppofition. 
Thefe Officers had Bafhaw'd it to fo high a Degree, 
as to give Offence to the whole Nation : Cromwell^ 
fenfible of this, and having already ferved his ovrn 
Ends by them, the principal of which was to influ- 
ence the Elections for this Parliament ; and begin- 
ning to be jealous of their growing Power, deter- 
mined to gratify the Defircs of the People by laying 
D 3 them 

54 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

|ijter-r?pnim. them afide ; and accordingly, foon after, the Of- 
?6 5 6 - free and JurifdicYion of thefe Major-Generals were 

^ rr T**~~^ wholly abolifhed. This accounts for the Oppoft- 
tion made to the Bill by Cromwell's own Family. 
We find that his Son in-Law, Cleypole, in the De- 
bate thereupon, told the Houfe, * That he, being 
young in Bufmefs, could only {tart the Game; and 
muft leave thofe, who had more Experience, to fol- 
low the Chace : That therefore he fhould only fay, 
That he had, formerly, thought it neceflary, in re- 
fpe6t to the Condition in which the Nation had 
been, that the Major-Generals fhould be intruded 
with the Authority which they had exercifed ; but, 
in the prefent State of Affairs, he conceived it in- 
confiftent with the Laws of England, and Liberties 
of the People, to continue their Power any longer/ 
Eotchr^ one of the Major-Generals, having fpoke 
in favour of himfelf and his Brethren, Col. Henry 
Cromwell, the Protector's Nephew, took him up 
very fmartly^ faying, * He obfervcd that many Gen- 
tlemen, and particularly the laft, feem'd to think it 
juft that, becaufe fome of the Cavaliers had done 

amifs, therefore all ftiould be punifhed. By the 

fame Argument, fays the Colonel, becaufe fome of 
the Major-Geiierals have acted unjuflly and againft 
Law, which I will undertake to prove, all of them 
deferve to be puniflied.' Hereupon Major General 
Kelfey call'd To Order ; and defiled that thofe who 
had done wrong mi^ht be named. Col. Cromwell^ 
with great Spirit and Refolution, feconded the Mo- 
tion ; and begg'd Leave of the Houfs, that he 
rnight nam? the Offenders ; and was fupported, 
herein, by Mr. James Ajhe. But this was over- 
ruled, as the Journals inform us, left it fhould in- 
terrupt the main Bufmefs of the Houfe : However, 
cm the 28th of this Month, the Debate was re- 
iumcd ; and there appearing a general Refentment 
a^ainft the Bill, the Major- Generals Party would 
have dropp'd the Debate for the prefent j but this 
was over- ruled, by a Majority of 128 againft 50. 
And, the next Day, a Motion for the fecond Read- 
jng pf the Bill having pafled in the Negative, by 

Of E N G L A N D. 55 

121 againil 78, it was refolvecl, by 124 againft 88, inter-wgnura 
that the fame be rejected. 1656 

The Writer of the Letters ' from whence we ^^J^" 
have extracted our Account of the foregoing De- 
bate, and who was himfelf a Member of this Par- 
liament, informs us, * That the rejecting of this 
Bill, which feems to have been effected principally 
by the Opposition made to it by fome of the Pro- 
tector's own Family, gave great Difgufl to the Ma- 
jor-Generals, and the Behaviour of Col. Cromwell 

more particularly fo.' ' Harry Crvrmvell^ fays 

he, bcin threatened, by the Major-Generals Par- 
ty, that the Protector would and did take ill what 
he had fpoke in the Houfe, went direclly to his 
Highnefs, and ftood to what he had faid manfully 
and wifely : And, to make it appear that he fpoke 
not without Book, had his black Book and Papers 
ready to make good what he had aflerted. His 
Highnefs anfwered him in Raillery, took a rich, 
Scarlet Cloak from his Back, and Gloves from his 
Hands, and gave them to Harry, who Strutted with 
his new Cloak and Gloves in the Houfe, the next 
Day; to the great Satisfaction and Delight of fome, 
and Trouble of others.' 

This public Affront thus put upon the Major- 
Generals, contributed, perhaps, not a little to their 
Oppofition, foon after, to the Propofal for making 
cf Cromwell King; and probably was an equal in- 
ducement to fome of the Cavalier Party in the 
Houfe, to vote for his Advancement to the Crown, 

But not to anticipate Matters too much, we (hall 
return to the Journals. 

February. This Month began with Debates upon 
Ways and Means \o raife Money for the Spani/b A Grant of 
War; which were carried on, de Die in Diem % '^^^L 
a Grand Committee of the whole Houfe, till the WaVwhh 
yth, when the Report being made, it was refolved, 
That, towards raifing 400,000 /. voted by the 
Houfe, there be an Afleflment, for three Months, 

9 through- 

t Mr. Vincent Gsokin, one of the Members for Inland, 

2Ar/, Vol. VI. p. 20 j 37,8. 

56 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. throughout England, to commence the 25th of 
1656, March next, after the Rate of 60,000 /. per Men- 

*- v ' Jem: That 15,000 /. be raifed, by Afleflment, in 
Fe ruary. Scotland, and 2O,OOO /. in Ireland, to be paid in be- 
fore the 24th of June next.' Then it was farther 
refolved, *That it be referred to the Grand Com- 
inittee appointed to prepare a Bill in purfuance of 
the foregoing Votes, to confider of a Claufe in the 
Preamble, or other Part thereof, for aflerting the 
Rights of the People, That no Monies ought to be 
levied without common Confent in Parliament.' 

The laft Refolution feems to have been diftafte- 
ful to the Protector and his Council ; for we find 
that, on the loth of this Month, the faid Refolu- 
tion being read again in the Houfe, and the Que- 
ftion put, That Leave be given to the Members to 
fpeak again concerning this Vote, the Houfe divided, 
when it was carried in the Affirmative, by 82 againft 
53. The Serjeant at Arms was then fent to fum- 
mon all the Members in IVeJlminfter-Hall, to at- 
tend the Service of the Houfe; and, after Debate, 
the Queftion being again put, That the Grand 
Committee appointed to prepare the Bill for the 
Afleflment of 6o,ooo/. for three Months, and other 
Sums, towards the raifing of 400,000 /. for carry- 
ing on the Spanijh War, do prepare and bring in 
the fame without inferting the Claufe directed by 
the Vote of the yth Inftant in that Bill, it patted in 
the Affirmative, by 132 againft 46. But, at the 
fame Time, it was agreed that that Claufe be put in 
a Bill for the Settlement of the ordinary Revenue : 
So that the Matter was not made much more plea- 
fing to the Protector and his Council by this Alte- 

Mr. WlitlocJte Mr. Whithcke having acled as Speaker, for fome 

receives the Time, during the Indifpofition of Sir Thomas Wtd- 

Thanksof the Jrington, on the i8th of this Month the Houfe 

' voted him their Thanks for his great Services in that 

Station, aod alfo in the Capacity of Ambafiador to 

Sweden : They likewife ordered the Commiifioners 


Of E N G L A-N D. 57 

of the Treafury to pay him 500 /. due on account 
of that Embafly, and 2OOO/. more as a Gratuity for 
his faithful Conduit therein. 


Hitherto there is nothing elfe particular in the Af- Thc p ar ij arnent 
fairs of this Month ; but that, on the I9th, the dine with the 
Speaker acquainted the Houfe, That the Lord Pro-Lo fd Prtcft* 
te&or had invited all the Members to dine with him, at Wbltt af ' 
at the Banq uetti ng- Houfe in Whitehall^ the next 
Day, being the public Thankfgiving for the happy 
Deliverance of his Highnefs's Perfon from the late 
dangerous and bloody Defign of Aflaflination, by 
the Difcovery of Synder combe's Plot. The Parlia- 
ment accepted the Invitation; when, as our Autho- 
rity exprefles it ", ' The Lord Protector gave them 
a moft Princely Entertainment, attended with rare 
Mufic, both of Inftruments and Voices.' This 
Compliment was fo well relifhed by the Houfe, 
that they were determined not to be behind-hand 
with his Highnefs in point of Complaifance. Ac- 

Feb. 23. Alderman Pact, one of the Reprefen- Alderman Prf 
tativrs of the City of London^ after taking Notice topiopofestomalw 
the Houfe of the unfettled State of the Nation 
this Time, and the Difcompofure of Men's Minds, 
with the ill Afpeft thefe had upon foreign Princes, 
Trade and Commerce, moved that the Lord Pro- 
tedtor might be defired to aiTume the Title of King, 
as the belt known and moft agreeable Kind of Go- 
vernment to the Englijh People : He then prefented 
to the Speaker a Paper, declaring it to be fomewhat 
come to his Hand, tending to the Settlement of the 
Nation, and of Liberty and Property, which he defi- 
red might be received and read x . This Motion oc- 


u The Public Initlligencrr, N. 7 1 , in which may be found a par- 
ticular Narrative of Syndcrcombe's Plot. 

* Thh Alderman Pack was Lord Mayor of the City of London, ia 
16155, and was then knighted by Cromwell, He is charged, by Hif-, with embezzlijrig the Charity-Money coileclcd for the Relief 
of the poor Proteftants \nPiedntent\ and alfo with being fevcral Thou- 
fand Pound* in Arrear to the Excife, in which Office he was a Commif- 
fioacr. It is added, That ail thefe Sins were forgiven him by Oom- 

58 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

fioned a great Debate ; but, at length, it was re- 
. _ folved in the Affirmative, by a Majority of 144 
March. Voices againft 54, and the Paper was read accord- 
ingly, intituled, The humble Addrefs and Remon- 
ftrance of the Knights, Citizens, and Rurgeffes now 
ajjenihled in the Parliament of this Commonwealth. ? 
The next Day the Debate was refumed ; when it 
was icfolved, on a Divifion of 100 againft 44, that 
the faid Remonftrance be read in Parts, beginning at 
the firft Article after the Preamble. It was alfo or- 
Which is agreed dered, ' That all the Members fhould conftantly at- thcHoufe. tend the Ser vice of the Houfe, and not depart with- 
out Leave : And the 25th of this Month was ap- 
pointed to be fet apart to feek the Lord for his Di- 
rection in this important Bufmefs.' 

March. The Addrefs and Remonftrance above- 
mentioned, engaged the Attention of the Parliament 
almoft every Day this Month. Many Additions 
and. Alterations were made in it, but none of them 
fignificant enough to mention here, except that, on 
the 26th, they refolved to give it a new arid more 
moderate Name, by ftyling it only The humble Pe- 
tition and Advice, &c. 

The next Day it was ordered that the Speaker, 
attended by all the Members, mould prefent it to 
the Lord Protestor ; and, at the fame Time, fhew 
the Grounds and Reaforis inducing them to oft'er it. 
Then a Committee was appointed to acquaint him, 

* That 

icifll, in ConfiJeration of his undertaking to make this bold Propo- 
fal to the Houfe. HeatISs Chronicle, p. 386. 

Narrative of this Parliament, before cited, p. 17, 

Mr. Ludhtu writes, ' That a Piopofal of this Nature had been 

made before by Col. 'Jefbfon, but was laid afide upon the firft Men- 

' tion of it ; and that Cromwell, to reward his good Intentions, fent 

him Ambaffador to Sweden. There is no Notice taken in the 

Journals of any Motion of this Kind but Alderman Pack's. How- 
ever, Jepbfcn did vote for Cramiveirs being King, as appears by the 
foregoing Lift of the Parliament, p. 23, and was actually fent to 
Sweden in the Capacity Mr. Ludloia mentions. 

y Mr. Wbithcke informs us, That this Addrefs was intended to 
have been offered to the Houfe by himfclf ; and that he declined it, 
as not liking feveral Things contained therein 5 but Sir Cbrijhpher 
faiky to gain Honour, prefentcd it firft to the Houfe. 

Memorials, p. 647. 

Of E N G L A N D. 59 

' That the Houfe having Occafion to wait upon him, i n ter-regnunu 

on fome important Affairs, they defired he would 1657. 

name a Time and Place for that Purpofe. The 31 ft v. v ** 

of this Month being appointed accordingly, at the March. 

Banquet ting- Houfe y Whitehall, the Speaker and the 

whole Houfe went up thither with their Petition ; 

where the Lord Protector, attended by the Prefi- 

dent of the Council, and other Officers of Stare, 

were aflembled. After a learned Speech made to 

his Highnefs by Mr. Speaker, he prefented, in the 

Name of the Parliament, the faid humble Petition 

and Advice: Which was read by Henry Scohell, Efq-, 

the Clerk : And that being done, his Highnefs gave 

Anfwer thereto to this Effect * * * *. 

Thus far the Journals : But they leave us at a 

Lofs as to the Refult of this Meeting. The Hiatus, 
however, is, in fome Mcafure, fupplicd by one of J" r Jj e ^.57^Jhe 
the Diaries of thefe Times z , which informs us. Lord Protetfor 
' That the Speaker took this Occafion to commend the Parliament^ 
the Title and Office of a King, in this Nation, for JjJjJ^^J" 
Several Reafons ; as that a King firft fettled Chrifti- fa mc t h e Title 
anity in this Iflund : That the Title had been longof King, 
received and approved by our Anceftors, who, by 
Experience, found it to be confident with their Li- 
berties : That it was a Title beft known to our 
Laws, moft agreeable to our Conftitution, and to 
the Temper of the Englijb People : And that thefe 
Things he made evident, at large, by divers grave 
and weighty Arguments. 

4 Afterwards he proceeded to open the Senfeof the 
Parliament upon the fevcral other Particulars con- 
tained in that Writing, which they came to prcfent 
to his Highnefs, in order to the Settlement of the 
Three Nations.' 

' In Return to this the Lord Protector, after an Crctmoell <kftres 
engroffed Copy of the Petition had been prefented to Tirne to feclt 
him, was pleafed to deliver himfelf in a Speech, ex- pod forCoun- 

/r i /- n- /" A r * c ' thoeupon. 

prefling very much of Piety, Gravity, and good Af- 
fection to the Parliament and People of thefe Na- 

He obferved that the Welfare, Peace, an,l Settle- 

Mercurius Pititicut, N. 355. 

60 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Into-regnum. men t of Three Nations, and all the richTreafure of 

^ J^jL' w the beft People of the World being involved therein, 

March. ^ ought -to beget in him the greateft Reverence and 

Fear of God, that ever poireflcd any Man upon 

Earth; with feveral other Expreflions intimating his 

Fear and Reverence before the Almighty, upon this 

fo great and folemn an Occafion. 

' That among all the Burdens which God had 
laid upon him, he, to his Comfort, had found the 
good Hand of God aflifting him, when he knew not 
which Way to ftand under their Weight, but by 
looking up to his good Pleafure contained therein. 

' That, before he came to any Refolution, his 
Intent was, firft, to feek God, who had been his 
Guide hitherto, to have an Anfwer put into his 

' That if he fhould enter upon fuch a Work as 
this without due Confideration, to pleafe Humours 
that are of this World ; without feeking fuch an An- 
fwer from God as might prove a Ble fling to the 
Perfon ufed, and make up the noble, worthy, and 
honeft Intentions of thofe that had prepared and ef- 
fected the Work, it would feem to proceed from 
Luft and Arguments of Self; and that, mould his 
Motives be fuch, the Iflue might prove fad to them 
and the Three Nations, who, he believed, intended 
well in this Bufinefs ; and had none but honeft and 
fincere Ends therein, as the Glory of God, the Good 
of the People, and the Rights of thefe Nations. 

That therefore, fmce they had made fuch a Pro- 
grefs in the Work, he defired fome fhort Time to 
afk Counfel of God and his own Heart: Arid he 
hoped that neither the Humours of any weak or un- 
wiie People, nor the Defires of any who might have 
a Lufting after Things that were not good, mould 
fleer him to any other Anfwer but what might be 
ingenuous, and for the Good of thole that he and 
they ferved, and were made to ferve. And con- 
cluded, That as the Thing well deferved the utmoft 
Deliberation, fo he mould think himfelf bound to 
give as fpeedy an ArUwer as he could.' 


Of E N G L A N D. 61 

Thefe, fays our Journalift, are only fome {hort Intcr-regnunr 
Heads of what was much more copioufly and ele- 
gantly fpoken, by his Highnefs, to the Parliament, U "^ v ,^ 
with that Majefty and Authority, which appeared 
moft eminent in all his public Actions ; in the Re- 
petition whereof he had only to crave Pardon, left 
he had been injurious to the Dignity of fo wife and 
fo ferene a Perlbn.' 

Obferving only, from the Style of the foregoing 
Extracts, That Tyrants never want Flatterers, we 
return to the Journals of the Houfe, which inform 
us, That 

The Protector fent a Letter to the 
Speaker, defiring the Houfe to appoint a Committee 
to attend him that Day at Whitehall; which being 
done accordingly, on the next the Lord-Commif- 
fioner JVbitlocke reported from them, That they 
had waited on his Highnefs, according to the Order 
of the Houfe, and that he expreffed himfelf to the 
Committee to this Effect * * * *. 

Here is another Hiatus in the Journals; the more 
to be regretted, fmce we have it not in our Power to 
fupply the Deficiency from any of the Contemporary 
Authorities : And we can only fuppofe, that the Pro- 
tector gave the Committee fome Reafons agaimt 
their Offer of making him King ; and defired them 
to carry their Petition and Advice back to the Houfe 
for Amendment ; becaufe the next Day they fell into 
Debate on this Matter ; and a Queftion being pro- 
pofed, That this Houfe doth adhere td their humble 
Petition and Advice, prefented to his Highnefs the 
Lord Protector, it was refolved in the Affirmative, 
by a Majority of 78 againft 65 : But at the fame 
Time it was ordered, ' That the prefent Debate 
fhould be adjourned to their next Meeting, to be 
entered on the firft Bufmefs, and nothing elfe to 
intervene.' Accordingly, 

On the yth, the Debate was renewed in the 
Houfe i when we find that they ftill adhered to their 


6 2 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. laft Vote, and appointed another, and a more riu- 
* 6 57 merous, Committee to attend the Lord Protector 
^""""""^T ' with the following Refolution : c That the Parlia- 
ment having lately prefented their humble Petition 
The Houfe ap- an ^ Advice to his Highnefs, whereunto they had not 
point a Commit- as yet icceived Satisfaction ; and the Matters con- 
tee to wait on tained in that Petition and Advice being agreed up- 
fwer- n "on by the Great Council and Reprefentative of the 

Three Nations ; and which, in their Judgments, 
were moft conducing to the Good of the People 
thereof, both in their Spiritual and Civil Concern- 
ments ; they therefore thought fit to adhere thereto, 
and to put his Highnefs in Mind of the great Obli- 
gation which refted upon him, in refpect of that 
Advice ; and again to defire him to give his Aflent 

The next Day the Parliament, in a Body, attend- 
ed the Lord Protector in the Eanquetting- Houfe at 
Whitehall, when the Speaker prefented to him the 
foregoing Refolution. His Anfwer on that Occa- 
But he de.lres f lon j s not enterec } j n t | )e Journals; but the laft 

further Time, . A . . . r TM t rr- 

and raifes many Clte d Authority a informs us, I hat his Highnefs was 
. pleafed to make a Return by a Speech, with his 
wonted Piety, Wifdom, and Moderation, to the 
following Effect : 

4 That no Man could put a greater Value than 
he did, and always fhould do, upon theDefires and 
Advice of the Parliament; readily acknowledging, 
that it was the Advice of the Parliament of thefe 
Three Nations. 

* That he looked upon the Things advifed to, in 
the general Notion of them, as tending to the Set- 
tlement of the chiefeft Things that could fall into 
the Hearts of Men to defire or endeavour after; and 
this at fuch a Time, when the Nation was big with 
Expectation of any Thing that might add to their 
better Being; and therefore that he muft needs put 
a very high Efteem upon, and have a very reverend 
Opinion of, any Thing that came from them j and 


Mercuriui PeHiicus, N. 356, 

Of E N G L A N D. 63 

that fo he hath had of that Inftrument prefented to later- regnum. 

him, as he had already exprefled himfelf; and that 

what he exprerted had been from a very honeft Heart 

toward the Parliament and Public, which (he faid) 

he (pake not to compliment them, being part all 

Confederations of that Kind, feeing both himfelf and 

the Parliament muft be real now, if ever. 

4 That in this Bufinefs they laid a Burden upon^a 
Man confcious of his own Infirmities and Difabili- 
ties ; ami therefore he hoped that it would be no 
Evil in him to meafure their Advice and his own In- 
firmities, feeing thcfe would have fome Influence 
upon Confcience ; Confcience in him that receives 
Talents, to know how he might anfwer the Truft 
of them : That he hath had, and ftill hath, fuch a 
Confcience ; and therefore that when he thought he 
had had an Opportunity, lately, to make an Anfwer, 
he made that Anfwer; being a Perfon that had been 
before, and then, and fmce, lifting up his Heart to 
God, to know what might be his Duty at fuch a 
Time as this, and upon fuch an Occafion and Trial 
as this was to him. ' 

' That he knew great Place, great Authority, to 
be a great Burden ; and that he knew a Man who 
was convinced, in his Confcience, that nothing lefs 
would enable him to the Difcharge of it, than Af~ 
fiftance from above ; and that it concerned fuch a 
Perfon, fo convinced and fo perfuaded, to be right 
with the Lord in fuch an Undertaking. And that 
if he undertook any Thing not in Faith, he might 
ferve them in his own Unbelief, and fo be the un- 
profitableft Servant that ever a People or a Nation 

' That he defired Leave therefore to afk Coun- 
fcl, being ready to render a Reafon of his own Ap- 
prehenfions, which, haply, might be overfwayed by 
better Apprehenfions. 

4 That as to the Point of Liberty, he acknow- 
ledged they had made Provifion for it, both Spiri- 
tual and Civil ; the greateit Proviiion that ever was 


64 ?#<? Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- rcgnum. ' That himfelf defired Liberty to vent his own 

1657. Doubts, and his own Fears and Scruples, though 

^-""V"" 1 "^ haply, in fuch Cafes as thefe were, the World had 

Ai " ' judged that a Man's Confcience ought to know no 

Scruple; but that his did; and that he durft not 

diflemble ; and therefore they who were knowing 

in the Ground of their own Actions, would beft be 

able to meafure Advice to others. 

' That there were many Things in that Inftru- 
jnent, befides that one of the Name and Title of 
King) which required much Information as to his 
Judgment; and that it was they, and none but they, 
that could capacitate him to receive Satisfaction in 
them : That otherwife he muft fay, He was not in- 
formed, and fo not ac"led, as he knew they intended 
he fliould be, and as every Man in the Nation 
fhould be. 

' That he could not tell what other Return to 
make to them than this, That he was ready to give 
' them a Reafon if they would capacitate him to give 
it, and themfelves to receive it, and to do that in 
. the other Things, if they would inform him a little 
more particularly than the Vote palTed Yefterday, 
and now read to him : And that he hoped, when he 
underftood the Grounds of thofe Things, the whole 
being not fo much for their Good and his.own, as 
for the Good of the Nation, there would be no 
Doubt but that they might, even in thofe Particu- 
lars, find out fuch Things as might anfwer their 
Duty, his own, and all their Duties, to thofe whom 
they both ferved. 

* That this was what, with a great deal of 
Affection, Honour, and Refpeft, he offered then 
unto them.' 

A Committee On the gth, the Speaker having reported the 
appointed to re- Tranfa&ions of the foregoing Day, it was refolved, 
ceive his Scru- t That a Committee be appointed to wait on the 
?es * Lord Protector, and to receive from his Highnefs 

his Doubts and Scruples touching any of the Parti- 
culars contained in the humble Petition and Advice 


Of E N G L A N D. 65 

formerly prefented ; and, in Anfwer thereunto, to Inter-recnum. 
offer to his Highnefs Reafons for his Satisfaction, l6 57- 
and for the Maintenance of the Refolutions of the r ~~*~T^ 
Houfe : And fuch Particulars as they could not fa- p 

tisfy his Highnefs in, to report to the Parliament.* 

In purfuance of this Order the Committee waited 
on the Lord Protestor, but were put off, from Day 
to Day, as the Journals inform us, on account oj 
an Indifpofition of Health in his Highnefs, and by 
rcafon of a new Plot juft then difcovered againft 
him c ; fo that it was not till the 1 6th that they were 
admitted to an Audience. The principal Speakers 
on this Occafion were the two Chief Juftices, 
Glynne and St. John, Mr. ffflutlffcJb t anc of the Com- 
iniilioners of the Treafury, Mr. Lijle and Mr. Na- 
thaniel Plenties, Commiffioners of the Great Seal, 
Lord Brogbill, Mr. Lentball, Mafter of the Rolls, 
Sir Charles ff^otfe/ey^ Sir Richard Onflow ', and Col. 
Philip Jones. 

VOL. XXI. E The 

c This was an intended Infurreftion of the Fifth MoAarcky-Mtn, 
heaJtd by Major- General Harrifon, Colonel Rich, Major Dan-vers, 
and Vice Admiral Laivfon, who were taken into Cuftody of the Ser- 
jeant at Arms ; and for the Difcovery of this Plot, Secretary Tbur- 
he received the Parliament's Thanks. 

This new.Secl of Enthufiafts called themfelvcs The Remnant ivb* 
tad -waited for the blcJJ'cd Appearance and Hope. The Device of their 
Standard, which was brought into the Houfe by the Secretary, was 
a Lion Couchant, gules, in a Field argent ; with this Motto, I'/ko 
Jball roufe bim up f Gen. xlix. 9. One of the Perfons that had 
been apprehended on this Occafion, being afked by the Speaker, 
What was meant by this Lion ? anfwercd, " The Lion of the Tribe 
ofjudab" This Standard they filled The that God bad gi- 
ven to bit poor f tattered People : They invited all of their Opinion to 
gather together into one, and to be united in the Work ; intending, 
with Sword in Hand, according to their Light and Apprehenfion of 
Things, (as they declared in Print) to give their Judgment, in re- 
fpecl of Power, Laws, Government, Exercife of Magiftracy, Ad- 
tniniftrdtion of Juftice, Rights and Privileges. 

' And ho A- they intended to do this, they fet forth in thefe feveral 
Particulars, vix. 

1. ' By executing Vengeance upon the Beaft and the falfe Prophet, 
the Kings of the Earth and their Armies and all the Inhabitants 
and Powers of Btbjlon j which Name they failCn'd upon all Powers 
bcfide their own. 

2. ' By placing the Supreme LcgiHative Power in Cbrift. 

3. ' By crofting a Sanbedrnr, fas they c.u'M it) or a S.-.'rem* Coun- 
cflof Men, to be chofen by thenjfclvos, to b~ the Rcprefentativc of 
the whole Body of the Saints, on the Bchah of Cat if,, wiiofc Pay 


66 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter-regnum. The Arguments offered by this Committee, witli 
1657. the Protestor's Anfwers, were printed at this Time ; 
* v~- J they were alfo reprinted in April, 1660, upon the 
April. t^gn approaching Reftitution of Monarchy, and 
again in 1680 and 1742, but all extremely incorrect. 
The Journals, of the I5th of this Month, help us to 
account for this unlucky Circumftance, by informing; 
us, That the Committee's Notes not being perfectly 
tranfcribed, they prayed further Time for that Pur- 
tLod P ofe ' We flla11 therefore endeavour to fupply this 
Proteftor there- Deficiency in the beft Manner we are able j and 
upon. where any of Cromwell's Speeches, on this Occa- 

fion, are entered in the Journals, or the authentic 
Diaries of the Times, give them from thofe Autho- 

Having premifed thus much, we proceed to the 
Matter of the Debate, which was opened by Mr. 
Whitlocke, Chairman of the Committee, to this 

May it pleafe your Highnefs, 

Wr. JWtitkcke, < I underftand that, by Order of the Parliament, 
this Committee are tied up to receive only what your 
Highnefs (hall be pleafed to offer, as to your Doubts 
or Scruples upon this Paper : The very Words of 
the Order are, That the Committee have Power to 
attend your Highnefs, to receive from your Highnefs 
your Doubts and Scruples touching any of the Particu- 
lars contained in the humble Petition and Advice, for- 
merly prefented ; and, in Anfwer thereunto, to offer 


they faid, was now come ; and therefore that they were to aft as 
Princes under Cbrift, and to govern according to their Light. 

Comment Journals. Public* Intelligencer, N. 79. 
Mercurius Politicus, N. 403. 

There are alfo in the 5th and 6th Volumes of Tburloe's State- 
Papers, and in Nickel/is Collection of Letters, &c. addre/ed to Oliver 
Crormvell, many Papers and Examinations relating to this Plot, and 
the Principles of this wild Seel, to whom Mr. Butler feems to allude 
in thefq Lines, 

Some -were far fettir.g up a King, 
' But all the reft for no fuch "Thing, 

Vnlefs King Jefus. 

Hudihras, publifhed by Dr. Grey, Vd, II, p, 244. 

Of E N G L A N D. 67 

tb your Highnefs Reafons for your Satisfafiion y and Inter-regnulh. 
for the Maintenance of the Refolutions of the Houfe ; ^_ 7 "^ 
and fuch Particulars as we cannot Jatisfy your High- ^j^ 
nefs in, that ice may report the Jame to the Parlia- 

4 Your Highnefs is pleafed to mention the Gb- 
vernment, as it now is ; and feem, to fome of our 
Apprehenfions, as if you made that an Objection,* 
If the Government be welt, why do you change it ? If 
that be intended by your Highnefs as an Obje&ion 
in the general, I fuppofe the Committee will give 
you Satisfaction.' 

The Lord Commiffioner IVhithckt having of- 
fered thus much, the Protestor faid, 

' He thought all of them met with a very good 
Inclination to come to fome Iflue in that grand Af- 
fair; and he could afiure them he had all the Rea- 
fon and Argument in the World to move him to it, 
and was very ready to be guided by them in thci 
Way of Proceeding; only he confefled that, ac- 
cording to his own Thoughts in preparing for fuch 
a Work as this, he had formed this Notion of it 
to himfelf : That having met them twice, at the 
Committee firft, and returned them that Anfwer 
that he gave them then, and the Houfe a fecond 
Time, he did perceive, that the Favour and Indul- 
gence the Houfe fhew'd him in that, was, that he 
might receive Satisfaction : That he knew they 
might have been pofitive in the Thing, and faid, 
They had done enough, if they had only made fuch 
an Addrefs to him : That they might have infifted, 
That by only offering it, he could plainly fee his 
Satisfaction was aimed at : That he, really and fin- 
cerely, thought fo ; and that, truly, he thought 
there was one Claufe in the Paper that did a little 
warrant this Notion, To offer fuch Reafons for his 
Satisfaftion, and for the Maintenance of the Refolu- 
tions of the Houje. 

* That it was true, the Occafion of all this was 

the Anfwer he had made : That this occafioned a 

Committee to come thither, in order to his Satis- 

E 2 faction 3 

Inter- regnum, 



68 *fbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

faction ; and that if they would draw out his 
Reafons from him, he would offer them ; but he 
doubted, on his Part, if they ftiould proceed that 
Way, it would put him a little out of the Method 
of his own Thoughts ; and it being mutual Satis- 
faction, that was endeavoured, if they would do him 
the Favour, it would more agree with his Me- 
thod, to leave them, firft, to confider their own 
Thoughts of it together. 

The Prote&or having paufed here, the Lord 
Commifiloner thought it proper to exprefs himfelf, 
briefly, after this Manner : 

Mr. mitloeke. The Committee that are commanded by the 
Parliament, and are here prefent to wait upon your 
Highnefs, I do fuppofe, cannot undertake to give 
the Reafons of the Parliament for what they have 
done ; but any Gentleman here can efive his own 
particular Opinion, for your Highnefs's Satisfac- 
tion ; and if you will be pleafed to go in the Way 
\vhichyouhave propofed, and, either in general or 
in particular, to require Satisfaction from the Com- 
mittee, I fuppofe we {hall be ready to do the bell 
we can to give it you.' 

The Proteaor took the Word, and faid, 

fcord Protttfor. ' ^ think if this be fo, then I fuppofe nothing can 
be faid by you, but what the Parliament hath dila- 
ted to you ; yet I think it is clearly exprefled, That 
the Parliament intends Satisfaction ; then is it as 
clear, That there muft be Reafons and Argumenta 
that have Light and Conviction in them, in order 
for Satisfaction. 

4 I fpeak for myfelf herein ; I hope you will think 
no otherwife : I fay, it doth appear fo to me, That 
you have the Liberty of your own Reafons : I 
think, if I mould cite any of them, I cannot calf 
this the Reafon of the Parliament. In Parliament 
tary Determinations and Conclufions, by Votes of 
the feveral Particulars of the Government, that 
Reafon is dilated and diffufed, and every Man hath 
a Share of it - t and therefore, when they have deter- 


Of E N G L A N D. 69 

inin'd fuch a Thing, certainly it was Reafon that i ntc r-regnum. 
Jed them up into it. I do very refpectfully rcprefent 1657. 
to you, That I have a general Diflatisfaction to * -v -* 
the Thing ; and I defire that I may be informed April, 
in theGrounds that led you, who, I prefume, are all 
Perfons well fatisfied with the Thing, and every Part 
of it; and if you will not be pleafed to think that fi, 
1 will not farther urge it upon you : To proceed 
that Way will be a Favour to me; otherwife, I (halt 
deal plainly with you, it doth put me out of the 
Method of my own Conceptions : And then I fhall 
beg that I may have an Hour's Deliberation, and 
that we may meet again in the Afternoon.' 

Here the Lord Chief Juftice St. John acquainted Lord Chi-f Ju- 
the Lord Proteftor, That the Parliament had fent St. John. 
them to wait upon his Highnefs, to give him any 
Satisfaction that their Abilities could fuggeft : That 
the whole Paper confided of many Heads : And 
that if his Highnefs intended Satisfaction, the Pro- 
pofitions being general, they could give but gene- 
ral Satisfaction, for which they were ready.' The 
Protector hereupon went on : ' If you will pleafe to. 
give me Leave, I do agree the Thing is general, as 
it falls under the Notion of a Settlement : That's a 
General that confifts of many Particulars j and tru- 
ly, if you call it by the Title it bears, there it is 
general ; it is Advice, Defires and Advice : And, 
the Truth is, that which I have made my Objec- 
tion to, is but one Thing as yet ; only the laft 
Time I had the Honour to meet the Parliament, I 
did offer to them, That they would put me into a 
Condition to receive Satisfaction to the Particulars : 
No QuefHon, I might eafily offer fomething parti- 
cular tor Debate, if I thought that would anfwer 
the End ; for, truly, I know my End and yours is 
the fame ; that is, to bring Things to an Ufue one 
Way or other, that we may know where we are ; 
that we may attain that general End, which is a 
Settlement : The End is in us both ; and I durft 
contend with any one Perfon in the World, That 
it is not more in his Heart than in mine. I could 
go to fonic Particulars to afk a Queftion, or aflc a 
E 3 Rca* 

jo 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jater-regnum. Reafon of the Alteration, which would well enough 
l6 57- let you into the Bufmefs ; yet I fay it doth not an- 

*""T V 7""" J fwer me. I confefs, I did not fo ftrictly examine 
that Order of Reference, or whether I read it or 
not, I cannot tell ; if you will have it that Way, 
I fhall, as well as I can, make fuch an Objection 
as may occafion fome Anfwer to it, though perhaps 
I mail object weakly enough. I ihall very freely 
fubmit to you.' 

Lord Chief Ju- The Lord Chief Juftice St. John and the Lord 
flice St. John Commiflioner Fiennes^ owning, here, to the Protec- 
***'^ ' That they found they were impower'd to offer 
any Reafons that they thought fit, either for the Sa- 
tisfaction of his Highnefs, or Maintenance of what 
the Parliament had given him their Advice in ; and 
that they thought they were rather to offer to his 
Highnefs the Reafons of the Parliament, if his High- 
nefs's Diflatisfaction was to the Alteration of Go- 
vernment in general, or in particular ;' the Lord 
Protector told them, ' He was very ready to fay, he 
had no Difiatisfadion : That it had pleafed the Par- 
liament to find out a Way, though it were of Alte- 
ration, to bring thefe Nations into a good Settle- 
ment; and that, perhaps, they might have judged 
the Settlement, we were in, was not fo much for 
the great End of Government, the Liberty and Good 
of the Nations, and the Prefervation of all thofe 
honeft Interefts that had been engaged in that Caufe: 
He faid, * He had no Exception in the general, that 
the Parliament had thought fit to take into their Con- 
fideration a new Settlement, or Government; but 
that having done it as they had, and made him fo 
far interefted as to make fuch an Overture to him, 
he mould be very glad if they were pleafed to let 
him know their Reafon for making the Alteration 
fuch as it was: That though he could not prefume 
that he had any Thing to offer to them that might 
convince them ; yet, if they would take it in good 
Part, he mould offer fomewhat as to every Particu- 
lar : That as to the firft Particular, he was clear as 
to the Ground of it, being fo put to him as it had 
That he thought fome of the Grounds, 


>/ E N G L A N D. 71 

ITOOR which it was done, would very well lead him Inter-regnum. 
into fuch Objections or Doubts as he might offer, and 
would be a very great Help to him therein ; and that 
if they would have him ftate this, that, or the other 
Doubt that might arife methodically, he ftiould do it/ 

Hereupon the Lord Commiffioner/i^zV/?^* beganMr. 
the Argument in this Manner : ' 1 am very much 
aflured, that all this Company is come with the fame 
Affection, and faithful Refpect to the publick Settle- 
ment, as your Highnefs hath been pleafed to exprefs. 
For my Part, I do, with a great deal of Clearnefs 
and Faithfulnefs, and, in my particular Apprehen- 
fion, conceive that the Method which your High- 
ne(s mentioned to proceed in, we may anfwer for ; 
and if any Gentleman be of another Opinion, let 
him be pleafed to cor reel: me in it. 

* The Parliament taking Confideration of the 
prefent Government, and the Inftrument that doth 
eftablifli it, feem to be of Opinion that it was very 
fit there mould be fome Courfe taken for a Settle- 
ment in the Government of the Nation, by the Su- 
preme Legiflative Power: Your Highnefs and the 
Parliament concurring together, they found the In- 
itrumcnt of Government, in the Original and Foun- 
dation of it, to require a Settlement by the Supreme 
Legiflative Power, in regard the Original of the 
other, as I apprehended by fome Gentlemen's De- 
bates upon it, might be an Occafion of fome Doubts, 
and of lefs Stability, if it were left to continue upon 
the fame Foundation as it now is. 

4 That it will not be fo clear a Settlement and 
Foundation for the Prefervation of the Rights and 
Liberties of the Nation, as if we came to a Settle- 
ment by the Supreme Legiflative Power; upon that 
Ground, I fay, it was taken Lnto Confideration ; and 
a Settlement brought to Effect, upon very folemn, 
full, and candid Debates, among themfelves, in 

Their Intentions, I fuppofe, were only thefc: To 
provide for the Safety and Peace of the Nations here- 
after y to provide for the Rights and Liberties) both 
Spiritual and Civil t of the People of theft Nations: 

72 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Tnter-rcgnum. And, in order to make the beft Provifion they could 
. _^- ; for thefe great Concernments of the People, the Pe- 
tition and Advice, which they have humbly prefent- 
ed to your Highnefs, was brought to a Determina- 
tion by them. 

6 As for that Particular which your Highnefs did 
formerly intimate, when the Parliament did attend 
upon you, and the Committee of the Parliament 
fmce, and that which you are now pleafed to inti- 
mate, concerning the Title, I do humbly apprehend 
the Grounds thereof to be thefe : 

' The Foundation of the Title of ProteHor being 
not known by the Law, but being a new Title, it 
was thought that the Title which was known by the 
Law of England for many Ages, many Hundreds of 
Years together received, the Law fitted to it, and 
that to the Law, might be of more Certainty, clear- 
er Eftablifhment, and more conformable to the Laws 
of the Nation ; that this Title, I fay, fhould be that 
of King , rather than that other of Prctcttor. 

' There is very much as to the EfTence of the Bu- 
finefs, as fome Gentlemen did apprehend, that the 
Title fhould be a known Title; that which hath 
been, in all thefe Times and Ages, received ; that 
which every particular Perfon hath Occafion to know, 
and his Rights applied to it: The general Rights of 
the People, and their Liberties, have an Application 
likewife, to that Name; which Application cannot 
be fo clear and certain to fo new a Title, as that of 

' I have heard fome Gentlemen argue, that the 
Title of Proteftor is grounded only upon the Ori- 
ginal and Foundation as it now ftands; but the Title 
of Kingi befides the Conftitutions to which it (hall 
be made to relate, will likewife have a Foundation 
upon the old and known Laws of the Nation : So 
that there will be both the prefent Conftitution, and 
Jikewife the antient Foundation of the Laws of Eng- 
land, to be the Bafis of the Title of King : 

' What Inconveniences Changes of this Nature 
may bring with them, can hardly, in every Particu- 
lar, be forefeen j but it is imagined that there will be 


Of E N G L A N D. 73 

many, which pofiibly we may not be able before- Interregnum. 

hand to comprehend : Therefore there feems to be J ^57 

more of Certainty and Stability, and of the Supreme <ta *T v T~^ 

Authority and Civil Sanction, upon the Title of 

King, than upon the other of Proteftor: This I 

humbly apprehend to be one Reafon concerning 

both the Eftablifhment of the whole Petition and 4d- 

i)ice> and alfo that Particular, which I think is the 

firft Part of it, to which your Highnefs feemed to 


The Lord Commiflioner Whitlocke was feconded 
herein by Mr. Lentball^ Mafter of the Rolls. * 

May it pleafe ymir Higbnefs^ 

I am very glad there is fuch a Latitude that we Mr. Ltntball. 
may fhcw ourlelves here: I know the Parliament 
intends to give your Highnefs all the Satisfaction that 
may be: And truly, 1 fay, upon the firvt Head, 
which your Highnefs is picafed to call a Title, as if 
it were a bare Title, I muft humbly crave Pardon 
if I do not think it, neither did the Houfe think it 
fo; but it carries more in it of Weight than a meer 
Title: For, upon due Confideration, you fliall find, 
that the whole Body of the Law is carried upon this 
Wheel j it is not a Thing that Hands on the Top 
meerly, but runs through the whole Life and Veins 
of the Law: Look upon all our Laws ever fmce we 
had Laws ; look upon all the Conftitution , ftill there 
is fuch an Intereft, not of the Title, but of the 
Name of King. Befides, the Title, that's not the 
Thing; for the Title you may rather tie to the Per- 
fon, than to the Thing ; but the Word King doth 
fignify the Perfon. 

4 Now, Sir, we fee, in all the Ways of our Pro- 
ceedings, in the maintaining of the Rights, Proper- 
ties and Interefh of the People, and of the Preroga- 
tive of the Chief Magiftrate, that the very Office 


a Speaker of the Houfe of Commons In February, 1648 ; when it 
was rcfolv'd, That it hath been found by Experience, that the Of- 
fice nt .1 K;r.g in thii Nation, and to have the Power thereof in any 
Single Perfon, is unnecellafy, burthenfome, and dangerous to the 
Liberty, S.ifrty, and public Intereft of the People of this Nation ; and 
therefore ou^ht tu be aboliflud.* Stt our iSri vol. p, 554. 

74 ^fa Parliamentary HISTORY 

Interregnum, carries on the Bufinefs, and not the Title; arid yet 
l6 57- it muft be fuch a Title too, as implies the Office 

*- 7~ l '~ ~~* and makes the Office fuitable to the Law : It's the 
p Office that doth fignify the Perfon, not the Perfon 

the Office. I (hall crave your Highnefs's Pardon, if 
I fpeak any thing amifs. We fee that the very Of- 
fice carries it on, and not the Perfon, yet that Of- 
fice rrtuft have a Suitablenefs. I have obferved all 
along, that we have had many Debates that have 
arifen in this Nation about the Thing ; but the 
Ground and Reafon why they have adhered to this 
Title, was for the Maintenance of their Liberties, 
not for the Change of the Office. 

' I muft confefs, I do not fee that the other Title 
of Protestor will do the fame Thing, that having 
no further Latitude, nor Extent, but the very In- 
ftrument ; it goes no further, for the very Inftru- 
ment is the Foundation of it, and it can find no other 
Original; we have had thofe Names heretofore, yet 
never grounded upon the Thing itfelf, but grounded 
upon the Office of a King. The Proteftor had no 
Office or Duty to perform, but what was under the 
Office and Duty of a King; it's very true, it is not 
fo now, certainly, for you have now a Title upon 
that Foundation which is the Inftrument, and it 
can reach no further : It is a Title that I cannot 
fee, I muft confefs, but that we may have, under 
it, a good Magiftrate and good Officers ; but it 
may extend whither it will; it hath no Limit at all ; 
and if the Chief Magiftrate fhould prove otherwife 
than good, you have no Limits to it by any Rule 
of Law that I underftand : If you pleafe, give me 
Leave to tell you, that the very Inftrument does 
give a Foundation to the Title of Protestor, I am 
iure, to crofs, if he pleafe, the moft Fundamental 
Points of the Law. 

* There was a Time, when a Prince of this Na- 
tion b , a very late Time too, would change a Name; 
and it was a very (lender Change, for it was but 
from that of King of England to King of Great- 
Britain ; and this was prefented to the Parliament. 


b Xing James I. See the Proceedings on this Affair, fut, At;r.s 

Of E N G L A N D. 7- 

It was debated many Days, and it was refolved Inter-regnui. 
there, and fettled, That they could not change it; l6 57- 
there was fo much Hazard in that Change, they S "~T JT 
knew not but that all their Rights and Liberties 
might be thereby altered ; and when the King fa\v 
he could not obtain it of the Houie, he declared by 
Proclamation, That he never intended to take any 
Name upon him that fhould raife any Doubt as to 
the Liberties and Privileges of Parliament; and cau- 
fed that Proclamation to be very cunningly printed, 
and put among the Statutes, though indeed it was 
none of them: tfut becaufe there was Danger, he 
laid it down willingly ; only, fays he, your Di- 
vines, in the Pulpit, thall pray for me by the Tide of 
King of Great -Britain^ and Ambafiadors (hall make 
their Addrefs by that Name ; but the Name, in 
your Laws, I will not alter. 

* In the Parliament of 1653, there was a Que- 
ftion, Whether they (hould not alter the Name of 
Parliament c , and call it, The Reprefentative of the 
People ? But the whole Houfe went upon this 
Ground, That by changing the Name of Parlia- 
ment to a Representative, they did not know how it 
might change the very Couilb, Ground, and Reafon 
of Parliaments ; there is a great deal of Impor- 
tance in the very Name : 1 remember a very honour- 
able Pcrfon was then very earneft for it ; I mean, 
for having this Name changed, and he fhew'd ma- 
ny Reafons for it ; but hearing the Debates and 
Reafons againlt it, he fat down, and was fatisfied ; 
I think I may name him, it was my Lord Ireton^ 
who faid, He was fatisfied it was not fit to be done 
at that Time. 

' It was a famous Story in every Man's Mouth 
heretofore, when there was but little Intention to 
change the Law; I fay, it was a general Resolution 
given, by the Lords, Nolumus Leges Angliamntarc: 
It's doubted, yea conceived impoilible, to annex the 
Laws and the Title of Prttetlor together : This I 
muft fay, we come now with an Intention for a per- 
fccl Settlement, fuch as may give Safety to the Na- 
c In our Twentieth Volum^, p. 182. 

76 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

tion, to your Perfon, and to the People ; for in- 
16 57- deed, Sir, they are very jealous of their Laws and 
*"""T V *r"""'^ Liberties, and have been fo in all Ages ; and tho* 
there may be no Intention to do fuch a Thing, yet 
if you have a Doubt, it's better and more fafe for 
the Chief Magistrate to keep to that which hath no 

' The Parliament putting their own Interefts and 
Regard for you together, and giving you this Ad- 
vice, this is Vox Pcpuli ; for it is the Voice of 
Three Nations in one Parliament. Upon Public 
Intereft, the chief Thing is the Safety of the 
People ; to that Safety, your Will, your Judg- 
ment, nay, give me Leave to tell you, your Con- 
icience is bound ; for it is the principal End of Go- 
vernment and Governors : This is prefented to you 
by Three Nations, by the Parliament ; altho' you 
may make your Hefitations, yet fuch a Thing is of 
great Weight and Confequence. By the Laws, I 
can fay, in all Generations, this is mine, and this 
is the Prince's ; and the Prince cannot do me 
Wrong, nor the Council cannot do me Wrong, &c. 
Therefore I think you may fafely, and I hope you 
will, agree to this Particular, as we have prefented 
it : I dare not fay, that your Highnefs, as it comes 
in a way of Advice from the Parliament, ought to 

ird Protefior. Mr. Lentball having ended, the Lord Proteclor 
told the Committee, ' That he could not deny but 
the Things that had been fpoken, had been urged 
with great Weight ; and that it was not fit for 
him to afk any of them if they had a Mind to fpeak 
farther to it ; but if fuch had been their Pleafurc, 
that truly then he thought it would have made him, 
according to the Method and Way he had concei- 
ved to himfelf, the more prepared to have returned 
fome Anfwer : He was fure the Bufmefs required it 
from any Man in the World, much more from him, 
to make ferious and true Anfwers j he meant fuch 
as were not feigned in his own Thoughts, but fuch 
wherein he exprelTed the Truth and Honefty of his 

Heart : 

Of E N G L A N D. 77 

Heart : In fhort, That he hoped, when he ha<l Inter-regnnni. 
heard them fo far as it was their Pleafure to fpeak to 
that Head, he fhould have been in a Condition that 
Afternoon, if it had not been a Trouble to them, 
to have returned his Anfwer upon a little Conllde- 
ration with himfelf; but that feeing they had not 
thought it convenient to proceed that Way, truly 
he thought he might very well fay, That he haa 
need to have a little Time to refolve what Anfwer 
to return, left their Debate fhould end, on his Part, 
with a very vain Difcourfe, and with Lightnefs : 
And therefore, if they thought to proceed farther, 
and to fpealc to thefe Things, he fliould have made 
his own fhort Animadvemons on the whole that 
Afternoon, and return'd fome fhort Reply; and 
this would have ufher'd him into the Way, not on- 
ly to have given the beft Anfwer he could, but to 
have made his own Objections.' 

The Protector having, in this Manner, given In- 
timation of his Readinefs to hear any farther Ar- 
guments, the Chief Juftice Glynne began thus : 

< Since it is your Highnefs's Pleafure that it Lord Chief j u 
fliould be fpokento now, altogether, by thofe thatft 
have any Thing to fay, I think it the Intent of the 
Committee, and the Parliament, to give your 
Highnefs Satisfaction in all Particulars, both as to 
Subftance and Circumftance. I confefs I waited for 
Objections from your Highnefs, that being the 
principal Scope of the Order. 

' Truly, my Lord, I ftand up with no Confi- 
dence that I can add any Thing to what hath been, 
laid ; but becaufe it pleafes your Highnefs to do us 
the great Favour to put ustto Particulars, I think the 
Queition with you is but fmgly thus : / am already 
Protector, and 1 am by that Office put at the Head 
of the Government, whereby 1 meet the Parliament 
now ; you defire me to take upon me the Office of 
King, Why do ye fo ? That which we are to fpeak 
here, is no other but that which we can under- 
irand was the Senfe of the Parliament, in JuiKfica- 
iion of what they have done : I fhaJl not ipeak any 


78 1'he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inttr-regnum . Thing of the Government itfelf, but to this Parti- 
1657. cular. 

^ \^-~^ * I think the Office of a King is a lawful Office, 
A F nl and the Title too, approved of by the Word of 
God ; that's plain. It is plain likewife, that it is 
an Office that hath been exercifed in this Nation 
from the Time it hath been a Nation ; and I think 
it is as true, that then- never was any Quarrel with 
the OiHce, but the Mai Administration, that lean 
remember; I mean, ill Government. Oftentimes 
Kings have been blamed, and very juftly, for their 
ill Government ; but we do not read that there was 
any Challenge by the Parliament, that this Govern- 
ment we defire mould be difcharged : If that be 
true, it is to me a ftrange Ground, having pafTed 
the Scrutiny of fo many Parliaments where they 
did debate de Re, that, in all thele Debates, they 
did not charge it upon the Nation, that the Office 
cf a King was a Burthen in its own Nature ; and 
this too, when Parliaments have had Opportunity 
to have changed the Government. 

* The Name of King is a Name known by the 
Law, and the Parliament doth defire that your 
Highnefs would aflume that Title. Thefe are the 
Grounds why the Parliament make it their humble 
Advice and Requeft to your Hiehnefs, that you 
would be pleafed to aflume that Title ; and I think 
there is fomething more in it : You are now Lord 
Protestor of the Three Nations by the Inftrument j 
and there is a Claufe in this Conftitution, that you 
(hould govern according to Law ; and your High- 
nefs is fworn to that Government. The Parlia- 
ment doth apprehend, that it is almoft impoflible 
for your Highnefs to anfwier the Expectation of the 
People to be governed by the Laws ; becaufe you 
are fo tied up, that neither can they rationally call 
for it, nor you confcientioufly do it ; and fo nei- 
ther is the Lord Prctcflor, nor the People, upon 
any fure Eftablifhment : For here (lands the Cafe : 
A King hath run through fo many Ages in this 
Nation, and hath governed the Nation by that 
Title and Style, that it is known to the Law ; for 


Of E N C L A N D. 79 

the Law of the Nation is no othcrwife than what 
hath been a Cuftom to be pra&ifed, and is ap- 
proved by the People to be good ; that's the Law ; 
and nothing clfe, excepting Ats of Parliament : 
And now they have been governed by that Title, 
and by that Minifter, and by that Office, if fo 
be your Highnefs fhourd do any Act, and onq 
fhould come and fay, My Lord Protefior^ you are 
Jworn to govern by the Law, and yet do thus and 
thus, as Lord Protector ; tvhy t the King cndd not 
have done fo ! Aye^ (fay you) but I am not King, 
1 am not bound to do as the King, / am Lord Protec- 
tor \ Jhew me, that the Law doth require me to do It 
as Protedlor ; if 1 have not afted as Protector, Jbew 
me where that Law is : Why, you put every one to 
a Stumble in that Cafe : This is one Thing that, I 
humbly conceive, did ftick with the Parliament, as 
to that Particular. 

' Another Thing is this, you are Protestor; which 
is a new Office not known to the Law, and made 
out of Doors : You are called upon, that you woul J: 
be pleafed to accept the Office of a King; this is, by 
the whole People: It's the fir ft Government that, 
fince thefe Troubles, hath been tendered by a gene- 
ral and univerfal Confent of the People. If any 
fhould find Fault with them, and fay, ll'hy^ how 
fame you to make Governments in this Cafe? Why, 
the Anfwer is, We are a Parliament, and have your 
Suffrage ; you have ever trufted us with all your Votes , 
and we willjuftify it: But be/ides, we have not dene it 
Jttither ; we have but fettled it upon the old Fcundations. 
' Then as for Regal Government ; however, 
fome may pretend that a King's prerogative is fa 
large that we know it not, but is unbounded; the 
Parliament are not of that Opinion. The King's 
Prerogative is known by Law ; if he fhould extend it 
beyond his Duty, that's the Evil of the Man: But 
in Wejlminjler- Hall, the King's Prerogative was un- 
der the Courts of Jufticc ; and was bounded as wel! 
as any Acre of Land, or any Thing a Man hath ; as 
irtuch as any Controvcrfy between Party ruvl Party: 
And therefore the Office being lawful in its Nature, 


So *flse Parliamentary HISTORY 

known to the Nation, certain in itfelf, and confin'd 
and regulated by the Law, and the other Office be- 
ing not fo, that was a fufficient Reafon why the 
Parliament did fo much infift upon this Office and 
Title, not asCircumftantial, bur as EiTential; yea, 
it is the Head from whence all the Nerves and Si- 
news of the Government do proceed, as was well 
faid by the Mafter of the Rolls: If we put a new 
Head, it's a Queftion whether thofe Nerves and Si- 
news will grow, and be nourifhed and ftrcngthened 
with that Head. 

* I had fomething in my Thoughts which I had 
forgot ; fomething of an Objection. ' Why are we 

* fo pertinacious, or infift fo much upon this Title ? 
' May we not apply all the Powers and Authorities 
' unto the Office of Proiettor, and then we (hall 

* give Satisfaction f ' I muft rjeeds fay, He that makes 
this Objection, makes it merely to a Name. If 
any Man ihall fay, I am content the Protestor fhall 
have the Office, but not the Name, I think this 
Man is very ftrait laced ; Then he puts it merely 
upon the Word ; and truly, if there be no more in 
it, if there be nothing but that Word, you have, in 
Balance againft it the Defires of the Parliament : I 
befeech you, do not break with the Parliament for 
a Word. 

' Another Objection is, We have been under the 
Proteflor^ and the Judges have taken their Office 
under that Government ; and the Judges have ta- 
ken their Meafures by the Authority of the King ; 
and have taken it to be the fame with that of Kingj 
and fo go on. I confefs that the Judges have 
gone very far th^ Way, and I fhall not fpeak my 
own Opinion of the Matter here ; but yet it is very 
well known, that there hath been Variety of Opi- 
nions and Judgments in this Cafe, even from thofe 
that have been Judges of the Nation ; and I do not 
take the People to be upon a very good Eftablifh- 
ment, when Doubts arife in thofe that (hould have 
moft Knowledge. I would never make a Doubt 
that tends to the making of Foundations, if I could 
avoid it. The taking of this Office will avoid a 

Doubt t 

Of E N G L A N D. 81 

Doubt ; the continuing of the other Office may be Inter-regnum, 
more uncertain. I would never make a Doubt l6 57- 
where it may be clear ; puhaps the taking of the 
other would reduce Men to Satisfaction ; there is but 
a Perhaps in the one, and a Certainty in the other. 

* The Chief- Juftice was feconded in this Argu- 
ment by Sir Charles ffaljeley^ to this Effect. 

' Not only we that are here, but many honed Sir Cbarkt 
Hearts in England^ rejoice to fee this Day, wherein Wolf'fy* 
your Highnefs and the Parliament are, with fo 
much Ncarnefs and Affection, debating the Settle- 
ment of the Nation : One Reafon why your High- 
nefs fhculd take this Title offered you by the Par- 
liament, is, becaufe, as you ftand in relation to the 
old Government, you are obliged to the Law, yet 
have not the Advantage of the Law ; which the 
Chief Magiftrate ought to have. The Law knows 
not a Proteftor^ and requires no Obedience from 
the People to him. The Parliament defires to fet- 
tle one fo, that the People may know your Duty to 
them, and they their Duty to you. The Parliament 
find the Minds of the People of thefe Nations much 
fet upon this Office and Title : God hath, by his 
Providence, put a general Defire of it into the Na- 
tion ; and they think, in Things not unlawful, they 
ought to hearken, and to be much inclined by the 
Defires of them that fent them ; and in fuch Things 
as are for their Good, as this is, to be much provo- 
ked thereby to the doing of them. 

* Truly, Sir, it hath been much in the Thoughts 
of the Parliament, that the Reafon why Things of 
late have been fo unfettled, throughout, in thefe Na- 
tions, hath been, becaufe that to the Body of this 
People there hath not been a Legal Head : The 
Well-being of the Head is not more neceffary to 
the wholefome Conftitution of the Body Natural, 
than a right Head is neceffary to the Body Politic. 

' I muft humbly tell your Highnefs, This Nation 
hath ever been a Lover of Monarchy, and of Mo- 
narchy under the Title of a King : The Name and 
Office hath, for above a Thoufand Years, been in 

VOL. XXI. F this 

82 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter-regnum, this Nation ; though they have often changed their 
Princes, yet never the Name nor Office. 'Tis the 
great Common Law, that is, the Cuftom of the 
Nation, approved for good by many Ages, to have 
"the Office and Name of a King : No new Law that 
makes any other, can have that Validity, which 
the Cuftom of fo many Ages hath. 

' Sir, the Parliament doth judge the Safety of 
your Perfon much concerned to take this Title ; 
and 'tis not yourfelf they look to, (though their 
Hearts are as full of RefpecT:, I may fay it, for your 
Highnefs as can be) but to you as Chief Magiftrate, 
reprefenting the People ; and being Head of the Law, 
and of all Magiftracy % the People have a Share 
and Concernment in you. We fee the great En- 
couragement of thofe Attempts againft your Perfon, 
hath been this, that the Law did not take Notice of 
you as Chief Magiftrate ; and that Juries were ge- 
nerally backward te find any guilty of Treafon for 
ill Attempts againft you. The Parliament cannot 
think it fit to have their Chief Magiftrate in fuch 
a Condition. 

' Your Highnefs hath been pleafed to call your- 
felf, when you fpeak to the Parliament, a Servant ; 
you are fo indeed to the People, and 'tis your great- 
eft Honour fo to be. I hope then, Sir, you will 
give the People Leave to name their own Servant : 
That is a Due you cannot, you will not, certainly 
deny them : Their Reprefentatives defire you will 
ferve the People under this Title ; and, were there 
jio other Reafon, 'tis therefore the beft. 

' I befeech your Highnefs to confider, if you 
fhould refufe this Title the Parliament prefents you 
with, you do not only deny yourfelf the Honour 
they put upon you, but you deny the Nation, you 
deny the People, their Honour which by Right 
they ought to have. 'Tis this Honour and their 
juft Birth- right, to have a Supreme Magiftrate un- 

a At the Trial of Sytidercomle, who was inclined of High-Treafon, 
for being concerned in a Plot to afiafiinate the Lord Proteftor, the 
Chief JufHce told the Jury, that hy the Word King, the Law 
always underftood the Chief Magiflute, by whatsoever Name he was 
'' ' 

O/ E N G L A N D. .83 

der the Title of King. I know, Sir, tho' you can Inter-regnumi 

deny yourfelf, yet you will not deny the Nation * 

their Due, when their Reprefentatives challenge it '"^a^ 

from you. The Parliament have highly engaged 

all the good People of this Nation to make you, 

who are one of them, and have been in thefe- 

Troubles their Head and Leader, to be their King. 

And certainly, Sir, whatever Diflatisfaclion may 

be in this Cafe, it ought not to weigh : If there be 

any Judge on Earth of the People's Good, 'tis the 

whole People reprefented together; and what others 

fay is but by Individuals. Sir, the Parliament have 

Hundreds, nay Thoufands, upon their Backs, the 

good People of the Nation, a quiet peaceable People 

with you ; and what the Parliament {hall judge fit, 

is their Duty, and no doubt they will fubmit to it : 

Sir, were there in this Matter no other Reafon why 

you fhould accept this Title, I know this alone, 

which indeed is the greatefl. Reafon I can givej 

would fway with you above any Thing, That what 

is before you, is the Advice of your great Council^ 

the Parliament.' 

The Lord Commiflloncr Fiennes fpoke next : 

* I mail offer what I conceive, from the Parlia-Mr. N. FieaneA 
ment's Debates, to be the Reafons why they advife 
your Highnefs to this Title ; and feeing what is in 
the Fountain muft be conveyed by fuch Pipes, I 
ftiall clear the State of the Queftion ; which, in the 
firft Place, if I miftake not, is only upon the Name, 
not upon the Thing ; not upon the Office of a King 9 
But upon the Title of a King: For, the Queftion is, 
Whether the fame Thing mail be fignified by the 
Office of a King under the Name of a King, or by 
the Office of a King under the Name of a Proteftor. 
Undoubtedly the Office of a King may be more ri- 
goroufly exercifed under Another Name, than tho' 
the Name of Kin be there : He that faid, He 
would not do his Matter's Will, and yet did it, did 
it more than he that faid he would, and yet did it 
not : He that hath all the Powers and Authorities 
of a King, is a King, tho' he have not the Name : 
F 2 But 

84. The Parliamentary HISTORY 

fater-regnum. ^ ut there * s fo m evvhat of Diverhty in this Cafe, 
1657. wherein, Sir, you muft either enumerate all the 

Li ^*J ** Poweis of a Protestor , or what is left to be enume- 
April. rated muft be the fame Thing as the Law fays is 
the Duty of a King ; and this I think the Judges 
have determined. 

* This therefore being the clear State of the Que- 
ftion, the Difference will arife meerly upon the 
Name; and the Parliament did not think it agree- 
able to their Wifdom to infpect all the Laws, and 
all the Cafes, and make the Name of Protettor to 
fuit them, or elfe leave it lawlefs and boundlefs ; 
but what was not confined to the Power of a King, 
Was confined to the Decifion of the Law. That be- 
ing fo, the Parliament thinks it is fit for them to do 
as all wife Men do, to give Names according to the 
Nature of the Thing, and either they muft fit all 
the Laws to the Name, and that is impoflible ; or 
leave the Name unbounded, and that's intolerable. 
All Creatures were brought to Adam to give them 
Names, which he did according to their Natures. 
And fo the Parliament, confidering what the Thing 
is that they were about to advife your Highnefs to, 
find this to be the fame Government as was before ; 
and if they would have that, why not their old Name ? 
If the Thing, why not the Title ? Truly, it feems 
very reafonable that Names ftiould be proportioned 
to the Things : They have found divers Reafons 
why the Name mould be King, becaufe it is a Thing 
elear to all the World that the People are more wil- 
lingly obedient to old Things and Names, than to 
new ; and fo far as old Things can be retained with- 
out Danger or Inconvenience, it is the Wifdom and 
Duty of all Governments to retain them. 

Mr, Lijk. The Argument offered on this Occafion, by Mr. 

L'tfle, the other Commiffioner of the Great Seal, 
was in thefe Terms. ' I humbly conceive, That, 
in this Title propofed to your Highnefs by the Par- 
liament, they take the fame Care for yourHighnefc, 
as Jethro took for Mofes ; they find the Weight of 
the Government, as it is now upon you under the 
Title of Proteftor, to be a Burthen that will weary 


Of E N G L A N D. 85 

both vourfclf and the People likewife ; and therefore intcr-regnum. 
they 'do defire your Highnefs will be pleafed to ac- l6 S7- 
cept of that Title which may be an Eafe to your ^ ~ v "~"-' ' 
Highnefs and to the People. 

4 The greatcft Weight and Burthen of Govern- 
ment, is, when there is a Jealoufy between the ' 
Prince and the People for want of a right Under- 
ftanding: Now, though, neither Parliament nor 
People have a Jealoufy of your Perfon, yet of the 
Title they have, for want of a right Underftanding : 
But if your Highnefs will be pleafed to accept of the 
Title that is now offered, all Jealoufies will be done 
away ; for they will then underftand what you arc ; 
and truly, Sir, I think the Jealoufy will be higher 
now, than at firft when the Remonftrance was of- 
fered to you : For the Title of Protettor is either 
the fame 7'hing in Power with the Title of King, 
or it is fomething elfe. If it be fomething elfe than 
what the Title of King is when it is confined, this 
will raife their Jealoufy very much. If it be the 
fame Thing, then there is nothing of Difference but 
a Name; and they will think there is more than a 
Name, if the Parliament do offer it to your High- 
nefs, and you (hould wave it. 

Sir, the Parliament did think, that your High- 
nefs was never able to provide for doing Juftice to 
the Nation for the prefent, nor that Peace (hould 
be maintained in the Nation for the future, unlefs 
your Highnefs do accept of this Title. National 
Juftice does confift in two Things; that you do 
right to the People, with refpecl: to their juft Privi- 
leges in relation to the Parliament; that you do right 
to the People in refpect to their juft Rights, accord- 
ing to the Law of the Land. Sir, the Nations 
Rights in Parliament can never be done to the Peo- 
ple, unlefs the Parliament hath it's antient Rights 
in relation to the Government: And they can never 
have their Right in relation to the Law, unlefs the 
Laws have their antient Right in relation to the Go- 

Sir, the Reafon why the Parliament doth now 

offer this Advice, as I conceive, is this: They did 

F 3 confider. 

86 The Parliamentary HISTORY, 

Inter-regnum. conflder the Cafe of David, when the Elders of 
Ifrael, and the People, did covenant with him at 
Hebron. The Remonftrance offered to your High- 
nefs is the Covenant of the Three Nations, both for 
Spiritual and Civil Liberties. If there was a proper 
Time to make D.avid King, when they covenanted 
with him at Hebron, it is now a proper Time for 
you to accept this Title, when the Parliament hath 
brought this with a Covenant for the Three Na- 
tions, that relates both to their Civil and Spiritual 

The Lord Brogkill took up the Argument after 
Mr. Lijle. 

\AI& Bnglitt. ' Sir, I can add fp little to what hath been al- 
ready fpoken, that were it not in Obedience to 
Command, I fhould with much more Satisfaction 
be filent than now fpeak; but, being under an Obli- 
gation I muft not violate, I (hall, in Obedience 
thereto, prefume to lay my poor Thoughts before 
you : And firft I fhall take the Boldnefs to fay, I 
believe it is a Thing impoflible for any to particula- 
rize every individual Reafon which invites a Parlia- 
ment to pafs any Vote ; for the Parliament is a Bo- 
dy confifting of many Members, and all of them 
relifli thofe Arguments and Reafonings which are 
moft confonant to every Man's Apprehenfion ; in 
which there is fo great Variety, that though when 
a Vote is pafled, we may conclude that Vote is the 
Senfe of the Houfe, yet we cannot fay, that thefe, 
and none but thefe, Reafons produced that Refult. 
jonly mention this, Sir, that whatever 1 fhall fpeak 
may be confidered. by you, but as my poor Appre- 
henfion of what, in fome Degree, might have con- 
tributed to move the Parliament to petition and ad- 
vife your Highnefs to affume the Title and Office of 
King : For it would be too high a Prefumption in 
#ny Member, efpecially in me above any, to dare to 
aver, That what I fhould now fay, did alone invite 


". Afterwards Earl of Orrery. 


the Parliament to give your Highncfs that Coun- Inter-regnum. 

' Having thus humbly premifed what I held my 
felf obliged unto in Duty, I fhall now proceed to 
acquaint you what, in my weak Judgment, did in 
fome Meafure move the Parliament to do what they 
have done. 

1. I humbly conceive, that the Title of King. 
is that which the Law takes Notice of as the Title 
of Supreme Magiftrate, and no other ; and that the 
old Foundations that are good, are better than any 
new ones, tho' equally good in their own Nature. 
What is confirmed by Time and Experience, car- 
ries along with it the beft Trial, and the moft fatif- 
fa (Story Stamp and Authority. 

2. ' It was confidered too, That it was much 
better that the Supreme Magiftrate fhould be fitted 
to the Laws that are in Being, than that thofe Laws 
ihould be fitted unto him. 

3. ' The People legally aflembled in Parliament, 
having confidered what Title was beft for the Su- 
preme Magiftrate, did, after a folemn Debate there- 
of, pitch upon that of King it being that by which 
the People knew their Duty to him, and he the Du- 
ty of his Office towards them. 

4. There is hardly any who own Government 
at all in thefe Nations, but think themfelves obliged 
to obey the old Laws, or thofe which your High- 
nefs and the Parliament (hall enact : So that, if the 
Supreme Magiftrate of thefe Three Nations be in- 
titled King) all thofe who reverence the old Laws, 
will obediently and chearfully accept of him, as that 
which is fettled upon the Eftabliftiment they own ; 
and all that own this prefent Authority will do the 
like, becaufc grafted by it ; whereby none can reft 
unfatisfied that think it a Duty to obey former Au- 
thorities, or the prefent. 

5. ' The former Authorities knew no Supreme 
Magiftrate, but by the Title of King; and this pre- 
fent Authority defires to know him by no other ; 
which if refufed, might it not too much heighten 
pur Enemies, who may bouHter up their faint Hopes 


88 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. with faying to one another, and to thofe which af- 
them, That their Chief is not only under that 
Title which all paft Parliaments have approved, 
but under that Title which even this Parliament 
does approve of likewife; whereas our Head is not 
known by the former Laws, and has refufed to be 
known by that Application which even the Parlia- 
ment, that he himfelf hath called, doth defire to 
* know him by ?' 

6. * By your Highnefs bearing the Title of King, 
all thofe that obey and ferve you, are fecured by a 
Law made long before any of our Differences had a 
Being, in u. Henry VII. whereby a full Provifion 
is made for the Safe^ of thofe that {hall ferve who- 
ever is King: J Tis oy that Law that hitherto our 
Enemies have pleaded Indemnity ; and by your af- 
fuming what is now defired, that Law, which hi- 
therto they pretended for their Difobedience, ties 
them, even by their own Profeflion and Principles, 
to Obedience: And I hope the taking off all Pre- 
tences from fo numerous a Party, may not be a 
Thing unworthy of Confideration : That Law feems 
very rational; for it doth not provide for any parti- 
cular Family or Perfon, but for the Peace and Safety 
of the People, by obeying whoever is in that Of- 
fice, and bears that Title. The End of all Go- 
vernment is to give the People Juftice and Safety j 
and the beft Means to obtain that End, is to fettle 
a Supreme Magiftrate. It would therefore feem ir- 
rational, that the People, having obtained the End, 
fhould decline that End only, to follow the Means 
which are but conducing to that End j fo that if the 
Title and Office of Kin? be veiled in your High- 
nefs, and if thereby the People enjoy their Rights, 
and Peace, it would be little lefs than Madnefs for 
3ny of them to caft off thofe Bleflings, only in order 
to obtain the fame End under another Perfon. 

7. ' There is, at prefent, but a Divorce between, 
{he pretended King; and the Imperial Crown of thefe 
Nations ; and we know that rerfons divorced may 
marry again j but if the Perfon be married to ano- 


ther, it cuts off all Hopes. Thefe may be fome of i ntC r.regnum. 
the Reafons which invited the Parliament to make 1657. 
that Delire, and give that Advice, to your High- t y ' 
nefs to aflume the Title of King. There is another, ' A P r '^ 
and a very ftrong one, which is, That they now 
have actually given that Advice ; and the Advices 
of Parliaments are Things which always ought, and 
therefore I am confident will, carry with them very 
great Force and Authority : Nor doth this Advice 
come lingly, but accompanied with many other ex- 
cellent Things, in reference to our Civil and Spiri- 
tual Liberties, to which your Highnefs hath borne 
a juft and fignal Teftimony. It is alfo a Parlia- 
ment, who have given unqueftionable Proofs of their 
Affection to your Highnefs ; and who, if liftened to 
in this Particular, will be thereby encouraged to give 
you more.' 

April 17. The Lord Commiflioner IVkitlocke re- The Lord Pro- 
ported to the Houfe the foregoing Conference with teftor <3e 'i'' yet 
the Lord Protector; and that his Highnefs declared c f " erto 
the Committee's Reafons to be fo weighty as to re- 
quire mature Deliberation ; that therefore he could 
not then come to a final Refolution as to the Ac- 
ceptance or Non-acceptance of the Title propofed 
to him ; though he feemed, to the Committee, to 
decline it. 

In confequence of this Report, the Houfe ad- 
journed for three Days, to give Time for the Com- 
mittee to wait upon the Protector again j but his 
Jiighnefs happening to be ficlc the very Day they 
waited upon him, it was not till the 2Oth that they 
were admitted to an Audience, which was then put 
off to the next Day ; when, as the Journals inform 
MS, he fpoke fomething to them as to what had been mi < h ar '< 
before offered, and gave them a Paper containing withT 
feveral Scruples as to the Matter of their Petition Committee. 

and Advice. This Paper it is not in our Power 

to fupply ; but the Want of it is the lefs to be re- 
gretted, as moft of the Protector's Objections feem 
to be cited, and anfwered, in the following Argu- 
ments of the Committee. We flill find that the 


9O The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. principal Objection was the Title of King; againft 


Lord Chief Ju- 

ftice Glynne. 

which Cromwell having urged, ' That all the good 
* Purpofes of Government might be as fully anfwer- 
' ed under that of Prate ftorj the Lord Chief Juftice 
Glynne infifted, That the Name and Office of a 
King was eflential to the Settlement of the Nation, 
for the following Reaforis : 

1. ' Becaufe it is known to the Law; his Duty 
is known in reference to the People, and the 
People's Duty known in reference to hini : This 
Cannot be tranfmitted to another Name without 
much Labour and great Hazard, if it may at all. 
To go by Individuals, and reckon up all the Du- 
ties and Powers that a King, by our Laws, hath in 
reference to his Truft towards the People, and the 
Duty of the People towards him, is a Work of fo 
great Labour, that it would require Months, yea 
Years, if not Ages. 

2. ' To apply its Relative, tails quails ^ would 
introduce thefe Difficulties : It would be a new 
Thing : How it would prove is but guefs'd at ; and 
it is the Foundation Stone ; 'tis unfafe to put it to 
a Hazard when you have a fafe one. Thofe Cer- 
tainties and Securities that accompany the Title of 
King, are incident by the antient Laws and Cuftoms 
of the Nation; and that which the other Office can 
have, are introduclive, and given him de nova from 
this Parliament, as their antient Inheritance who 
can claim but a new Title of Purchafe. 

3. * The People and your Highnefs lofe the beft 
Title, both to their Liberty and your Rights, which 
Is the Law, Antient Cuftom, and Ufage, and claim 
5t only upon the Strength of the Parliament; but if 
you take it as a King^ you have the Strength of both. 

' 4. * If you a flu me any other Name, and have the 
Rights given you by Parliament, it may feem as if 
the People had loft their antient Rights, and had 
Need of new ones to be created by this Parlia- 

5. ' The AfTumption of the Title of King, is, 
without Need of any other Authority, fufficient to 
protect the People, and bind them to obey you. 


6. ' If you fhould take the Name of Protetlor^ or 
any other new Title, whatfoevcr Authority is applied 
thereto, is but grafting upon a Stock that is new, and 
doubtful whether it will bear the Fruits well, and 
ftill liable to former Objections without Doors. 

7. If you take the Title of King, the Worft- 
affe&ed cannot object againft your Authority, or at 
all againft the Parliament as the Donor.' 


The Lord Chief Juftice Glynne having thus brief- 
ly, but clofely, fpoke to the Matter, Mr. Lenthall 
proceeded : 

* Sir, It is certain that all Governments in them- Mr. LtatLa& 
felvcs may be good, for none is malum in je ; but 
the Rule that hath always been obferved, is, Tha{ 
the moft neceflary and prudent Courfe to govern a 
Nation, muft be taken from that Proportion which 
is moft fuitable to the Nature and Difpofition of the 
People that are governed : If this be the general 
Rule always in the World, we may well draw this 
Argument, both from an abfolute Neceflity, and 
ex Necejfitate Confequentis alfo. The Chief Gover- 
nor, in a fettled Government, being obliged to do 
for the Good of his People, not only quod bonum* 
fed quod optimum ; then the Confide ration that 
will follow properly here, will be, Whether the 
Name of King, which in the Judgment of the Law, 
implies the Office, be not the beft Government for 
the People's Safety, both ex NeceJJitate Caufa:, et ex 
NeccJJitate Confequentis. To explain this, it muft 
be premifed, that when we fpeak of a King, we 
muft take the Difference between the Perfon digni^ 
fied with the Name, and the Name itfelf ; for this 
muft be taken for a fuie Ground, that as the Word 
King is a Name, which the Law doth look upon, 
fo it hath its proper Bafts and Foundation upon the 
Law ; and is as antient as the Law itfelf. Now, 
the Perfon of the King is a Name that hath its 
Dignity and Foundation from the Word King, as 
x Neceffitate Confequentis ; becaufe, in Reafon, 4 
Man muft be ufed to exercifc that Authority which 
proceeds from that Name, 


gz he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. * Thefe Things being very clear, by the Funda- 
1657. mental Grounds of the Law, if then we examine 
the Foundation of Things according to the Rules 
of the Law, it is manifeft that the Name of King, 
Laws, Rights, Properties, and Liberties of the 
People, and alfo Parliaments themfelves, have but 
one Foundation; which is Original or Prefcription, 
being antient Cuftoms, or Cuftorns Time out of 
Mind : So that, in the Judgment of the Law, thefe 
three, viz. King, Law, and Parliaments, are the 
Parts of the Government of this Nation, which, 
having their Bafis and Foundation from Prefcrip- 
tion, conftitute the Form of it amongft us ; not a 
Form, in the vulgar Acceptation of the Word Form ; 
but it is the Form of Government fettled in this 
Nation, and of the EfTence of it. Then to me 
it feems impofiible, that any Act of Parliament, 
without the Deflrudlion of the P.flential Part of the 
Government, can place that Office in another 
Name, (be it what it will) which naturally wants 
the Foundation and Ground of that Power and Of- 
fice which that Name imports. 

1. ' Becaufe the Alteration deftroys the Founda- 
tion, which is Prefcription ; and annexes to it a 
Name that the Law of the Land hath no Acquaint- 
ance with. 

2. ' It fets all Laws, Liberties, and what is dear 
to us, upon a new Foundation, as to the People ; 
for whatfoever is created by an Act, cannot have 
Life and Authority but from that Act, and (hall ne- 
ver look back to its firft original Conftitution. It 
takes from the People the Rules and Grounds which 
they have known by Experience; and fends them 
to feek them in a Power of which no Wit of Man 
can fuddenly apprehend the Bounds and Limits, 
when fo many Doubts may arife, even in the old 
Foundation, which Experience and Time hath fo 
excellently refined. 

' From thefe Grounds I may fafely fay, That 
there never was but one King in England from the 
firft Foundation of Regal Power, and can fafely 


Of E N G L A N D. 93 

conclude there will never be more ; although there 
have been many, and more I hope there will be, 
whofe Perfons exercife that Office : For the Law 
doth positively affirm, "That the King never dies : 
Indeed, the Perfon, like that of other Men, dies j but 
the Name and Thing hath a kind of Immortality, 
if we confidcr the Connexion of the Word with the 
Perfon that is inverted with that Namej who is not 
faid to die, but to demife, which is to depofite and 
to lay up the Name and Title of King. 

' The common Ground is taken from the Accef- 
fion of the Office and Dignity to the Perfon ; but 
the tiue Ground is the Name; and the Office is be- 
come Part of the Law, which mould punifh the Of- 
fences that are committed againft it j which proves 
both the Neceffity of the Name, and the necef- 
fary Relation there is between the Name and the 
Law ; and it is a necefiary Deduction, that the 
Name of King is the Thing wherein the Office and 
Power is placed j and therefore it is not practicable, 
by any Statute, or Act of Parliament, to divide the 
Power and Office from the Name, and transfer that 
Power without the Name : The Word King hath 
fuch eflential Reference to the Law, that it never 
looks to the Perfon, to make that the Ground of 
Eflence ; if it had but the Name, the Law was fa- 
tisfied ; and therefore it never examined the Right 
of the Perfon, how he became invefted with the 
Power ; but, dt Faflo, whether he were fo or not ; 
and if fo, whether de Fatla^ or de Jure, it hath the 
fame Influence upon the People's Rights, and the 
fame Advantages to the Chief Governor. 

4 There is alfo another Reafon why the Office 
cannot be annex'd to another Name, either by Act 
of Parliament, or otherwife; for in any other Name 
you muft fuppofe the Office, the King ; fo that any 
other Name is but a Fiction in refpect of the right 
Name ; and it would be very dangerous both to our 
Laws and Properties, to lay the Bafis and Founda- 
tion upon a Fiction ; which was a Reafon why fome 
Judges forbore to act upon the Name of Cu/lodes 


94 7&? Parliamentary HISTORY 

Libertatis Angiice, &c. a and the fame Reafon holds 
upon any other Name. Mr Lenthall alfo further 
T'T ~~ urged, ' That this Petition and Advice was Matter 
of Right, not of Grace, which was never denied by 
any Prince in this Nation, nor could be, becaufe 
there was an Obligation in all Cafes to do Right ; 
and this Obligation was upon the Proteflor, whilft 
he took upon him the Chief Magiftracy.' 

Colonel Philip Jones fpoke next to this EfFecT: : 

May it pleafe your Highnefs, 

Od. Jsnes. < I am unwilling to fpend much Time in fpeaking 

after thofe two learned and honourable Perfons that 
fpake latt ; and therefore {hall endeavour, in what 
I have to offer to thofe Doubts you were pleafed to 
make when this Committee had the Honour laft to 
attend you, to be as brief as may be. 

' Your Highnefs was pleafed then to fay, e That 

* though the Arguments brought in Favour of the 

* Title of King, in the Petition prefented to you by 
' the Parliament, were weighty ; yet, in your an- 

* fwering them, you muft not grant them to be ne- 
' ceflary Conclufions; but take them as having much. 
' of Conveniency and Probability towards a Conclu- 
' fion; for if an Expedient could be found, they 

* were not then neceflary.' And you was pleafed to 
tell us, That tho' King/hip be not a Title, but 

* an Office interwoven in our Laws, yet it is not fo 
' Ratione Nominis, but from what it fignifies ; that 

* being a Name of Office plainly implying the Su- 

* preme Magiftracy : And therefore whatever Name 

* it be, wherein the Supreme Magiftracy refides, the 
" Signification will give it to the Thing;, and not to 
' the Name; and feeing this Title had a Commence- 

* ment, and aifo hath been unfix'd, why might not a 
' new one now commence, and be now fix'd by the 

' Le- 

a The Names of the Judges, who refufed to aft as fuch, under 
the Authority of the new Commonwealth, were ^Trevor, Bacon, 

Crefif/J, itktns, Br'<: ne and Btdingfield. See the Declaration 

of the CoKtncm en tbft Qccafion, in tur Nines eentb Felume, p. 7. 

Of E N G L A N D. 95 

r Legiflative Authority; and thereby be made to run Inter-regmnu. 
' through the Law, as well as the Title of King ? l6 S7- 
* From whence you did infer that this Title is not *" - 7 v ^T" 1 ' 
6 neceflary.' But, Sir, if the Intention of the Par- 
liament, in this their humble Addrefs to you, be 
confidered, viz. That it is a Settlement, it would 
be likewife to be confidered, whether a new Name 
will not be found, in this Cafe, to make a new Of- 
fice alfo ; and whether then the Novelty thereof 
will not hazard, if not fruftrate, that great End of 
Settlement; the Antiquity, and Trial, of Laws, be- 
ing that which doth beget the greateft Reverence 
and Satisfaction of them in the People. 

' Now that the Change of the Name makes it a 
new Office, will appear, both in refpecT: of his Au- 
thority who bears the Office, and in refpecT: of the 
People's Obligation in Matter of Obedience to that 
new Officer : For, by the antient Law, he cannot 
claim Subjection from them, nor can the People 
thereby claim Protection from him ; the Strength 
then of the Settlement, and of their Rights and Li- 
berties, as far as they relate to this new Supreme 
Magiftracy, will reft upon a new and untried Con- 
ftitution ; and his Authority, upon the fame Foun- 
dation. TheWifdom of our Anceftors, even in lefler , 
Matters, when they introduced a new Law, made 
it, for the moft Part, a Probationer only; and I 
may humbly fay, we have now, fome Years, been 
making Probationaries of new Governments; there- 
fore the Parliament, finding the People not yet fix'd 
and reconciled to any of them, return to that which, 
by long Experience and Cuftom, hath been found to 
fuit with their Minds and Rights ; the People ha- 
ving not the fame Satisfaction nor Acquiefcence in 
any newThing, as they have in long-approv'd Laws 
and Cuftoms ; fince a new Thing is in itfelf uncer- 
tain, not only whether it will prove good or no, but 
alfo in this Cafe, in refpedl that one main Property 
of the Settlement, being a co-ordinate Power, de- 
pends upon it ; and it will be 1 fubjed to be contro- 
verted whether one Co-ordinate is well put by ano- 

g6 The Parliamentary 

Inter. regnum. ther, or may not, by the like Power that fets it 

1657. tip, be pulled down again; which cannot but leave 

%>! % J Men's Minds as dubious of a Settlement as ever, 

April, Things difputable naturally carrying Unfetdement 

with them. 

' Time and Experience hath grafted the Name 
and Office of King in the Minds of the People; and 
that, as I faid already, begets Reverence and Satif- 
faction in their Minds. Alfo, they were the Ex- 
orbitances of the Office, which, in a great Meafure, 
this Petition provides againft, that was complained 
of, and not the Office nor Name, which are found- 
ed upon the antient Laws : The altering of either 
alters the Conftitution, and lays it upon a Founda- 
tion lefs certain, and eafier to be fhaken ; and there- 
fore, to take up the Office without the Title, will 
be to take it up with all the Objections of Scandal 
or otherwife it is faid to be liable to ; and at the fame 
Time to want the Support of the antient Laws it 
carries with it, and the Advantage of fatisfying and 
fettling the Minds of fuch of the People of thefe Na- 
tions, as, by the Confideration of the Novelty, and 
what in this Cafe attends it, will otherwife reft 
doubtful and unfettled. 

' Thefe are fome of the Grounds I obferved in 
the Debate of the Parliament, to induce them to 
judge this Title not only expedient, but, in refpedt 
of a Settlement, neceflary.' 

* Your Highnefs was pleafed to object alfo, e The 
4 Diflfatisfaction of good Men, which you judged, in 
c Things indifferent, were to be confidered :' They 
are fo; and it hath been judged by the Parliament, 
who (hewed great Tendernefs in that Kind, and I 
hope ever will : But in this Matter they are found, 
by the Parliament, not to be indifferent, but necef- 
fary for the Settlement of thefe Nations ; and they 
hoped that, in thofe Things wherein good People 
have not already been fatisfied, they will calmly en- 
deavour for Satisfaction; and that when the Matter 
of this Petition comes to be more public, they will 
find fuch Care and Provifion made for good Men, 



and good Things, that will certainly give them Sa- Interregnum; 
tisfaction. I think I may fafely fay, fuch a pofitive 
Provifion for their Liberties and Encouragement, 
hath not been found out under any former King y 
nor any other Form of Government, to which your 
Highnefs hath been pleafed yourfelf to give that Te- 
flimony ; fo that it is not to Kingfhip alone, as for- 
merly, that the Parliament advifes your Highnefs, 
but to the Office, with fuch and fuch a Provifion 
made for the Public Intereft : And if then your 
Highnefs, of whofe Faithfulnefs to their Intereft 
good People have received fuch ample Teftimony, 
will be pleafed to confent to this Petition of the 
Parliament, (an Authority always of no fmall Efteern 
and Reverence with the beft Men) I doubt not but, 
when it is done, they will chearfully acquiefce, tho* 
while it is doing they may have Scruples. 

As for that * of Providence laying afide the Ti- 

* tie,' I think the Argument hence will be as cogent 
againft the Office itfelf, and againft Government by 
a Single Perfon under any Tide ; the Acts of Par- 
liament mentioned, are as exprefly againft the one 
as the other ; and therefore the Exercife of the Su- 
preme Power by a Single Perfon, under any Title, is 
as much a Contradiction of Providence and of thefe 
Acts of Parliament, as the Exercife thereof under 
the Title of a King : But certainly the laying afide 
of a Thing de Fafto, though indeed it be an Act of 
Providence, yet it cannot t>e conftrued that the In- 
tendment of that Providence is finally to lay it afide, 
never to be re-afTumed again. The Confequences 
of fuch a Pofition are many, and may be dangerous 5 
for what is there, by that Rule, which is not to be 
laid afide ? 

* I now remember an Objection, made by your 
Highnefs in another Place, which I had almoft for- 
got ; < That we did enjoy our Laws, and that Ju- 

* ftice was freely adminiftred, under feveral Changes 
' and Titles j as under that of the Keepers of the Li- 
berty ^England, and that of Prottftor> the Title 
your Hiphnefs now bears.' To which I humbly 
anfvver, That, if fo, Thanks are rather to be given 

VOL, XXI. G to 

98 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter- regnum. to t h e Perfons into whofe Hands the Power fell, than 
^ 5 _j to the Conftitutions. However, I crave Leave to 
April. f a y tn ' s > That Changes imply not a Settlement ; 
and, fince Providence has led us from our old Con- 
ftitution, we have in a few Years had four or five 
Changes; and that thefe Changes have not been ac- 
companied with more Hazard, is a Matter of Praife 
to the Lord, and of Commendation to the Powers 
we have been under : But if one Providence hath 
laid afide King/hip, another leads it in, and calls 
upon you to take it up. And it is to me a remark- 
able Thing, that Providence hath caft-it under fuch 
Conftitutions and Laws, as that, when we have 
thrown out the Tyrant that opprefTed us in our Spi- 
ritual and Civil Rights, we can, by our antient 
Laws, graft another Perfon in, that may be a fit In- 
ftrument to preferve both; who (as the learned Per- 
fon that fpoke laft faid) may make up, as it were, 
but one King thefe five hundred Years, the Law not 
admitting an Inter-regnum: From whence I infer, 
That as it was not the End or Defign of our War 
that led us, (as appears by fix or feven Declarations of 
the Parliament, one whereof was ordered to be read 
in all Churches) fo neither did Providence lead us to 
lay afide either the Name or Office, but only that 
Family which opprefied us. And fince all Men's 
Lives and Liberties depend on this Settlement, it is 
iieceflary to lay it on the ftrongeft Foundation that 
may be. 

* And ' as for that of Safety,' it is not for me to 
fpeak much to it; but certainly it is to be hoped, 
that as a Parliament advifes your Highnefs toThings 
honeft and lawful, and by them judged neceflary for 
a good Settlement, and therein takes Care and pro- 
vides for our Rights as Men and Chriftians, and for 
your Highnefs's Safety, all Dangers (by God's Blef- 
fing upon your Highnefs's Wifdom, back'd with 
fuch an Authority, and an Army under the Conduct 
of fo many religious and faithful Perfons, fo well 
principled to the Obedience of lawful Powers) may 


Q/* ENGLAND. 99 

be prevented. And therefore I humbly hope tha f Inter-regnum. 
God will incline your Highnefs to grant the Petition 
and Advice of the Parliament.' 

Colonel Jones having done, Sir Richard Onflow Sir Ricbard On- 
next canvafs'd the Argument with the Protestor j/k 
chiefly by way of urging Cromwell\ Objections, and 
making Replies to them : And as to the firft, ' That 

* the Title of King was the Name of an Office, and 
' any other Name, which might imply the Supreme 

* Magiltrate, had the fame Signification ; and there- 

* fore no Neceffity of the Name ;' he ani vvered, 
' That every Office ought to have a Name adequate 
to the faid Office ; and no other Name than King 
could be fuitable, and comprehenfive enough to con- 
tain in it the Common Good to all Intents and Pur- 

* That it was a Rule, that the Kings of England 
could not alter the Laws of England, Ratione No- 
minis \ but were bound to govern according to the 
Laws of England; and for any other Name, there 
was no Obligation lay upon it. 

* That the very Title is neceflary, was declared 
in the Qth Year of Edward the Fourth, in the great 
Controverfy betwixt him and Henry the Sixth, when 
tome times one was in PofTeffion, and then the other: 
'That it was neceflary the Realm fhould have a King, 
under whom the Laws might be maintained and 
holden ; for every A&ion done by the King in Pof- 
feffion was valid and good, becaufe it was his Jurif- 
diction Royal ; fo like wife in the ift of Henry the 
Seventh, and alfb in the 3d, the fame Opinion was 
held and declared, That a King, de Faffo, was ne- 
ceflary ; and, in all Alterations of Perfons and Fa- 
milies, yet our Anceftors always retained the Title 
and the Name. 

* That there was a Prius and a Primum : Ano- 
ther Name might, in Order and Degree, be firft;. 
that is, before other Men; but a King was Primum, 
the rirft Name, that had its Beginning with our 

G 2 That 

loo *rhe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. That the Cuftoms of England were the Laws 
* 6 S7. of England* as well as our Statute Laws : That the 

l *-v "J Title of King and Cujlom were Twins born toge- 
ApriJ ' ther, and had had Continuance together; and there- 
fore to join Proteflor^ of which they knew the Date, 
with Cuftom, of which no Memory could fpeak, was 
a Kind of Contradiction to the Original. 

' That then there muft be an introdu&ive Law, 
becaufe Proteftor was a new Name which our Law 
did not yet know : That, now, to ingraft a young 
Scion upon an old Stock, it would never grow; but 
there muft be an Eradication of the old Root, and 
a new Plantation muft be made; all the old Cuf- 
toms muft be put into pofitive Laws ; which 
would be a Work of much Time and great Diffi- 

* That the Title of King was fo incorporated and 
conjoined with our Cujloms, that it did very much 
concern the People of England to have them upheld ; 
and then there was a Rule, SQuesque Res in Con- 
junRione, pro Bono Conjunftionis ; that every Thing 
in Conjundtion ought to be done for the Good and 
Benefit of the Conjunction; and that, if it were for 
the Advantage of the Single Perfon and the People, 
k brought him in Mind of another Rule his old Ma- 
AerTuJly taught him, Communis Utilitatis Dereliflio 
contra Naturam ejl ; it was not natural to decline 
that which was for a common Benefit and Advan- 
tage: And therefore he fhould fay but this as to the 
Title, That as the Patriarch Jacob joined together, 
in his Bleffing upon Judah, the Law- giver and the 
Scepter, fo the Parliament of the Three Nations 
delired to preferve the Title of King in and upon the 

' As to the fecond Objection his Highnefs was 
pleafed to draw from Providence, * that had brought 
* them to that Place through much Darknefs, and 
' had feemed to lay the Title of King afide :' 

' He replied, ' That it became all Men to ac- 
knowledge the Actings of the Providence and Power 
of God, for bringing to pafs whatfoerer he had de- 

Of E N G L A N D. 101 

tcrmined in the World; and that it was the mighty 
and wife Hand of Providence which triumph'd over 
Nations, and triumph'd and trod down all Oppofi- 
tions : That yet his Highnefs had obferved it was 
not a Rule to walk by without the Word ; the Rea- 
fon, the Caufes, were hidden in the fecret Councils 
of God's Will : That we might fee, in the Reve- 
lations, the Book was fealed with feven Seals, that 
we might read what was paft, becaufe written on 
the Outfide of a Book ; but what was to come we 
could not read ; and we ought not to limit Provi- 
dence, nor could we bound it with a Ne plus ultra. 
In Anfwer to the third Objection, That this 
6 State had, by Providence, receiv'd feveral Changes, 

* particularly two great ones, from the former Con-r 

* ftitution ; that of the Keepers of the Liberty of 

* England^ and the prefent Government under the 

* Title of ProtsElor ; and that the firft feemed to be 
the Refult of feven Years War againft the Title 

* and the Family :' 

' He argued, ' That it muft be confefled it proved 
the Event of feven Years War, but the Reafons of 
the War did not lead to it, for the War was for the 
King and Parliament ; for the Office, but againft 
the rerfon, againft the Exorbitancy and Irregula- 
rities of his Government ; but it was Providence 
that took away, at that Time, both the Office and 
the Family : 

' That it was alfo Providence that altered it from 
that of a Republic to this of a Protettor ; that A6t 
being as much againft a Proteftor as a King, for it 
was againft a Single Perfon : 

' And might not this Parliament, by the fame 
Series of Providence, as well fet up Kingly Govern- 
ment, as that Parliament took it away, having alfo 
the fame Power they had ? 

Then for a fourth Objection, Why his High- 

* ncl's would not accept of the Title, becaufe of the 

* Diilatisfadion many Perfons, who had been inftru- 

* mental in carrying on the Work, had againft that 

* Tide ;' 

G3 His 


' April. 

1 02 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

* His Anfwer was, ' That in every Change of 
Government there was, and ftill would be, Perfons 
unfatisfied, becaufe Men were of mix'd Irterefts, 
and different Judgments. Upon the Change to a 
Republic, thofe that conceived the Monarchical 
Government beft, were unfatisfied : But all ought to 
fubmit, and be concluded by the Judgment of a 

' That his Highnefs was pleafed to fay, * That 
neither himfelf, nor thofe that tendered to him the 
Inftrument, were Authors of the firft Change, but 
it was the Long ^Parliament ; fo that he might 
conclude they were not engaged for the Govern- 
ment by a King :' 

' He replied, l That it had been indeed the Ho- 
nour of the Soldiery, that, in all thefe Changes, 
they had ftill followed Providence, and had acqui- 
efced ; acting and living in practical Conformity ; 
but he wiflied they would now be fatisfied, for their 
Love-fhke to them, and their Labours for them : 
That high fhould his Reward be in Heaven, and 
happy his Remembrance on Earth, that would be 
the Means of fuch an Accord ; but to fatisfy all 
Men, fo divided as they were, .would be no lefs 
than a Wonder : That he fhould repeat a Parable, 
in Ezekiel xxxvii, 16. where the Lord faid to the 
Prophet, Take two Sticks, write upon one Stick for 
Judah and the Children cf Ifrael'j Companions ; and 
take the other Stick^ and write upon it for Jofcph, 
the Stick of Ephraim, and all the Houje of JfraelV 
Companions ; and join thefe two Sticks in one Stick , 
and they Jhall become one in thy Hand ; thefe are the 
two Nations of Ifrael and Judah, two diftant and 
different Names, but they foall come under one King y 
and David /hall be their King: Thus they were 

As to the laft Objeaion, That Juftice had 

* been as well adminiftered, and as free from Solli- 

* citations, under thefe Changes, as before :' 

* He told the Protector, That his Highnefs was 
pleafed to fay, * He undertook that Charge to prefei ve 


Of E N G L A N D. 103 

them from Confufion,' which indeed was the word Inter- regnum. 
of Evils ; and the fame Reafon might prevail with l6 S7- 
Judges, and other Magiftrates, to execute Juftice, *~ J '^ V r ^~" 
and give to Men their Rights, which was fo defi- 
rable to all Men, and of abfolute Neceflity. 

' That Juttice might be compared to the Water 
in the Spring ; if kept from its Natural Channel, it 
would break its Way through the Bowels of the 
Earth : That Nature fometimes might fuffer Vio- 
lence : That there was a Peace in a Cedution of 
War ; and there was a Peace that, in regard of the 
Diftra6tions, might be termed but an intermitting 
Peace ; for his Highnefs was pleafed to acknow- 
ledge, that the People called for a Settlement j from 
which, under Favour, he might infer, that, as yet, 
there was no Settlement fo well made, as to be ac- 
counted perfect and good. 

' That his Highnefs was pleafed to declare, * He 
* had rather take a Title from this Parliament, 
than any other Title from any other Place, or 
' without it.' 

Upon which he obferved, That the Parliament 
of England was the Womb of the Commonwealth ; 
;md in that Womb there had been a Conception and 
Shape, Proportion and Form, and Life and Growth, 
as far as the Navel could nouriih ; that there had 
been alfo a Delivery, and a Name given; that there 
had been Conceptu conceptus, Partus et Opus j and 
that it had been a great Work to bring us to this 
Delivery : That it was therefore the humble Advice 
of the Parliament, That his Highnefs would be 
pleafed to make it fpeak the Englijh Tongue. 

The Lord Commiflioner Fiennes, next, addrefs'd Mr. F/cwi. 
himfelf to the Proteclor to this EffecT:: ' Your 
Highnefs, the other Day, laid down, as a Ground 
of your enfuing Difcourfe, this Pofition, * That 

* there was no Neceffity of the Name and Title of 

* KingS upon which Foundation your Highnefs 
feemed to build your Arguments and Reafons of 
DiflatLs faction, 


104 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regoum, As to that Name and Title, and that in fuch 
l6 57- Sort as the Matter is now circumftantiated and ftated 
^^~*~~' by your Highnefs, there is a Neceffity either in the 
Affirmative or Negative ; if it be not neceflary that 
the Name be affumed, it is of Neceffity to be de- 
clined ; and if no Neceffity to decline it, then there 
is a Neceffity to aflume it: For although the Nature 
of the Thing itfelf is fuch as, poffibly, may admit 
a Latitude of Argument upon the Point of Expedi- 
ency and Conveniency ; and that we are not (hut 
up under an abfolute Neceffity either the one Way 
or the other; yet the Parliament having given their 
Judgment upon it, and their Advice to your High- 
hefs in it, your Highnefs feems to admit that there 
lies a Kind of Neceffity upon you to affume it, if 
there be not a Neceffity to wave it : For you will 
jiot, without Neceffity, decline the Advice of the 
Parliament, having faid, ' That you fhould rather 
* chufe any Name which they ftiould fix, than any 
' Name whatfoever without them.' Then it im- 
ports thus much, That you will not put Expediency 
and Conveniency, but only Neceffity, in Balance 
with their Judgment, who are the proper Judges 
of Things of that Nature, and what is moft expe- 
dient and convenient therein for the Three Nations 
which they reprefent : And it is certain there is a 
Kind of Impoffibility, at once, to enumerate all 
particular Cafes and Circumftances, wherein the 
Chief Magiftrate (hall, or (hall not, have Power or 
Right ; which has been the Work of many Hun- 
dreds of Years, whereby the Laws are fitted, in all 
Particulars, to the Name and Title of King; but to 
the Name of Proteftor^ or any new Name, either 
all Cafes and Circumftances muft, by particular 
^Enumeration, be applied ; or it muft be left, at leaft 
in what is not enumerated, boundlefs and lawlefs, 
which it fhould not be ; or elfe, to fuit a particular 
Enumeration, there muft be a general Claufe, That 
in all Things, not particularly fpecified, they fhail 
be defined by the Laws and Rights belonging to the 
Name of King. Then the Queftion will be meerly 


Of E N G L A N D. 105 

nominal, and confequcntly not to be put in Balance inter-rcjnum. 
with the Judgment of Parliament: Befides, the De- 1657. 
finition being identically the very fame, and no Dif- * -v~* 
ference but only that of a new Name ; this, in the A ^ 
Judgment of divers wife Men, may draw after it fuch 
a Confequence as the putting of old Wine into a new 
Bottle, which may hazard the Lofs of the Thing, 
and of the Laws and Liberties of the Nation, which 
are defired to be preferved thereby. 

' Magiftracy is, certainly, an Ordinance of God 
primarily, yet particular Forms of Magiftracy and 
Government, and much more the Circumftances of 
thofe Forms, as Names, Titles, and the like, are 
firft Ordinances of Men, before they are Ordinances 
of God : Firft, Man fets his Stamp upon them, and 
then God alfo fets his Imprefs upon them ; and 
therefore, though they be but Ordinances of Men, 
yet the Apoftle faith, We are to fubmit unto them 
for the Lord's Sake, whether to the King as Supreme* 
or unto Governors, as thofe that are fent by htm ; 
and what Peter calls Ordinances of Men, Paul calls 
Ordinances of God; and yet they are to be obey'd, 
not only for Fear, but alfo for Confcience Sake; 
fo that in thefe Forms of Government Men may do 
as they will, as in other Contracts, wherein it is 
free for them to contract or not to contract, or to 
make their Covenants this Way or another ; but 
when they have made them they muft keep them, 
for then God's Seal is upon them. 

' Now, as to the Matter in Queftion, it is clear, 
that the unqueftionable Stamp of human Authority, 
and the Ordinance of Man in thefe Nations, hath 
conjoined the Office and Name of King for many 
hundred Years together : And, if it was waved and 
laid afide of late Years, it is now fet up again by as 
pood an Authority, and a fuller Reprefentative of 
the Three Nations ; and though it be only by Peti- 
tion to your Highnefs, yet it is in fome Sort a Peti- 
tion of Right: tor the People of thefe Nations have 
an Intereft in their Government and Laws, where- 
of this was amongft the Fundamentals, as well as 
*n their Liberties and Lands 3 and though particu- 

io6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. lar Perfons may have forfeited their Intereft in the 
l6 S7- Government, yet I do not know that the Nations 
c """"Yr"*'' have forfeited their Intereft therein. 

* If this Point (hall feem to be driven too far, yet 
it is clear that if this Office, under the Name and 
Title of King) be moft known, and moft fuitable 
to the Laws of thefe Nations, moft agreeable to the 
Defires and Difpofitions of the People, and moft 
likely to maintain Quiet and Peace in the Nations 
with Juftice and Liberty, (which are the great Ends 
of Government, and of all Forms and Names there- 
in) as in the Judgment of the Parliament it is: 
Then, as it is the Duty of the Parliament to advife 
it, fo doth it thereby lay an Obligation upon your 
Highnefs to accept it, as a necefTary Medium to at- 
tain thofe Ends. 

' And whereas your Highnefs is pleafed to fay, 

* This Medium is not neceflary, becaufe the Ends 

* may be attained by another Medium, as appeareth 

* in thefe two Names and Titles, Cuftodes Libertath 
' Anglits, and Protettor :' It may be affirm'd of the 
one, that the Experience of it was but of fhort Con- 
tinuance ; and of the other, that it hath and doth ftill 
ftand but in a (baking and uncertain Condition ; and 
of both, that they have attained the End but imper- 
fec-tly, and that through the Help of a great deal of 
Force. Befides, if the Parliament, (and they fup- 
pofe the like Reafon extends alfo to your Highnefs) 
when perfuaded in their Judgments that your ta- 
king the Name and Title of King is the beft Me- 
dium to preferve the Liberties and the Peace of the 
Nations, fhould make Choice of a weaker Prop, no 
Neceflity appearing unto them fo to do ; and that 
thereupon ftiould enfue great Inconveniences ; and 
the Band of Peace being broken, Blood and Confu- 
fion fhould return upon the Nation ; it muft needs 
alfo return upon their Thoughts that they had been 
wanting in their Duty, in not providing the beft Re- 
medy, which poflibly might have prevented all the 

' This leads to the Confideration of another 
Queftion in this Matter, Whether, admitting your 


Of E N G L A N D. 107 

Highnefs's Petition, ' That there is not a Necefiity 

* of this Name of King> the Reafon held forth by 
your Highnefs, makes out fuch a Nccelfity as that 
you cannot take upon you that Name, though ad- 
viled thereto by the Parliament, as the befT, and 
moll conducing to the Ends of Government Your 
Highnefs was pleafed, in the firft Place, to mention 
' the Diflatisfaction, as to this Particular, of many 
4 pious Men, and fuch as have grown up all along 
' with you in the carrying on this great Caufe, as 

* Soldiers ;' which indeed muft need be a very 
great and tender Confideration to your Highnefs, as 
it is alfo to all of us, who reap the Fruit of their 
Prayers and of their Hazards, and great and excel- 
lent Service ; and it would be a great Mappings, if 
it might pleafe God that great and good Things 
were carried on with Unanimity and Harmony 
amongft good Men : But this Felicity hath never 
yet been granted unto jus ; fo that great Matters 
and Changes have been accompanied with great 
Difficulties, with great Difference of Judgments, 
even amongft the beft Men, as our late Changes 
fufficiently teftify. 

' Your Highnefs knows well when that Change 
was made, whereby the Name and Office of King 
was laid afide, how many pious Men, and your old 
Friends, were difiatisfied therewith ; and yet thofe : 
that had then the Power, did not think that they 
ihould therefore forbear to do what then was judged 
to be for the Good of the Nation. 

'There was the like DiflatisfacYion, on the other 
Side, of many piou^ Men, when your Highnefs took 
upon you the Government under the Name of Pro- 
tettor j and yet it was not held any juft Obftacle to 
what was then thought good for the Nation. 

* There is a certain Latitude, whereby Refpeft 
may be had to Friends ; but when the Public Good 
of the whole Nation is in Queftion, other Confi- 
derations than that ought not to take Place : And 
as it is no Kindnefs to go about to fatisfy Men's De- 
fircs, to their own Prejudice and the Injury of the 
Public, fo it cannot be thought but that pious and 


io8 The Parliamentary HISTORY* 

Inier-regnum. fober Men, when they fee this Name ftamp'd firft 
with the Ordinance of Men, and afterwards with 
God's Ordinance, (for fo it will then be) will fubmit 
thereunto for the Lord's Sake} and fatisfy their 
Minds that they ought fo to do. 

' For that other Reafon alledged by your High- 
jiefs, ' That this Name hath been blafted, and ta- 
ken away by the Parliament :' It is clear, that the 
Thing was as much blafted as the Name ; and the 
Government by a Single Perfon, under what Name 
foever, as much and more blafted than this Name; 
but, in Truth, neither Name nor Thing hath been 
at all blafted by God, otherwife than as he blafted 
all Things and Names of this Nature. It may be 
as truly faid, That he hath blafted Parliaments, for 
they have alfo undergone and felt the like Blafts ; 
but God hath fo declared his Will concerning all 
particular Forms of Government, that they are 
wholly at the Pleafure and Difpofition of Men, to 
be continued, altered, and changed according to the 
Exigency of Affairs, and the Good of the People 
and Nations for which they are inftituted by Men 5 
for the Scripture calleth them Humana Creationis. 
Therefore as Men blafted them, fo God blafted 
them ; and when God fets them up again, God ho- 
noureth them again, and commands they (hould be 
honoured: One Parliament thought the prefent 
State of Affairs requir'd the taking away of this 
Name and Office j and this Parliament judges that 
the prefent State of Affairs requires the reftoring it 
to the Nations again. 

' As to that Point of Safety which your Highnefs 
touched upon, we might beft anfwer it by draw- 
Ing a Curtain before it, as your Highnefs hath given 
us an Example. There are Diflatisfa&ions on the 
one Side, as well as on the other, neither is the Con- 
federation of Danger only on the one Side ; and fome 
Things may be more convenient for your High- 
nefs to conceive, than for us to fpeak ; only I fhall 
remind your Highnefs of what the wife Man faith, 
He that obferveth the Wind Jhall never fow, and be 
that regardtth the, Cloyd* fall never reap: The 

Of N G L A N D. 109 

Hufbandman, in the Way of his Calling, muft re- Inter-regnura. 
gulate his Actions by the Ordinance and revealed 
Will of God, without attending unto the uncertain 
Events which may arife through the Inclemency of 
the Air, which is in God's Hands and Difpofition; 
fo every Man, in the Way of his Calling, mull at- 
tend to what is the revealed Will of God, to guide 
his Refolutions and Actions by, and not by the va- 
rious Minds of Men, which are in the Hands of 
God : And the wife Man alfo faith, He that walk- 
eth uprightly , walketb furely ; he walketh uprightly 
that walketh according to God's revealed Will. It 
is in like Manner a great Sign of Integrity, to {peak 
as a Man thinks, to do as he fpeaks, and to fuit 
Names to Things ; and as your Parliament hath 
thought fit to fuit Kingjhip with this Thing, fo have 
they offered it to your Highnefs with much Integri- 
ty, and without any other Refpect than the Good 
and Liberty of the Nations.' 

The Lord Erogblll fpoke next, to this Effect : 

* Your Highnefs, the laft Time this Committee Lord BngbWi 

had the Honour to wait upon you, feemed to be of 

Opinion, < That it was not neceflary that you 

' mould alTume the Title of King, to exercife le- 

* gaily the Office and Duty of Supreme Magiftrate 
' of thefe Three Nations ; becaufe that the Title of 

* Proteflor 9 if, by the Authority of Parliament, 

* made the Title of the Chief Magiftrate, would do 
' as well, and anfwer all Ends of Government as 
' fully, as that which now the Parliament does 
' dcfire and advife your Highnefs to take upon you/ 
But, to effect this, either all the Powers and Limi- 
tations of a Proteftor muft be more particularly enu- 
merated, or he muft, under that Name, have all the 
Authorities of a King, as a King has by the Law. 

Of the firft of thqfe then (as thofe learned Gen- 
tlemen that have fpoken before, have fully proved) 
whatsoever is not particularly fpecified, the Protec- 
tor is left to act arbitrarily in, or a Parliament muft 
be called to fupply every new difcovercd Defect ; 
his Powers being derived only from that Authority 


no The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. that now '.Iocs, or hereafter lhall, conftitute them : 
This will prove dangerous and inconvenient both to 
himfelf and to the People ; and to fet down all the 
Authorities and Regulations which are requifite, 
will be a Work of fo much Time and Difficulty, 
that if, in the Notion of it only, it feems impracti- 
cable, it will, in the Acting, be found much more 

' As to the Second, it will evidently appear, that 
the Difficulty is only about a Name ; and it would 
be a fad Thing indeed that any Difference mould be 
between your Higbnefs and the Parliament, efpeci al- 
ly when the Thing differ'd in refers to the fettling 
of our Foundation, and the Thing differed upon is 
only a Name. I hope that Unhappinefs will be fo 
Well forefeen, as never to be run into. 

' Your High i efs was plcafed to take Notice, 

* That if the Title of Protestor was fettled by Par- 

* liament, hardly any Thing could be objected 

* againft it, but that it is a Title not fo long known 

* to thefe Nations as that of King :' And this is a 
grave and weighty Objection ; fince, in conftituting 
of Governments, the ableft and moft difcerning, 
Judges are incapable to fee thofe Difadvantages and. 
Inconveniences, which Time and Experience do 
render evident ; which may be a Reafon, if not 
the chief one, \vhy our Anceftors would never alter 
Kingly Government, tho' they had often the Power 
to do it, and were provoked thereunto by the Exor- 
bitancy and Mai Adininiftration of their Princes ; 
they choofing rather to bound that Office in Pro- 
portion to the Evils they had fuffered under it, than 
to eftablilh a new Model of their own 5 in creeling 
of which, they could not have, in fome Ages, the 
Experience they had of that: And to caft off an Of- 
fice that has been fame hundreds of Years pruning 
and fitting for the Good of the People, to eftablifli 
one that has been but newly known, were to think 
ourfelves wifer in one Day, than our Forefathers 
have been ever, fince the fiift Erecting of Regal Go- 


Of E N G L A N D. in 

e It is an unqucftionable Principle, That the Inter-regnum. 
Magirtrate is eftablifhed for the Laws, and not the ^57- 
Laws for the Magiftrate : If therefore the Title of ^ T*T 
Proteftor fhould be the Title of the Supreme Magi- 
ftrate, we {hould fit the Laws to him, not him to 
the Laws ; which would be by our Practice to 
contradict our Profeflions, and poflibly wound the 
People's Rights : But in this Point there has been 
fo much faid, and that fo learnedly, by thofe wor- 
thy Perfons who have fpoke before, that to prove 
the Neceflity of your Highnefs afluming the Title 
of King, would be but to recapitulate thofe many 
Reafons already given. That the Parliament of 
Three Nations think it neceflary you fliould do it, 
is evident by their inferting it amongft thofe three 
Things which they efteem Fundamentals as to the 
Settlement : Yea, they have placed it at the Head 
of all thofe Fundamentals, and laid fo great Strefs 
on it, that, in their humble Petition and Advice, 
they declare, ' That if it be not accepted of, the 
* whole mall be efteemed null and void ;' fo that the 
higheft Neceflity, impofed by a Parliament, well 
delerves the beft Acceptance. 

4 Your Highnefs was pleafed to mention, * That 
we had recent Experiments, that the Supreme 
Magiftracy of the Nation might be managed, to 
all Intents and Purpofes, as well under another 
Name and Title as that of King, viz. under the 
Name of The Keepers of the Liberty of England, 
and under that of Proteffor :' But I mail humbly 
befeech your Highnefs to confider, That becaufe 
that was not grounded upon the old known Laws, 
it was of very fhort Duration : And for the Second, 
for the fame Reafon, the Parliament is now peti- 
tioning and advifing your Highnefs to alter it ; fo 
what are brought as Arguments to prove what your 
1 li-lmefs mentions, poflibly may rather evince the 
contrary : Befides, Sir, it is confefled on all Hands, 
That thefe two Changes fprung from Neceflity ; 
and therefore were not, neither ought to be, of 
longer Continuance than that Neceflity which cau- 
fed them ; and this is the great and real Difference 


112 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

loter-regnum. between Conftitutions that are eftablifhed meerly 
becaufe Neceflary, and thofe that are eftabliflied 
meerly becaufe Good : For what is only of Necef- 
fity, is but temporary, as no EfFecT: lafts longer than 
its Caufe j but what is good in its own Nature, is 
always good ; and if, by intervening Accidents, it 
be a while clouded, yet at length it fhines and over- 
comes j and all wife Men do defire to revert unto 

* To prove that the firft of thefe Changes, the 
Keepers of the Liberty of 'England ', was only an Ad~l 
ofNeceffity, and not of Choice, I need but remind 
your Highnefs, That after the Determination of the 
Regal Authority, the Parliament were neceffitated 
to advife with a Civilian of another Nation, what 
the Hollanders had done in their Cafe ; fo much 
they were at a Lofs what to do : And, indeed, the 
Providence or God hath fo altered the Temper 
of Officers between that Time and this, that the 
Change appeared beft, becaufe neceflary : But the 
Parliament efteems the Change now defired necef- 
fary, becaufe beft; nor can we poffibly better exprefs 
our Thankfulnefs for the Opportunity which now 
God hath put into our Hands, than to employ it to 
make the beft and moft lafting Settlement. 

* All Things are beft, which are found beft upon 
Trial ; but all the Changes we have been under of 
late were upon Belief, not Experiment ; and having 
had an Effay of all, the Parliament have found, 
That, above all, Regal Government is the beft; 
fo that, by the beft Judges, and by the beft Way 
of judging, that Form of Government now prefent- 
ed to your Highnefs, hath the Precedency in the 
People's Opinion ; and therefore it's hoped you will 
have it in yours. 

It may poffibly be fit for your Highnefs's Obfer- 
fervation, That the firft Breach which happened 
amongft thofe worthy Perfons, who inftrumentally 
carried on our Common Caufe, arofe from the taking 
away the Title and Office of King, fo often declared 
for, and engaged to be maintained by the Parlia- 
ment ; till then we went Hand in Hand, and took 


Of E N G L A N D. 113 

fwcet Council together: And if the Abolishing there- Inter-regm 
of caufed fo fad a Breach, probably the Reftoration ' 
of it may make it up again April? 

* Your Highnefs was pleafed to fay, ' You af- 

* fumed the Office you now bear with no better Hope 
than to prevent Mifchief ;' queftionlefs we may 
expect better Fruits from the Supreme Magiftracy : 
And if your Highnefs, who is every way fo worthy 
of that Office, had no better Hopes under the Title 
of Proteftor, we may juftly afcribe it not unto your- 
felf, but unto the Conftitution of Government you 
acted under ; and therefore, if your Highnefs will 
a flu me the Supreme Magiftracy according to the 
Laws, we (hall both hope and believe that you will 
not only prevent 111, but do much Good ; the beft 
Governor being grafted upon the beft Government. 

Your Highnefs exprefled fome Doubts, That 

* the Providence of God hath blafted the Kings Ot- 

* fice in the Duft; and that, by an Acl of Parlia- 
' ment, it was laid afide :' But I humbly hope your 
Highnefs will pardon me, if I cannot have the like 
Apprehenfion ; I cannot believe, if that Office were 
blafted by the Hand of God, that the Parliament 
would advife and petition you to take it up. Be- 
fides, Sir, the very Aft which firft caft out the 
Kingly Office, did alfo caft out the Supreme Ma- 
giftracy in any Single Per fan ; yea, by way of Elec- 
tion or otherwife : Therefore I beg your Pardon, if 
I cannot think that that Act of Parliament can be 
interpreted as a providential Blafting of that Office, 
which your Highnefs thought neceflary to accept of; 
and by virtue of which we have, for fome Years 
paft, enjoyed Quiet and Protection : But if Regal 
Government be blafted, then the Supreme Magift- 
racy in a Single Perfon is as much fo ; they being 
both, equally, declared againft at the fame Time, 
and in the fame A<St of Parliament. Now, fincc 
your Highnefs, by your Actings, have evinced you 
did not believe the Supreme Magiftracy in a Sijigle 
Perfon was blafted by Providence, you will permit 
us to believe that Regal Government is no more 
blafted than that j the fame Authority and the fame 

VOL. XXI. H Aft' 

1 14 The Parliamentary HISTORY 
Jntcr-ragnum. A& having blafted, as far as they could, both 
6 alike. 

' Your Highnefs is alfo pleafed to fay, ' Regal 
' Government is caft out de Fafto.' If the Weight 
of the Argument does reft thereon, your High- 
nefs, by accepting the Petition and Advice of the 
Parliament, will make your Argument as ftrong 
for Regal Government as ever it was againft it; and 
'tis hoped your Highnefs will not doubt, that what 
one Supreme Authority did fupprefs, another may 
erecl. The fetting up a Commonwealth-Govern- 
ment feem'd neceffary in their Judgment only, when 
they knew not what to do after they had ejected 
Kings; and we (hall be in the like Perplexity, if 
jiow you accept not of this Offer. The Act of Par- 
liament for abolifhing of Monarchy muft be confi- 
dered under that Notion only ; and yet I think there 
?re few that efteem it not as fit to prefer Regal Go- 
vernment again, under due Qualifications, as it 
then was efteemed fit not to allow of it under any. 
Again : If your Highnefs's Argument was carried 
on as far as it might be, I appiehend it might alfo 
bring into Queftion, that the Parliament was blafted 
by Providence; for whoever allows not the difTol- 
ving of the Long Parliament to be under that No- 
tion, will hardly find a good Reafon for its Diffo- 

4 But it may be faid, ' That the Long Parliament 
was rejected on account of fome that acted in it, 
who were fufpected to have a Defign of perpetu- 
ating themfelves in that Authority, which woulJ 
have turned what mould have been our Phyfic in- 
to our Poifon.' To which I humbly anfwer, 
Had that been fo, the People might have had new 
Writs fent unto them for the Election of their Re- 
prefentatives, who might have carried on the Public 
Affairs of the Nation by a new Parliament; but it 
feems thofe Times would not bear it, and therefore 
a Convention of felecl Perfons were called, unchofen 
by the People, to whom all Power was devolved ; 
and who had even a Right to have perpetuated 
themfelves, by calling in to themfelves, from Time 


Of ENGLAND. 11$ 

to Time, fuch as they thought fit : So that Parlia- i ntcr . r?gnum . 
ments were, not for that Turn only, laid af^de, bqt 1657. 
even by that Conftitution which did it, were pcrpe- v -v -I 
tually excluded. Hence it is evident, That if April. 
Kings were de Fatto blatted, Parliaments were the 
jike, yea much more fo; for in the Act for abolifh- 
ing Regal Government, it was Treafon in thofe 
only, who offered to reftore it without Confent 
of Parliament : But in that Allembly there was no 
fuch Provifion for Parliaments at all ; for, by their 
Conftitution, Parliaments were excluded : And to 
evidence how much Strefs there lies barely upon a 
Legal Name, that Aflembly, to give a greater 
Santion to their Actings, ftyled themfelves a Par- 
liament^ that being the only Name under which it 
was fit for them to be taken Notice of as the Su- 
preme Authority of the Nation ; which poflibly may 
invite your Highnefs to believe, that godly and wife 
Men think it efTential to have Titles confonant to 
our Laws : And therefore that your Highnefs, in 
the Exercife of the Supreme Magiftracy, will be 
the rather invited to alTume theTitle of King ; that, 
only, being confonant to the Law. 

4 I think all fober Men agree upon the Neceflity 
of a Government, but for the particular Form there- 
of, it is left to the Wifdom of thofe which the: 
People chufe to reprefcnt them, to fet up a one 
as may be molt fitted to their Genius, and likelieft 
to Lend to their Good and Tranquility. If any can 
prove that Regal Government, by the Word of 
God, is unlawful, or that the People have not 
Power to give the Supreme Magiftrate what Name 
they think beft, I fhould be then filent : But fince 
that Power is, unqueftionably, in the Reprefenta- 
tives of the People ; fmce they have defired your 
Highnefs to govern them by the Title of\ and 
fince alfo nothing can be objected againft it, and 
both Reafon and Cuftorn plead for it, we earneftly 
hope you will not think fit to deny the People that 
which is their Right, and I believe v/as never yet 
denied, by any Supreme Magiftrate, to any People. 
To all this may be added, That if Kingjhip has 
II 2 been 

1 1 6 The Parliamentary HISTOKT 

Inter- regnum. been caft out by many Providences, your Highnefs, 
accepting it, will (hew, That it is reftored at 
by as many more, that have happened in the 
Intervals between its Rejection and Restitution. 

* Your Highnefc did further object, ' That fome 
s good Men would be offended at your Acceptance 
4 of that Title.' I confefs that this is very confi- 
derable; and I think every judicious Perfon in the 
Houfe would be very cautious to give Men of that 
Chara&er a juft Offence : But your Highnefs will 
be pleafed to permit me to remind you of the Cha- 
racter you: gave of good Men in your laft Speech : 

* They are fuch, you faid, as give Obedience to 
' Gofpel-Ordinances ; which require Obedience to 

* Authorities, not for Fear, but for Confcience- 
' Sake : That you reckoned nothing of Piety with- 

* out that Circle ; and that any Principle which op- 

* pofed this was diabolical, and fprung from the 

* Depth of Satan's Wickednefs.' 

* You were pleafed further to fay, * That though. 
fome good Men fcrupled at that Name the Par- 

* liament thought fit to reftore, yet their doing fo 

* was no Part of their Goodnefs :' By all which it 
will be evident, that your Acceptance thereof can- 
not offend good Men, unlefs they efteem their Obe- 
dience to a Gofpel- Ordinance an Offence, which I 
hope no good Men will or can do. 

4 I ihall alfo humbly befeech your Highnefs to 
confider, That if, on the one Side, the Acceptance 
of the Title may offend Ibmc good Men ; fa, on 
/he other Side, the declining of it will give Offence 
to the Parliament, where all good Men are legally, 
and at once, reprefented. 

* The Cafe of David, when his Quid was fide, 
may poflibly parallel the Cafe of fuch good Men as 
are herein unfatisfied. While the Child was fick, 
he was very earneft with the Lord for the reftoring 
of it to Health, but God was not pleafed fo to do, 
and the Child died : His Servants, being of another 
Principle than himfelf, thus reafoned : ' Jf his 
' Trouble and Grief were fo great while yet the 
' Child was not dead, what will it be now it is dead I* 


Of E N G L A N D. 117 

But David reafoned thus: * While there was Hope, Inter-regnum . 
I wreftled with God ; but fince his Will is de- 

* clared, I chearfully fubmit to it.' I hope, as the 
fcrupulous Conferences of good Men, in the parti- 
cular Point of Regal Government, is a Parable in 
the Hiftory, fo it will Jikewife prove in the Event. 

' Your Highnefs was further pleafed to mention 
' fome Confiderations in reference to Safety :' To 
which I humbly anfwer, The Things that are of- 
fered to you are juft in themfelves, in reference to 
Civil and Spiritual Things, and fo acknowledged by 
you : That Authority that tenders them, is the Su- 
preme Legal Authority of Three great Nations. 
You have a faithful and a good Army, and we have 
you at the Head of them : What fliall we then fear? 
To which I (hall only add, That our Safety hath been 
often in Danger by the King and Parliament's dif- 
agreeing; but this is the firft Time, if it be in Dan- 

fer, that ever it was by their Agreement. To this 
may further add, That whatever Evil may arife 
from your Agreement with your Parliament, it will 
befall us in the Way of our Duty, which is an in- 
ward Comfort to balance any outward Evil : But 
if any Evil happens by your not clofing with your 
Parliament, we {hall undergo the outward Harm, 
and be denied the inward Support. 

' Your Highnefs was alfo pleafed to fay, ' You 

* had rather have any Name from this Parliament, 

* than the greateft Name that is not given by them. 1 
Permit me therefore now to fay, That, to all other 
Arguments, we have one that is irrefutable, and 
that is your own Engagement ; for the Parliament 
doth defire and advife you to accept the Name of 
King : Hitherto we have pleaded but upon the ac- 
count of your Engagement; and it is humbly hop'd 
that your Highnefs, who hath fo exactly obferved 
your Word to the worft of your Enemies, will not 
break it to your beft Friends, the Parliament.' 

The Lord-Commiflloner Wlntlocke, who was the 

firft, according to his Place as Chairman, that be.- 

H 3 gun 

1 1 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter-regnum. gun the Conference, concluded the whole Argu- 
l6 57- ment with the following Difcourfe to the Protector. 

A ? ril - SIR, 

Lord-Commif- ' I have very little to trouble your Highnefs with. 

fioner Wbithcke. So much hath been dready fpoken, and fo well, 
that it will be hard for me, or any other, to add to 
it ; only the Duty of my Employment, and fome- 
thing due to your Highnefs, occafions me to fpeak 
a few Words to acknowledge, with very humble 
Thanks, the Honour and Right which you have 
done this Committee, by the clear and free Dif- 
courfes and Conferences which they have had with 
your Highnefs ; and for your frequent Expreflions 
and Teftimonies of Affection and Refpect to the 
Parliament, whofe Senfe in this I may prefume to 
fpeak, That never any Perfons met their Supreme 
Magiftrate with more Love, Duty, and Honour, 
than the Parliament have met your Highnefs with, 
in their prelent Addrefles ; which Argument of 
Love deferves the Efteem and Force, which I doubt 
riot but your Highnefs will put upon it. I am afraid 
to be too tedious at any Time, efpecially at fo late 
an Hour ; and therefore I (hall fpeak but briefly to 
fome Things, which, as I remember, have not been 

' Your Highnefs was pleafed, at the laft Meet- 
ing, to fay, ' That the original Inftitution of the 
Title of King, was by common Confent ; and that 
the fame common Confent might inftitute any other 
Title, and make it as effectual as that of King:' 
This muft be acknowledged; but, withail, you may 
be pleafed to obferve, That the Title of King is not 
only by an original common Confent, but that Con- 
fent alfo approved and confirmed, and the Law fit- 
ted thereunto, and th'at fitted to the Laws, by the 
Experience and Induftry of many Ages, and many 
Hundreds of Years together ; whereas any other 
Title will be only by prefent common Confent, 
without that Experience and Approbation. 

* As for that Experience which your Highnefs 
mentioned to have been 0f other Titles, and the 



c due Adminilrration of Juftice under them,' that is Inter-re&num. 
far fhort of the other ; and for the Courle of Juflice, l6 57- 
we have Cautc to thank that Care which placed fo ^~~^ / ~j*~ J 
good Judges and Officers over us ; yet give me Leave ?r 
to fay, That in private Caufes between Party and 
Party, and in public Matters in criminal Caufes, it 
was not eafy to find Juftice to be done by fome Ju- 
rors; and many Questions have arifen upon the Oc- 
cafion of rhofe new Titles. Concerning that tender 
Point, good Men's Satisfaction, I think it requires 
a very great Regard from us ; and I doubt not but 
thofe good People will be fully latisfied, if they con- 
fider the Covenants, Promifes, and Precepts, which 
in the Scriptures are annex'd to the Narhe of King: 
And tho' fome have alledged, that they belong, to- 
any Chief Magistrate as vreH as to a King ; yet no 
Man did ever read the original Word tranflated 
otherwife than King ; neither do I find the prefent 
Title of Protfffor once mentioned in Holy Writ. 

' If the prefent Authority be a lawful Authority,, 
which I hope none of us will deny, furely thole good 
Men, who are fo well principled in Godlinefs, will 
not forget that Precept of Submiflion to Authority;, 
and fo be fatisfied with that which lawful Authority 
(hall ordain. Their Rights and Liberties are the 
fame with ours; and the Parliament cannot advife 
any thing for the Prefervation of the People's Rights 
but thofe good Men are included ; which I hope will 
be no Dillatisfadion to them. In all the Changes 
which we have fcen, there has been a Diflatisfac- 
tion in fome, yet (till the Blefling of God hath gone 
along, thro' all thcfe Changes, with thofe who car- 
ried on his Interert; and the Caufe being the fame, 
the fame Mercies have been continued : And I doubt 
not (if the intended Change, or rather Reftitution, 
be made, as I hope ii will) but the fame God will 
continue his Bleifings to that good old Caufe where- 
in we are engaged v and that all good Men will re- 
ceive Satisfaction by it. 

4 Your Highnefs hath been told, < That the Title 

* of King is upon the Foundation of Law ; and that 

* a new Title rnuft have a new Confutation to make 


1 2 o ^he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum, ' the Laws relate unto it, and that unto the Laws :* 

1657- I fhall only add this, That a Title by Relation is not 

* '"V"" 11 "^ fo certain and fafe as a Title upon the old Founda- 

Ap tion of the Law ; and that a Title upon a prefent 

fingleConftitution, as any new one muft be, cannot 

be fo firm as a Title both upon the prefent Conftitu- 

tion and upon the old Foundation of the Law like- 

wife, which the Title of King will be. 

' If any Inconvenience fhould enfue upon your 
Acceptance of this Title which the Parliament ad- 
vifeth, your Highnefs's Satisfaction will be, that 
they did advife it : On the contrary, if any Incon- 
venience fhould arife upon your Highnefs's Refufai 
of that Title which the Parliament hath advifed, 
your Burden will be the greater : And therefore, 
whatsoever may fall out, will be better anfwered by 
your Highnefs's complying with your Parliament 
than otherwife. 

' This Queftion is not altogether new; fome In^ 
ftances have been given of the like, to which I (hall 
add two or three. The Title of the King of Eng- 
land, in the Realm of Ireland, was Lord of Ireland* 
And the Parliament, in the 33d of Henry the Eighth, 
reciting the Inconveniences which did arife there 
by reakm of that Title, did enact, That Henry the 
Eighth mould aflume the Style and Title of King of 
Ireland^ which, in the Judgment of that Parlia- 
ment, was preferred before the other. 

' In the State of Rome, new Titles proved fatal 
to their Liberties; their Cafe was not much unlike 
ours ; they were weaned with a Civil War, and 
coming to a Settlement, Cuntfa Difcordiis Civilibus 
fejfa, fub nomine Principis Imperium accepit ; fome 
would not admit the Title of Rex to be ufed, but 
were contented to give the Titles of Ctsfar, perpe- 
tuus Dictator, Princeps Senatus, Jmperator. Non 
fum Rex, fed Ctsfar. And it came at laft to this, 
f^eluntas Geefaris pro Lege habebatur. 

* The Northern People were more happy amongfl 
themfelves : A private Gentleman, of a Noble Fa- 
mily, took up Arms with his Countrymen againft a 
Tyrant ; and, by the Blefiing of God, refcued their 


Of E N G L A N D. 121 

pative Liberties, and Rights of their Country, from 
the Oppreflion of that Tyrant. This Gentleman 
had the Title of Marfinl given to him, which con- A ril 
tinued fome Years. Afterward their Parliament, 
judging it belt to refume the old Title, elected this 
Gentleman to be their King ; and with him were 
brought in the Liberty of the Proteftant Religion, 
and the Eftablifhment of the Civil Rights of that 
People, which have continued in a profperous Con- 
dition ever fmce unto this Day. 

Sir, I fhall make no other Application ; but, in 
my Prayers to God, to direct your Highnefs and the 
Parliament (as I hope he will) to do that which will 
be mod for his Honour, and the Good of his 

April 23. This Day the Parliament ordered the 
Serjeant at Arms to fumnion the Lords Commif- 
fioners of the Great Seal, the Judge?, and all the 
Lawyers in IVcJiminJler-Hally who were Members 
of the Houte, to attend immediately ; which being 
done, the Lord-Commiflioner JVhitlocke made a Re- 
port of the foregoing Bulinefs, and the Houfe voted 
their Approbation of the Proceedings of the Com- T . 
mittee therein. Conferencfbe- 

ing reported to 

The reft of this Month was almoft wholly fpentthe Houfe, 
by the Parliament, in canvafling their humble Peti- 
tion and Advice, without hearing any further from 
the Lord Protector on that Subject : Infomuch that, 
on the 3Oth, the Committee was ordered to wait 
upon him with their feveral Refolutions touching 
that Matter, and to defire his Higjjncfs to appoint a* S^ST 
Time when the Houfe might attend on him for hisproteftor again, 
pofltive Allfwer. for a Definitive 

In confequence hereof, the firft of May was ap- Anfwcu 
pointed for that Purpofe, and afterwards the iixth ; 
then the feventh, at Eleven in the Morning, which 
was again deferred to Five that Afternoon ; when the 
Committee having attended the Lord Protector once 
more, he only cxcufed himfelf for making them ftay 
fo long, and defired them to give him another Meet- 
ipg the next Morning. 

122 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr ; g 7 nmn> We have been the more particularly exact and 
* minute as to the Dates of the Committee's Proceed- 
ings, and their repeated Attendances upon the Lord 
Protector, bcaufe ail thefe Delays of Cromwell are 
the ftrongeft Demonftration of his deep-laid Policy; 
. who, by refufing, at the firft, to make any Objec- 
tions to the Title of King, when offered him by the 
Parliament, till he had heard the Committee's Ar- 
guments in Favour of that Propofal ; and then, by 
deferring his Anfwer, from Time to Time, fathom'd 
the Sentiments of all Parties, without difcovering his 
own. However, 

May 8. The Lord-Commiflioner Wbitlocke re- 
ported, That his Highnefs defired the Parliament to 
meet him, prefently, in the Banquetting- Houfe at 
Whitehall. ^M^ before they could come to any Re- 
folution thereupon, an Affair happened which put 
an End to all Cromwell's farther Evafions, and de- 
termined him to give a definitive Anfwer : For the 
Journals acquaint us, That the Houfe being in- 
form'd divers Officers of the Army were at the Door 

with a Petition, they were called in. -But no 

Mention being made, in thofe Authorities, of- the 
Contents of this Paper, we (hall fupply the Defi- 
ciency from Mr. Ludlow^ who writes, ' That fome 
Officers of the Army, difgufted at the Proceedings 
of the Parliament, came to the Door of the Houfe ; 
A Petition from and fent in a Meffage to General Dejborougb, fig- 
feveral Officers n jf y j ng That they had a Petition, which they de- 

of the Army, to - ' . . r i c- i T> i_ i 

the Parliament, " re d him to prcfent to the Speaker : But he know- 
againft Crom- ing the Contents of it, and conceiving it unfit for 
w ^' s bein s' him to take pub^c Notice of it before it was pre- 
fented, only acquainted the Houfe, That certain 
Officers of the Army had a Petition to prefect to 
them : And every one fuppofing that the S-entiments 
of thefe Officers were conformable to their own, 
Cromwell's Party concluding that none of the Army 
durft appear for the crofling his Defign, it was ge- 
nerally agreed that they ftiould be called in, and 
have Leave to prefent their Petition with their own 
Hands. Lieutenant- Colonel Mafon was chofen, by 


Of E N G L A N D. 123 

the reft of the Officers, to deliver it j which when he 
had done, and the Officers wcic withdrawn, the fame 1 
was read to this Effect: * That they had hazarded 
their Lives againft Monarchy, and were ftill ready 
fo to do, in Defence of the Liberties of their Coun- 
try : That having obferved, in fome Men, great 
Endeavours to bring the Nation again under their 
old Servitude, by prefling their General to take 
upon him the Title and Government of a King^ in 
order to deftroy him, and weaken the Hands of 
thofe who were faithful to the Public ; they 
therefore humbly defucd the Houfe to difcounte- 
nance all fuch Perforis and Endeavours, and con- 
tinue ftedfaft to the old Caufe, for the Preferva- 
tion of which they, for their Parts* were moft 
ready to lay down their Lives a .' This Petition 
xvas fubfcribed by two Colonels, feveh Lieutenant- 
Colonels, eight Majors, and fixteen Captains, who, 
with fuch.Officers in the Houfe as were of the fame 
Opinion, made up the Majority of thofe which 
were then quartered about the Town.' 

* It was difficult (adds our Memorialing) to deter- 
mine whether the Houfe or Cromwell was moft fur- 
prized at this unexpected AiJdrefs j but, certainly, 
both were infinitely difturbed at it. As foon as the 
Notice of it was brought to him, he fent for Lieu- 
tenant-General Flcftiuoofl) and told him, * That he 
wondered he Would fuffer fuch a Petition to pro- 
ceed fo far, which might eafdy have been prevent- 
ed, fmce he knew it to be his Refolution not to ac- 
cept the Crown without the Confcnt of the Army; 
and therefore defired him to haften to the Houfe, 
and put thtrn off" from doing any Thing further 
therein. The Lieutenant -General immediately 
went thither, and told them, That the Petition 
ought not to be debated, much lefs to be anfwered 


This Petition ws fo diftafteful to Cratnvt/I, that ail poffible Means 
were ufed by Secretary Tburhe to prevent any Copies thereof being 
difperfed in England ; Orders of the fame kind were fent to General 
Monk in Scitlafid, and to Henry Cmmtoe/l, the Protestor's fccond Sor\, 
then in Inland* Tburloei Slate Pffftrs, Vtli Vlt p. 29 1, 310. 

124 yb* Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. at this Time, the Contents of it being to defire 

t^f 5 ^_y them not to prefs the Prote&or to be King, where- 

M as the prefent Bufinefs was to receive his Anfwer 

to what had been formerly offered to him ; and 

therefore he infifted that the Debate of it might be 

put off, foj: the prefent. 

Mr. Ludlow 1 ^ Account of the foregoing Affair 
Hands confirmed by the Journals ; in which it ap- 
pears, That, the Petitioners being withdrawn, the 
Houfe, without coming to any Refolution as to the 
Matter of the Petition, went to meet the Lord Pro- 
tector at the Banqueting-Houfe^ according to his 
Appointment ; where he delivered his Sentiments to 
them in thefe Words : 

Mr. Speaker, 

* T Come hither to anfwer that which was in your 
S f he U refu e f 1 . laft Pa P er to th . e Committee you fent to me, 
tliat Title; ' which was in relation to the Defires which were 

' offered to me by the Houfe, in what they called 
4 their Petition. 

' I confefs, that Bufinefs hath put the Houfe, 
c the Parliament, to a great deal of Trouble, and 
* fpent much Time. 

' I am very forry for that ! It hath coft me fome 
' and fome Thoughts ; and becaufe 1 have been the 

* unhappy Occafion of the Expence of fo much 
6 Time, I fhall fpend little of it now. 

' I have, the beft I can, revolved the whole Bufi- 
' nefs in my Thoughts ; and I have faid fo much 
' already in Teftimony to the whole, that I think 
' I fhall not need to repeat any Thing that' I have 
' faid. I think it is a Government that, in the Aims 

* of it, feeksthe fettling the Nation on a good Foot, 
' in relation to Civil Rights and Liberties, which 
' are the Rights of the Nation : And I hope I fhall 
' never be found to be one of them that fhall go 
' about to rob the Nation of thole Rights, but to 
' ferve them what I can to the attaining of them. 

* it is alfo exceedingly well provided there, for 

* the Safety and Security of honeft Men, in that 


Of ENGLAND. 125 

T reat, natural, and religious Liberty, which is inter-regnum. 

* Liberty of Confcience. Thefe are the great Fun- ' 6 57- 

' damentals ; and I muft bear my Teftimony to * v -^ 

* them, as I have and (hall do ftill, fo long as God May> 
' lets me live in this World, that the Intentions 

' and the Things are very honourable and honeft, 
' and the Product worthy of a Parliament : I have 
' only had the Unhappinefs, both in my Conferences 

* with your Committees, and in the bed Thoughts 

* I could take to myfelf, not to be convinced of 

* the Necefllty of that Thing that hath been fo 
' often in lifted on by you ; to wit, the Title of 
' King, as in itfelf fo necefiary as it feems to be 
' apprehended by you. 

4 And yet I do, with all Honour and Refpect 
' to the Judgment of a Parliament, teftify that 

* (cateris paribus) no private Judgment is to lie in 

* the Balance with the Judgment of Parliament ; 
' but, in Things that refpeft particular Perfons, 
4 every Man that is to give an Account to God of 

* his Aclions, muft, in fome Mcafure, be able tor 
' prove his own Work, and to have an Approba- 
' tion, in his own Confcience, of that that he is to 
' do, or to forbear : And whilft you are granting 
4 others their Liberties, furely you will not deny me 
' this ; it being not only a Liberty, but a Duty (and 

* fuch a Duty as I cannot, without Sinning, forbear) 

* to examine my own Heart, and Thoughts, and 
' Judgment, in every Work which I am to fet my 
4 Hand to, or to appear in, or for. 

* I muft confcfs therefore, that though I do ac- 

* knowledge all the other, yet I muft be a little 

* confident in this, That what with the Circum- 

* ftances that accompany human Actions, whether 
' they be Circumrtances of Times or Perfons ; whe- 
' ther Circumftances that relate to the whole, or 

* private, or particular Circumftances, that compafs 
' any Perfon that is to render an Account of his own 

* Actions ; I have truly thought and do ftill think, 

* that if I fhould, at the beft, do any Thing on this 

* Account to anfwer your Expectation, at the beft, 

* I fliwulJ do it deubtingly j and, certainly, what is 

126 The Parliamentary Hi STORY* 

4 fo, is not of Faith ; and whatfoever is not fo, 
' whatfoever is not of Faith, is Sin to him that doth 
' it, whether it be with relation to the Subftance 

* of the Action, about which that Confideration is 
' converfant, or whether to Circumftances about it, 
' which make all indifferent; Actions good or evil : 

* I fay Circumftances ; and truly I mean good or 
' evil to him that doth it. 

' I, lying under this Confideration, think it my 

* Duty, onTy I could have wifhed I had done it 

* fooner, for the Sake of the Houfe, who hath laid 

* fo infinite Obligations on me ; I wiih I had done 

* it fooner, for your Sake, and faving Time and 
' Trouble ; and indeed for the Committee's Sake, 
' to whom I muft acknowledge publickly I have 

* been unreafonably troublefome : I fay I could have 

* wifhed I had given it fooner : But truly, this is 
' my Anfwer, That (although I think the Govern- 

* ment doth confift of very excellent Parts, iri all 

* but in that one Thing the Title, as to me) I 

* fhoald not be an honeft Man if I ihould not tell 
' you, that I cannot accept of the Government nor 

* undertake the Trouble and Charge of it, which 
' I have a little more experimented than every 
' Body, what Troubles and Difficulties do befal 
' Men under fuch Trufts, and in fuch Undertakings : 

* I fay I am perfuaded to return this Anfwer to you, 
' That I cannot undertake the Government with 
' the Title of King: And that is my Anfwer to this 
' great and weighty Bufinefs.' 

jN"otwithftanding Cromwell's refufing the Title of 
King) with fuch feemins; Earneftnefs, it appears, 
upon the Evidence cf Mr. IVbitlscke and Secretary 
Thurloe, l That the Pror.ecT.or was not only fully 
fatisfied in his own private Judgment, that it was fit 
for him to accept of the Parliament's Propofal, but 
alfo declared to feveral Members his Reiolution to 
do fo j and that Matters were prepared in order 
thereto a .' A modern Hiftorian b adds, That a 


a Memorials^ p. 646. Ludlcvi, Vol. II. p. 583, ft ftj . $ur- 
net\ Hiftery of bis own Times, Vol, I. p. 7. 
\f &thotft Memtirs, p. 1 1 6. 

Of E N G L A N D. 127 

Crown was a&ually made ready; and it appears inter-regnnm . 
by feveral original 'Letters lince published c , that ^57. 
not only the Protector's own Family, but even the * ~v - ' 
fagacious Thurloe, was captivated with the Glare lay ' 

of his Matter's expedted Monarchy.- And altho' 

all Hiftorians agree that Cromwell's P'ear of the Rc- 
fentment of th principal Officers in his Army, ( who 
might hope to fucceexl him as Protector in their 
Turn) the Sollicitations of the Republicans, and the 
fufpected Fury of the various hinthufiafts of the 
Times d , did, without Doubt, principally contri- 
bute to this Piece of Self-DeniaJ ; yet it is ob- 
fcrvable, from the whole Conduct of the Commit- 
tee in the foregoing Conference, that their Aim was; 
rather to reftore the Conftitution, than to pay a Per- 
fbnal Compliment to Cromwell: And had he accept- 
ed the Title of King, his own Depofal might polfibi v 
have made Way for the Reftoration of the Stuqrt 
Family; iincc, if the Government mud have been 
veiled in a King, the Nation woyld probably have 
chofen rather to fubmit to the Family of their an- 
tient Monarchs, than to one who had been fo lately 
their Fellow-Subject ; and the rather, fince fuch a 
Revolution would have delivered the Kingdom from 
the terrible Confequences of a diluted Title be- 
tween a King de "Jure and a King tie Fatio. 

How far the Jealoufy of fuch a Turn might contri- 
bute to Cromwell's Determination, is Matter of 
Speculation ; but this Conjecture will, perhaps, be 
allowed to have fome Weight, when it is remem- 
bered that not one of the Orators of the Committee, 
except Mr. Lijle, had any Concern in the Trial of 
Jfax^Charltt theFirft, and even he did not fignthe 
bloody Warrant ; and that moft of the others ha<i 
been fecludcd by the Army in December^ 1648, be- 
fore the Judicial Procefs was commenced a-ninlt 
that unhappy Prince. To this may be added, That 
Lord Clarendon % though he fays 'that many of the 
Cavaliers were ftruck with Horror at the Propoial 
lor advancing Cromwell to the Crown, as tearing up 


e 7/ii.r/e/s State Poftrt, Vol. VI. p. 281, Z$Z, 313. 
' A'fV*o//Vs Colle iiien of Letters, &C. p. 
* //./. 'j, Vol. VI. p. 589. 

128 The Parliamentary 

Imer-regnum. all future Hopes of the Royal Family by the Roots'^ 
1657. yet he admits that Nobody was forwarder in that 
v -v ' Acclamation than very many of the King's Party, 
May * who really believed that the making Crormvell King, 
for the prefent, was the beft Expedient for the Re- 
ftoration of his Majefty ; and that the Army and the 
whole Nation would then have been united rather 
to reftore the true, than to admit of a falfe, Sove- 
reign, whofe Hypocrify and Tyranny being now de- 
tedted and known, would be the more oetefted. . 

But to return : 

In canvafling and debating the foregoing Speech 

of the Lord Protector, the Office of King/hip, which 

they had put into their Humble Petition and Advice, 

and which he had, now, artfully refufed to accept, 

came in Queftion ; and on the igth of this Month 

rient'agre'to" 1116 Houfe refolved, on a Divifion of 77 againft 45, 

ftyle him Lord that the Words Lord Protector fhould be inferted in- 

Protestor, with ftead of that of King. 

certain Limita- 

Power f h ' S Jt is obfervable tnat > in tlj e foregoing Conferen- 
ces between Cromwell and the Committee, the prin- 
cipal Arguments urged for his being King, were 
grounded upon a juft Apprehenfion of the Inconve- 
niences which might arife to the Public from the 
Government's being vefted in a Title unknown t 
the Conftitution. The Monarchical Party there- 
fore, being over-ruled in this Queftion, infifted, 
that, as the Houfe had thought fit to change the 
Name of King into that of Protector, a Committee 
rnigl.t be appointed to whom it fhould be referred to 
confider how that Title might be bounded, limited, 
and circumftantiated. This being too reafonable a 
Propofal to fuffer a Negative, a Committee was 
appointed accordingly ; neverthelefs when they made 
their Report, on the 22d, the Queftion for agreeing 
thereto was carried by a Majority of only 53 Voices 
againft 50; which confirmed the Sufpicion that thofe 
who oppofed Cramiuell's being King^ fought to ren- 
der him more abfolute as Prcteffcr. However, the 
Queftion for agreeing with the Committee being 


Of E N G L A N D. 129 

carried, the Houfe then refolved, That inftead of the inter-regmun, 
Paragraph in their Petition, running thus, That your 
Highnefs will be pleafed to ajfume the Name, Style, 
Title, Dignity, and Office of King 0/ England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, and the refpeflive Dominions and 
Territories thereto belonging \ and to exercife the fam* 
according to the Laws of thefe Nations j this Ciaufe 
be inferred : That your Highnefs will be pleafed ', by and 
under the Name and Style cf Lord Protestor of the 
Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
and the Dominions and Territories thereunto ' 

ing, to hold and exercife the Office of Chief Magi- 
/irate of thefe Nations ; and to govern according to 
this Petition and Advice in all Things therein con- 
tained, and, in all other Things, according to the 
Laws of thefe Nations, and not otherwife. 

This knotty Point being thus fmeothed, put an 
End to all farther Debates on the Parliament's Pe- 
tition and Advice ; and it was ordered to be en- 
grofled fair as foon as poflible. On the 25th, the 
Day appointed by Cromwell to receive it, he came 
down to Wejlminfter ; and fending for the Houfe to 
attend him in the Painted- Chamber, the Speaker 
prefented the fame to his Highnefs, acquainting him 
with the Alterations made therein ; and then the 
whole was read in the following Terras : 

To his Highnefs the LORD PROTECTOR of 

the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, and the Pominions thereto belonging, 

fembled in the Parliament of this Commour 

the Knights, Citizens, and Burgcjfis in this Their 
prefent Parliament ajembled, taking into 
tnojl Jerious Confederation the prefent State of thefe 
three Nations, joined and united under your High- 
nefs's Prcftiisn % cannot but, in the firjl 'Place, with 
all Thankfulnefs acknowledge the wonderful Mercy of 
XXI. Al- 

130 The Parliamentary Hi STORY 

later-regnum. Almighty God, in delivering us from that Tyranny 
l6 "' and Bondage, both in our Spiritual and Civil Con- 
cernments^ which the late King and his Party defigned 
to 'bring us under , and purfued the effecting thereof 
by a long and bloody War ; and alfo that it hath plea- 
fed the fame gracious God to prejerve your Perjon in 
many Battles, to make you an Inftrument for pre- 
ferving our Peace, although environed with Enemies 
abroad, and filled ivith turbulent, rejllefs, and un- 
quiet Spirits in our own Bowels ; that as in the tread' 
ing, down the common Enemy, and reftoring us to 
Peace and Trauquility, the Lord hath ufed you fo 
eminently, and the worthy Officers and Soldiers of the 
Army, whoje Faithfulnefs to the Common Cauje, we 
and all good Men jhall e,ver acknowledge, and put a 
juft Value upon; fo alfo that -he will ufe you and 
them in the fettling and fecuring our Liberties, as we 
are Men and Chriftians, to us and our Pofterity af- 
ter us; ^uhich are thoje great and glorious Ends which 
the good People of thefe Nations have fo freely, with 
the Hazard of their Lives and Eftates, fo long and 
tarncftly contended for : We confider likewife the con- 
tinual Danger which your Life is in, from the bloody 
Practices, both of the malignant and dif contented Par- 
ty, (one whereof, thro" the Goodnefs of God, you have 
been lately delivered from) it being a received Prin- 
ciple amongjl the:', , That no Order being fettled in 
your Lifetime for the SucceJJion in the Government, 
nothing is wanting to bring- us into Blood and Confu- 
Jjon, and them to their defied Ends, but the Deftruc- 
tion of your Perfoti ; and in cafe Things Jbould thus 
remain at your Death, zue arc not able to exprefs 
what Calamities would, in all human Probability, en- 
fue thereupon, which we trujl your Highnefs, as well 
as we, do hold yourfelf obliged to provide againjl; 
and not to leave a People, whofe common Peace and 
Inter eft you are intrujled with, in fuch a Condition 
as may hazard both, efpecially in this Conjuncture, 
when there feems to be an Opportunity of coming to 
a Settlement upon juft and legal Foundations. Upon 
theft Conjidsrations, we have judged it a Duty in- 

Of E N G L A N D. 131 

cumbcnt upon us, to prefent and declare thffe our moft Inter- regnum. 
jujl and nctfjfary Deftres to your Highnefs. 

I. That your Highnefs will be pleafed, by and un- 
der the Name -and Style of Lord Protettor of the 
Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
and the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging, 
to hold and exercife the Office of Chief Alagijirate 
of thefe Nations, and to govern according to this Pe- 
tition and Advice, in all Things therein contained* 
and in all other Things according to the Laws of thefe 
Nations, and not otherwife : That your Highnefs 
will be pleafed, during ysur Lifetime., to appoint 
and declare the Perfon who jhall* immediately after 
your Death, fucceed you in the Government of thefe 

II. That your Hi^hnsft will, for the future, be 
pleafed to call Parliaments, confeft'wg if two Houfes y 
(in Inch Manner and fray as fnall be more particu- 
larly afterwards agreed and declared in this Petition 
and Advice) once in thres Tears at fartheji, or 
cftner as the Affairs of the Nation Jhall require, thqt 
being your Great Council, and in whofe Ajjettion and 
Advice yourfelf and this People will be mtji jafe 
and happy. 

III. That the antient and undoubted Liberties and 
Privileges of Parliament (which are the Birthright 
and Inheritance of the People,, and wherein every 
Man it inter ejled) be preferred and maintained; and 
ikat you will not break or rxicrnipt the fsm, .n&r 
Jujfer them to be broken or interrupted ; and partku.- 

larly, that thofe Perfons who are legally chsfcn by .a 
free Election of the People to ferve in Parliament, 
may not be excluded from fitting in Parliament to tfo 
thiir Duties, tut by Judgmati and Confent of that 
liw.fe whereof they are Members. 

IV. Th/it thofe who have advifed, pjfifted, or abet- 
ted the Rebellion of Ireland, and thofe who do or flat! 
profefs the Popjfn Religion, be difabled and made in- 

. U- for /ver to be e letted, or to give any Vote in 
the Elctiion of any Member to fit or ferve in Par- 
liament ; and that all and every Perfon and Perfom 
why have aided) abetted, advifed, or in any 
I 2 

132 The "Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Wot againjl the Parliament, fmce the firjl Day of 
January, 1641, (unlefs he or they have fmce borne 
Arms for the Parliament or your Highnefs, or other- 
wife given fignal Tejlimony of his or their good Af- 
feftion to the Commonwealth, and continued faithful 
to the fame) ; and all fuch as have been affually en- 
gaged in any Plot, Conspiracy, or Defign againfl the 
Perfon of your Highnefs, or in any Infurreffion or 
Rebellion in England or Wales fmce the i6tb Day 
of December, 1653, Jhall be for ever difabled and 
made incapable to be ehfted, or give any Vote in the 
. left ion of any Member to Jit or ferve in Parliament. 
'That for Scotland none be capable to eletJ, or be 
defied to Jit or ferve in Parliament, who have been 
in Arms againjl the Parliament of England, or 
againjl the Parliament in Scotland before the firft 
Day of April, 1648, (except fitch as have fmce 
borne Arms in the Service of the Parliament of Eng- 
land or your Highnefs, or given .other fignal Tejlimony 
of their good Ajfettion) nor any that, fmce the f aid firft 
Day of April, 1648, have been in Arms, or other- 
wife aided, abetted, advifed, or aflifted in any War 
again ft the Parliament of England or your Highnefs, 
except fuch as, fmce the firft Day of March, 1651, 
Qld Style, have lived peaceably, and thereby given 
Tejlimony of their good Ajfeftion to the Parliament 
and your Highnefs. 

Provided, That nothing in this Article contained, 
Jhall extend to put any Incapacity upon any Englifti or 
Scots Proteftants in Ireland, either to eleft or be 
elefted to ferve in Parliament, who before the firft 
Day of March, 1649, have borne Arms for the 
Parliament or your Highnefs, or othenuije given 
fignal Teftimony of their good Ajfettion to this Com- 
monwealth, and continusd faithful to the fame : That 
all Votes and Elections, given or made contrary, or 
not according to the )uiilifications aforefaid, (hall be 
vo>d and of none Effett ; and that if any Perfon or 
Pet fans, fo incapable as aforefaid, fliatt, give his or 
their Vote for Election of Members to ferve in Par- 
liament, all and every fuch Perfon and Perfons fo 
eltfting, Jhall lofe and forfeit one Tears Value of his 


Of E N G L A N D. 133 

*nd their refpeftive Real Eftates, and one full third Inter-regnum, 
Part of bis and their refpefiive Perfonal EJlates ; 
the one Moiety thereof to your Highnefs, and the **~~M~ 
ether Moiety to him or them who /hall fue for the 
fame, in any Court of Record, by AcJion of Debt y 
Billy Plaint^ or Information, wherein no EJJoign* 
Wager of Law, or Protection Jhall be allowed. 
And that the Perfons who Jhall be elecJed to Jerve 
in Parliament^ be /uch, and none other than fuch, as 

are Perjons of known Integrity , fearing God, and of 
food Converjation, and being of the Age of Twenty- 
one Tears ; and not fuch as are difabled by the Aft of 
the feventeenth Tear of the late King, intitled, An 
A61 for difabling all Perfons in Holy Orders, to ex- 
crcife any Temporal Jurifdi&ion or Authority, nor 
fuch as are public Minifters, or public Preachers of 
the Gofpel : Nor fuch as are guilty of any of the 
Offences mentioned in an Afl of Parliament, bearing 
Date the ninth of Auguft, 1650, intitled, An A61 
againft ieveral atheiftical, blafphemous, and exe- 
crable Opinions derogatory to the Honour of God, 
and deftru&ive to human Society. No common 
Scoffer, nor Reviler of Religion or of any Per Jon or 
Perfons for profejjing thereof ; no P erf on that hath 
married or foall marry a Wife of the Popijh Religion ; 
or hath trained or JJiall train up his Child or Chil- 
dren, or any other Child or Children under bis Tui- 
tion or Government, in the Popijb Religion, or that 
fiall permit or fuffer fuch Child or Children to be 
trained up in the Jaid Religion; or that hath given 
or Jhall give his Confent that his Son or Daughter 
Jhall marry any of that Religion : No Perfon that 
jhall deny the Scriptures to be the Word of God, or 
the Sacraments, Prayer, Magiftracy, and Minijlry 
to be the Ordinances of God ; no common Profaner 
of the Lord's Day, nor profane Swearer or Curfer, 
no Drunkard or common Haunter of Taverns or Ale- 
houfes. And that thefe Qualifications, may be obfer- 
ved, and yet the Privilege of Parliament maintain' d, 
tve defire that it may be, by your IJigbnefs's Csn- 
fent, ordained, That forty-one Commijjioners be ap- 
pointed by AQ of 'Parliament ', who, or any fifteen r 
I 3 more 

134 ffi* e Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter-regnum. fftore of them, fliall be authorized to examine and try 
whether the Members, to be defied for the Houfe of 
Commons in future Parliaments , be capable to fit* 
according to the Qualifications mentioned in this Pe- 
tition and Advice ; and in cafe they find them not 
qualified accordingly, then to fufpend them from Jit" 
ting until/ the Houfe of Commons frail, upon hearing 
of their particular Cafes, admit them to fit ; which 
CemmiJJiontrs are to ftand fo authorized, for that 
'End, untill the Houfe of Commons, in any future 
Parliament^ /hall nominate the like Number of other 
Commijffioners in their Places ; and thofe other Com- 
mijfioners,fo to be nominated in any future Parliament, 
to have the fame Powers and Authorities. Thxt the 
faid Commijfioners /hall certify, in Writing, to the 
Houfe of Commons, on the fir Jl Day of their Meeting, 
the Caufes and Grounds of their Sufpenfeon of any Per- 
fons fo to be eleEled as aforefaid : That the Accufa- 
tion jhall be upon the Oath of the Informer, or forne 
ether Per Jon : That a Copy of the Accufation jhall 
be left by the Party accufing, in Writing under his 
Hand, with the Party accufed, or, in his Abfence, 
at his Houfe in the County, City, or Town, for which 
he Jball be chofen, if he have any fuch Houje ; or if 
not, with the Sheriff of the County, if he be chofen 
for a County, or with the Chief Magiftrate of the City 
or Borough for which he is chofen : And that the Num- 
ber of Perjons to be elecJed and chojen to Jit and ferve 
in Parliament, for England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
and the Di/iribution of the Perlons Jo chofen within 
the Counties. Cities, and Boroughs cf them refpec* 
tively, may be according to fuch Proportions as foall 
lie agreed upon and declared in this prefent Parlia- 

V. That your Highnefs will confent, That none be 
called to fit and vote in the Other Houfe, but fuch as 
are not di/abled, but qualified according to the Qua- 
lifications mentioned in the former Article, being fuch 
as /hall be nominated by your Highnefs, and approved 
by this Houfe ; and that they exceed not fevcnty in 
Number, nor be under the Number of forty, (whereof 
the Quorum to be twenty-one) who Jball not give any 


Of E N G L A N D. 135 

Vole by Proxies ; and that as any of them do die* ar Inter-re&num. 
be legally removed, no new ones be admitted to Jit 57* 

and Vote in their Rooms, but by Confent of the Houfe ~ 

'lf: That the Other Houfe do not proceed in any 

Civil Caufes, except in Writs of Error ; in Cafes ad- 
journed from inferior Courts into the Parliament for 
Difficulty, in Cafes of Petitions again/1 Proceedings 
in Courts of Equity, and in Cafes of the Privileges 
cf their own Houfe : That they do not proceed in 
any Criminal Caujes whatfoever, again/I anv Perfon 
criminally , but upon an Impeachment of the Commons 
ajjembled in Parliament, and by their Confent : That 
they do not proceed in any Caufe, either Civil or 
Criminal, but according to the known Laws of the 
Land, and the due Courfe and Ciiftom of Parliament : 
That no final Determinations or "Judgments be by 
any Members of that Houfe, in any Caufe there de- 
pending, either Civil, Criminal, or Mix'd, as Corh- 
mijjioners or Delegates, to be nominated by that 
Houfe ; but all fuch final Determinations and yudg- 
ments to be by the Houfe itfelf, any Law or Ujags 
to the contrary notwithstanding. 

VI. That in all other Particulars which concern 
the calling and holding of Parliaments, your High- 
nefs will be pleafed, that the Laius and Statutes of 
the Land be obferved and kept -, and that no Laws be 
altered, fufpended, abrogated, or repealed, or new 
Laws made, but by Act sf Parliament. 

VII. And to the end there may be a conjlant Re- 
venue for Support of the Government, and for the 

Safety and Defence of thcfe Nations by Sea and Land, 

we declare our fFillingnefs to fet\ " 

Revenue of 1,300,000!. whereof I,COO,OOO 1. for 

rignefs to fettle forthwith a yearly 

the Navy and Army, and 300,000 1. for the Support 
cf the Government, and no Part thereof to be raifed 
by a Land-Tux ; and this not to be altered without 
the Conjent of the Three EJJates in Parliament ; and to 
grant fuch other Temporary Supplies, according as the 
Commons ajfcmbled in Parliament fhall, from Time 
to Timt, adjudge tJ^ NeceJJtties of thefe Nations to 
require ; and do pray your Higbnc/s, that it be de- 
clared and enaftcd, That no Charge ve laid y nor no 


136 fhe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Perfon be competed to contribute to any Gift, Loan, 
Benevolence, Tax, Tallage, Aid, or ether like Charge 
without common Confent by AcJ of Parliament ; which 
is a Freedom the People of thefe Nations ought, by 
the Laws, to inherit. 

VIII. That none may be added er admitted to the 
Privy Council of your Highnefs or Succejfors, but 
fuch as are of known Piety y and undoubted Affection 
to the Rights of thefe Nations, and a juft Chrijlian 
Liberty in Matters of Religion, nor without Confent 
of the Council, to be afterwards approved by both 
Houfes of Parliament ; and Jhall net afterwards be 
removed, but by Confent of Parliament ; but may, in 
the Intervals of Parliament, be fujpendedfrom the Ex- 
ercife of his Place by your Highnefs or your Succejfors 
and the Council for ju/i Caufe ; and that the Number 
of the Council Jhall not be above twenty-one, where- 
of the Quorum to be feven, and not under : As a/fa 
that after your Highnefs 1 s Death, the Commander in 
Chief under your Succejfors, of fucb Army or Armies 
as Jhall be necejfary to be kept in England, Scotland, 
or Ireland, as alfa all fuch Field-Officers at Land, 
cr Generals at Sea, which after that Time fliall be 
newly made and conjlituted by your SucceJ)ors, be by 
Confent of the Council, and not otherwife : And that 
thejlanding Forces of this Commonwealth Jhall be dif- 
pofed of by the Chief Magiftrate, by Confent of both 
Houfes of Parliament, fitting the Parliament ; and, iti 
the Intervals of Parliament, by the Chief Magiftrate, 
iuith the Advice of the Council : And alfo that your 
Highnefs (tnd Succejfors will be pleafed to exercife your 
Government over thefe Nations by the Advice of your 

IX. And that the Chancellor, Keeper or Commif- 
fioners of the Great Seal of England, the Treafurer or 
Commijjioners of the Treafury there, -the Admiral, the 
Chief Governor of Ireland, the Chancellor, Keeper or 
Commijjioners of the Great Seal of Ireland, the Chief 
'Juftices of both the Benches, and the Chief Baron in 
England and Ireland, the Commander in Chief of the 
Forces in Scotland, and fttch Officers of State there, 
as, by Afl of Parliament in Scotland, are to be appro- 
ved by Parliament^ and the Judges in Scotland here- 

Of E N G L A N D. 137 

Hfter to be made, Jhall be approved of by both Houfes inter-regnum, 
of Parliament. 7 6 5 7 

X. And whereas your Highnefs, out of your Zeal to 
the Glory of God, and the Propagation of the Go/pel 
of our Lord Jefus Chrijl, hath been pleajed to encou- 
rage a Godly Minijlry in thej'e Nations ; IV e earnejlly 
dejire that juch as do openly revile them or their Af- 
femblies, at dijiurb them in the IVorjhip or Service of 

God) to the Dijhonour of God, Scandal of good Men* 
or Breach of the Peace, may be punijhed according ta 
Law : And where the Laws are defective, that your 
Highncfs will give Confent to fuch Laws as Jhall be 
made in that Behalf. 

XI. That the true Protejlant Cbrijlian Religion, 
as it is contained in the Holy Scriptures of the Old and 
Nciv Tejlament, and no other, be held forth and of- 
fer ted for the public ProfeJJion ofthefe Nations : And 
a ConfeJJion of Faith to be agreed by your Highnefs 
and the Parliament, according to the Rule and War- 
rant of the Scriptures, be aj/erted, held forth, and re- 
commended to the People of thefe Nations \ that none 
may be fujfered or permitted, by opprobrious Words or 
Writing, malic'toujly or contemptuoujly to revile or 

troach the Confej/Jicn of Faith to be agreed upon as 

aforefaid : And juch who profefs Faith in God the 
Father, and in Jefus Chri/t his eternal Son the True 
God, and in the Holy Spirit, God co-equal with the 
Father and the Son, One God blejfed for ever; and do 
acknowledge the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New 
Tejiament to be the revealed Will and Word of God 9 
and Jhall in other Things differ in DoElrine, IVorJhip, 
or Difcipline, from the public ProfeJJion held forth, 
Endeavours foall be ufed to convince them, by found 
Doftrine, and the Example of a good Conversation : 
But that they may not bt compelled thereto by Penal- 
ties, nor reflrainedfrom their ProfeJJion; but protected 
from all Injury and Molejlation in the ProfejJion of 
the Faith, and Exercife of their Religion, whdji 
they abufe not this Liberty to the civil Injury of others^ 
or the Dijlurbance of the public Peace ; Jo that this 
Liberty be not extended to Popery or Prelacy, or to 
the Countenancing fu(h who publijb horrible Blaf- 

138 The Parliamentary Hrsf ORV 

Jnter-regnum. phemies, or praftife or hold forth Licentloufnefs or 
1657. Profanenefs under the Profeffion of Chrijl : And that 

V ""C V ""'""^ thofe Mini/lers or public Preachers, who Jhall agree 
with the public ProfeJJion aforefaid in Matters of 
Faith) although in their Judgment and Practice they 
differ in Matters of War/hip and Difcipline, Jhall 
not only have Protection in the Way of their Churches 
and Worfinp refpeflively, but be ejieemed jit and ca- 
pable ', (notwithstanding fuch Difference, being other- 
wife duly qualified and duly approved) of any Trujl^ 
Promotion, or Employment whatjoever in thefe Na- 
tions, that any Miniflers who agree in Doffrine, Wor- 
Jhip, and Difcipline with the public Profeffion afore- 
faid are capable of, and all ethers who agree with the 
public Profeffion in Matters of Faith, although they 
differ in Matters of Worjhip and Difcipline as 
aforefaid, Jhall not only have Protection as aforefaid, 
lut be ejieemed fit and capable (notwithftanding fuch 
Difference, being otherwife duly qualified) of any 
Civil Truji, Employment, or Promotion in thefe 
Nations : But for fuch Perfons who agree not in 
Matters of Faith tvitb the public ProfeJJion afore- 
faid, they Jhall not be capable of receiving the public 
Maintenance appointed for the Mini/fry. Provided, 
That this Clauje Jhall not be conftrued to extend to 
enable fuch Mini/far s or public Preachers, or Pajlors 
of Congregations, but that they le di fabled, and they 
are hereby difabled, to hold any Civil Employment, 
which thofe in Orders were or are difabled to hold, 
by an Aft, intitled, An A61 for difabling all Perfone 
in Holy Orders, to exercife any Temporal Jurif- 
diition or Authority. And that your Highnefs will 
give your Confent, That all Laws, Statutes, Ordi- 
nances, and Claufes in any Law, Statute, and Or- 
dinance, fo far as they are contrary to the aforefaid 
Liberty, be repealed. 

XII. That all Acls and Ordinances of Parlia- 
ment made for the aboli firing of Archbijhops and Bi- 
foops, and for the abolijhing of Deans, Deans and 
Chapters, Canons, Prebends, and ether Offices and 
Titles of, or belonging to, any Cathedral or Colle- 
giate Church sr Chapel - 3 and for the Sale, or other 


Of ENGLAND. 139 

Difpofetion of the Lands, iJ.etm, and Hereditaments Inter-iopm m. 
unto any, or eituer of them, belonging j or for the 
Sale or other Dijpojition of the Laqds, Rents, and 
Hereditaments of the late fiing, Qnt<n, or Prince ; 
or of the Lands cf Delinquents, l'\:e-l'\irtn or othtr 
Rents, For eft- Lands, or any of them ; or any other 
Lands, c fenemtnts, Rents, or Hereditaments, lately 
belonging to the Commonwealth, foall no -way be im- 
peached, but that they do remain good and firm ; and 
that the Security given by Aft and Ordinance of Par- 
liament, for uny Sum cr Sums of Monies, by any of 
the /aid Lunds, the Excije, or by any other public 
Revenue ; and alfo the Securities given by the Public 
Faith of the Nation , and the Engagement of tfc 
Public Faith for Satisfaction of Debts, may remain, 
firm and good, and not be made void by any Pretence 
whatfoever. \ \.jh 

XI II. That all and every P erf on and Perfons, WHO 
have aided, abetted, advifed, or ajfi/led in any War 
againji the Parliament, Jince the pvft Day of Janu- 
ary, 1641, (unlejs he or they have Jince borne Arms 
for the Parliament, or your Highnefs, or otherwife 
given fignal Tejttmony of his or their good Affeftion 
to the Commonwealth, and continued faithful to the 
fame) and all juch ai have been actually engaged in 
any Plot, Con/piracy, or Dcjign, againjl the Perfon 
of your Highnefs, cr in any Injurrettion or Rebellion, 
in England or Wales, fence the ibtb of December, 
1653. And for Scotland, that all and every Per- 
fon and Perfons, who have been in Arms againjl the 
Parliament of England, or again fl the Parliament in 
Scotland, before the firjl Day of April, 1648, (ex- 
cept fuch as have fince borne Arms in the Service of 
the Parliament of England, or your Highnefs, or 
given other fignal Tejlimony of their good Ajfeftion) 
and every Perfon or Perfons that, fence the faid firft 
Day of April, 1648, have been in Arms, or otherwife 
aided, abetted, advtfed, or ajjifted in any Jfar againjl 
the Parliament of England, or your Highnefs, (ex- 
cept juch Perfons, who, having been in Arms, or other- 
wijc abetted, advifed, or affifted in any ll'ar againjl 
the Parliament of England, or your Highnefs, fence 


140 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. the fir ft Day of April, j 648 J and were not in Arms 
again/t the Parliament of England, or again/} the 
Parliament of Scotland, before the firjl Day of April, 
1648, and have, fence the fir ft Day of March, 1651, 
Old Style, lived peaceably, and thereby given Tejlimony 
of their good Affection to the Parliament, and your 
Highnefs, be made incapable, for ever, of holding 
or enjoying of any Office or Place of public Truft in 
tbefe three Nations , or any of them. 

Provided, That nothing in this Article contained 
jhall extend to put any Incapacity in this Article men- 
tioned^ upon any Englifli or Scots Protejlants in Ire- 
land, who, before the firft Day of March, 1649, 
have borne Arms for the Parliament or your High- 
nefs, or otherwife given fignal Teftimony of their good 
Affettion to this Commonwealth, and continued faith- 
ful to the fame. 

XIV. And that your Highnefs will be pleafed to 
confent, That nothing in this Petition and Advice con- 
tained^ nor your Higbnefs's AJJent thereto, Jhall be 

tonflrued to extend to the diffbhing of this prefent 
Parliament ; but that the fame Jhall continue and 
remain, untill fuch Time as your Highnefs Jhall think 
fit to dijfohe the fame. 

XV. And that nothing contained in this Petition 
and Advice, nor your Highnefs' s Confent thereunto, 
/hall be conftrued to extend to the repealing or making 
void of any Aft or Ordinance which is not contrary 
hereunto, or to the Matters herein contained ; but 
that the faid AcJs and Ordinances, not contrary here- 
unto, Jhall continue and remain in Force, in fuch 
Manner as if this prefent Petition and Advice had 
not at all been had or made, or your Highnefs 's Con- 
fent thereunto given. 

XVI. And that all Writs ijjitcd out of the Chancery, 
and all Writs and Patents of the 'Juftices of the one 
Bench and of the other, Barons of the Exchequer, 
Commijfions of Oyer and Terminer, Goal- Delivery, 
and Jujiices of the Peace, and all other Commijfions, 
Patents, and Grants, made and pajjed under the. 
Great Seal of England, Scotland, or Ireland, Jhall 
ft and good and effectual in the Laiv t Wtvritbftanding 


Of E N G L A N D. 141 

this Petition and Advice, or your Higbnefs's AJJent 
thereunto, or any Law, Statute, or Cujiom to the con- 
trary : And that all tf^rits, and all CommiJJions, In- 
diftments, Informations, Procefs, Aftions, Suits, 
Bills or Plaints, taken out, or now depending, in any 
Court cf Record at Weftminfter, or any other Court 
of Record in England, Scotland, or Ireland, or in the 
fown of Berwick upon Tweed ; and all Procefs, 
Pleas, Demurrers, Continuances, and Proceedings, in 
every Juch Writs, Indictments, Informations, Actions, 
Suits, Bills, and Plaints, Jball be returnable, ftand 
good and effectual, and be profecuted and fued firth, 
in Juch Manner and Form, and in the fame State, 
Condition, and Order, the Style and Tefle of Proceed- 
ings, after paj/ing of tbefe Prefents, being made con- 
formable thereunto ; this prefent Petition and Advice* 
or your Highnefs' s AJJent thereunto, or any Law, Cnj- 
tom, or Ufage to the contrary thereof in any wife not^ 
with/landing : And that any Variance that fiall be 
eccajioned by reafon thereof, touching any of the faifi 
Writs, Procefs, or Proceedings, in the Name, Style, 
Tejle, or otherwife, Jhall not be in any wife material 
m concerning any Default or Error to be alledged or 
objefted thereunto. 

XVII. And that your Highnefs and your SucceJ/ors 
will be plea fed to take an Oath, in fuch Form as Jhall 
be agreed ttpon by your Highnefs and this prefent Par~ 
liament) to govern thefe Nations according to tht 

And in cafe your Highnefs Jhall not be fatisfed ta 
give your Confent to all the Matttrs and Things in 
this Humble Petition and Advice, that then nothing 
in the fume be deemed of Force, to oblige the People of 
thefe Nations in any the Particulars therein contained. 

And thefe our Dejires being granted by your High- 
nefs, we Jhall hope, through the rich Mercy and Good- 
nefs of God, that it will prove fame Remedy to thofe 
Dangers, Dijlrattions, and Dijlempers which thejr 
Nations are now in, and he an effectual Means tt 
remove thofe y^aloufies and Fecrs which remain in the 
Minds of many Men concerning the Government of 
this Commonwealth ; an* thereby vjf fia'.l bs enabled 

142 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Liter-regnmn. and encouraged^ iv! tb all Chearfu'nefS) to the fettling 
cffucb Things which Jhall be j urtb ;- vecrj/xr? for the 
Good cf thefe Nations ; and be mo ft ready to join with 
you in promoting the IVork of Reformation happily be- 
gun by \our Hivbnrfs, the regulating Courts of 'Ju- 
jlice^ and abridging both the Delays and Charges of 
Laiv Suits ; a fid a^piy ourfehes to Jttcb other Courfes 
and Counfels as may be mnft like to heal our Breaches 
and Diviftons, and io re It ore theje poor Nations to a 
Union and Confiftenc** with tbemjefaes, and to lay a 
Foundation of a further Confidence between your 
Highnefs and them, to the Rejoicing of the Hearts of 
our Friends, and Terror of our Enemies. 

This being done, the Speaker, in the Name of 
the Parliament, defired his Hig'hnefs's Confent to 
the whole ; which was read, by the Clerk, in thefe 
Words, The Lord Prcteftor doth conj'ent. 

Alter all which his Highnefs made the following 
Speech : 

Mr. Speaker, 

His Speech at j Defire tQ offer Word ^ t unto 
giving his Con- { I , . , .. .. , , TTT f 

fent tbcreso. A which lhall be but a VV ord. 

4 I did well bethink myfelf before I came hi her 
' this Day, that I car,e nor-as to a Triumph,'- but 

* with the moil ferious Thoughts that ever I had 

* in all my Life, to undertake oive of the greater): 

* Tafks that ever was laid upon the Back of a hu- 
man Creature : And -I make no t^ue'tion but you 
' will, and fo will all Men, readily ?r?ree wiih me 
' that, without the Support of the Almighty, I 

* fhall neceiTarily link under the 'Burden of it ; not 
' only with Shame and Reproach to myfelf, but 
' (with that that is more a thou'fand Times, and 

* in Comparifon of which, I and my Family are, 
'' not worthy to be mentioned) with the Lofs and 

* Prejudice of thefe three Nations. 

' And, that being fo, I muii: a^-c your Help, and 
' the Plelp of all thofe that feur God, that, by their 
' Prayers, I may receive Afliftance from the Hand 
' of God : His Prefence, going; along, will enable 

* me 

Of E N G L A N D. 143 

e me to the Difchargc of fo great a Duty and Truft Intcr-regnum. 
' as this is, and nothing elle can. 

' Howbeit, I have fome other Things to defirc 

* of you, I mean of the Parliament, That, feeing 
' this is but, as it were, an Introduction to the car- 

* ryi"g on of five Government of thefc Nations ; and 
' forafmuch as there are many Things, which can- 
' not be fupplLd, for enabling me to the carrying 
4 on of this Work, without your Kelp and Aflift- 
' ance ; I think it is my Duty to afk your Help in 
6 them. Not that I doubted ; for I believe the 

* fame Spirit that hath led you to this, will eafily 
4 Jfuggeft the reft to you. 

The Truth is, and I can fay in the Prefence 

* of God, that nothing would have induced me to 
have undertaken this unfupportable Burden to 

* Flem and Blood, had it not been that I have 

* feen, in this Parliament, all along, a Care of 

* doing all thofe Things that might truly and really 

* anfwer the Ends, that we have been engaged for. 
' You have fatisfied me of your Forwardnefs and 

* Readinefs therein fully already. 

' I thought it my Duty, when your Committee, 

* which you were pleated to lend to me, to give the 

* Grounds and Reafons of your Procecings to help 
4 to inform my Conference and Judgment ; I wa^ 

* then bold to offer to them feveral Confidence. 

* which were received by them, and have been pre- 
c fented to you: In Anfwer to which the Committee 

* did bring me feveral Refolves of yours, which I. 
6 have by me. I think thofc are not yet made fo 

* authentic and authoritative as was clefired : And 
' therefore, though 1 cannot doubt it, yet I thougU 
' it my Duty to a(k it of you, that there may be :. 

* Perfeaing of thofe Things. 

' Indeed, as I (aid before, I have my Witnefs it' 
' the Sight of God, that nothing would have bee:. 

* an Argument to me (howfoever definable great 
Places feem to other Men ; I fay nothin* 
' would have been an Argument to me) to have 

* undertaken this ; but, as I faid beYore, I fav. 

* Things determined by you, as makes <. 

'' th:- 



144 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

the Liberties of the Nations, and for the Liberty, 
and Intereft, and Prefervation of all fuch as fear 
God ; of all that fear God under various Forms ; 
and, if God make not thefe Nations thankful to 
you, for your Care therein, it will fall as Fire 
on their Heads : And therefore I fay that hath 
been one main Encouragement. 
' I confefs there are other Things that tend to 
Reformation, to the Difcountenancing of Vice, 
to the Encouragement of good Men and Virtue, 
and the completing of thofe Things, alfo, concern- 
ing fome of which you have not yet refolved any 
Thing ; fave to let me know, by your Commit- 
tee, that you would not be wanting in any Thing 
for the Good of thefe Nations. Nor do I fpeak 
it, as in the leaft doubting it ; but I do earneftly 
and heartily defire, to the end God may crown 
your Work, and blefs you and this Government, 
that, in your own Time, and with what Speed 
you judge fit, thefe Things may be provided for.' 

May 26. The Houfe, after hearing the Report of 
this Speech, ordered, That all the Votes and Refo- 
lutions, relative to their Petition and Advice, ihould 
be referred to a Committee, to perufe and metho- 
dize them j and to prepare one or more Bills there- 

The next Day Mr. Secretary Thurloe acquainted 
the Houfe with the good Succefs the Lord had been 
pleated to vouchfafe to the Fleet of this Nation, un- 
d vmg ddhoyed der the Command of General Blake, at the Port of 
t ^eSpani/b Fleet Santa Cruz, on the iftand viTeneriffe, on the 20th 
at SJHH Crux, of jfprill&&; at which Time the (aid Fleet fell in 
xvith fix Spanijh Galleons, whereof were the Admi- 
ral, Vice- Admiral, and Rear- Admiral, with rheir 
Standards and Flag aloft j and fixteen other conft- 
ilerable Ships, fome having Goods brought from the 
Indies on board them, others who had taken in 
Goods and Provifions to carry back again, moft of 
them furnifhed with Brafs Ordnance, and their full 
Companies of Seamen and Soldiers on board ; all 
which were funk, blown up, or deftroyed. The 


Of E N G L A N D. 145 

Particulars thereof being read % the Houfe appoint- Inter-regmim. 
ed the cnfuing IVednefday to be let apart for a Day J * 
of public Thankfgiving to Almighty God, through- T^ ne> 
out London and Wcftminflcr, on this glorious Oc- 
cafion. They alfo voted the Sum of 500 /. to be Thc p ar j; amcnt 
laid out in the Purchafe of a Jewel, to-be prefented vote himajewcl 
to the Admiral as a Mark of Honour, and a Tefti- of 500 /. Value. 
mony of the Lord Protector and the Parliament's ^ 
Refentment of his eminent and faithful Services for 
this Commonwealth. They likewife ordered a 
Letter of Thanks to the Admiral and Officers of 
the Fleet, and a Prefent of ioo/. to Capt. Story, 
who brought the News of this important Action. 
But the gallant Blake lived not long enough to re- 
ceive thefe Marks of the Parliament's Refpecl; dy- 
ing on board his own Ship, on his Return to Eng- 
land^ at the very Entrance of the Fleet into the 
Sound of Plymouth ; and leaving behind him the 
Character of one of the greateft Admirals this Na- 
tion ever bred. His Corpfe was brought up, by 
Land, to Londcn, in great State; and Cromwell, to 
encourage his Officers to venture their Lives for 
their Country's Service, cauied it to be interred 
with all poffible Solemnity, in Henry the Seventh's 

Chapel, amongft the Monuments of our Kings. 

It is remarkable, that as this magnanimous Admiral 
lived at a Time when the Government was conti- 
nually fliifting from Form to Form, he conftantly 
inculcated to the Sailors, That it was no Concern of 
theirs to intermeddle in the Difputes at home^ but to 
make it their fole Bufmefs to Jupport the Honour and 
Intereji of Great-Britain again/I Foreigners. And 
to the Influence of this Maxim feems to be greatly 
owing the amazing SuccelTes of the Eritijh Fleet 
abroad, while the Nation was torn with intefiine 
Divifions at home. 

But to return : 

On the 4th of June, the Committee appointed to 
confidcr of the Refolutions of the Houfe, in relation 

a The Account of this Viftory is amply related in Utat'-' 
jwV/r, p. 391. 

146 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. to their Petition and Advice, having made their Re- 
*^5> port, That they had thought it beft to put the fame 

* ~* J by way of additional Articles thereto, they were read 
J une ' asfollows: 

To his Highnefs the LORD PROTECTOR of the 
Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land^ and the Dominions and Territories there- 
unto belonging, 

ZENS, and BURGESSES now afTembled in the 
Parliament of this Commonwealth. 

Their Humble TnrrHereas, upon the Humble Petition and Advice 

xXa"or y a p d e- V f * he f aid K S ht *> C ^ z *> d Burge/es, 
tition and Ad- now ajfembhd in the Parliament of this Common- 
vice to the Lord wealth, lately prefented and confented unto by your 
Protestor. Highnefs, certain Doubts and ^uejlions have arifen y 
concerning fame Particulars therein comprized ; for 
Explanation thereof, may it pleafe your Highnefs to 
declare and confent unto the Additions and Explana- 
tions hereafter mentioned; and may it be declared with 
your Highnefs' 's Confent, 

That fuck P erf on and Perfons as invaded England, 
under the Duke of Hamilton, in the Year 1648, or 
advifed, confented, affifled, or 'voluntarily contributed 
unto that War, and were, for that Caufe, debarred 
frcm public Trujl by the Parliament of Scotland, be 
incapable to elett, or be elected to fit and ferve as 
Members of Parliament, or in any other Place of 
public Truft, relating unto the Fourth and Thirteenth 
Articles in the Petition and Advice ; excepting fuch 
as fence have borne Arms for your Highnefs or the 
Parliament, or have been admitted to fit and ferve in 
the Parliament of this Commonwealth, and are of good 
Life and Converfation ; or fuch as Jhall hereafter be 
declared by your Highnefs, with the Advice of your 
Council, to have given fame Jignal Tejlimony of their 
good AffecHan end Continuance in the fame. 


Of E N G L A N D. 147 

That the Provifo in the faid Fourth Article be ex- 
flamed thus, viz. That fuch Englilh and Scots Pro- 
teftants who (fence the Defection of the Earl of Or- 
mond and the Lord Inchiquin, and before the frft 
Day of March, 1649^ have borne Arms for, and 
fver ftnce continued faithful to the Parliament or your 
Highntfs } or have otherwife, before the faid firjl 
Day of March, 1649, given fignal Tejlimony of their 
good Affettion to this Commonwealth, and have ever 
Jince continued faithful to the fame, J})all net ke de- 
barred or deemed incapable of electing, or being defi- 
ed to ferve in Parliament. 

And whereas, in the faid Fourth Article, public 
Minijlers, or public Preachers of the Gofpel, are dif- 
abled to be eletted to ferve in Parliament ; // is here- 
by explained and declared to extend to fuch Minijlers 
and Preachers only as have Maintenance for Preach- 
ing, or are Pajlors or Teachers of Congregations. 

In the faid FOURTH ARTICLE. 

That, inftead of Commissioners to be appointed, by 
AcJ of Parliament, to examine and try whether the 
Members to be elefied for the Houfe of Commons, in 
futur'e Parliaments, be capable to fit according to the 
Qualifications mentioned in the faid Petition and Ad- 
vice, there Jhall be the Penalty and Fine of loool. 
laid and infli&ed upon every fuch unqualified Member, 
being fo adjudged by the faid Houfe of Commons, and 
Jmprifonment of his Perfon untill Payment thereof. 
And that all the Claufes for appointing fuch Comm'if- 
fioners be absolutely void. 


That the Ntmination of the Perfons to fupply the 
Place of fuch Members of the Other Houfe as Jhall die, 
or be rcmwtd, Jhall be by your Highncfs and your 


That the Monies dirccled to be for the Suppfy of 
the Sea and Land Forces, be ijjued by Advice of the 
Council ; and that the Treafurcr or Commijfioners tf 
the Treajitry Jhall give an Account of all the faid 
Money to every Parliament. 

K 2 Tlat 

148 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. That the Officers of State and Judges, in the Ninth 

1657. Article of the faid Petition and Advice mentioned, 

C --v f jh a ll b e chofen, in the Intervals of Parliament, by the 

J une> Confent of the Council, to be afterwards approved by 


That your Highnefs will be pleafed, according to 
the Ufage of former Chief Magiflrates in thefe Na- 
tions, and for the better Satisfaction of the People 
thereof, to take an Oath in the Form enfuing : 

I Do, in the Prefence, and by the Name, of God 
Almighty, promife and fwear, That, to the ut- 
termoft of my Power, 1 will uphold and maintain 
the true Reformed Proteftant Chriftian Religion, in 
the Purity thereof, as it is contained in the Holy 
Scriptures of the Old and New Teftament b , to the 
uttermoft of my Power and Understanding, and en- 
courage the Profeffion and Profeflbrs of the fame : 
And that, to the uttermoft of my Power, I will en- 
deavour, as Chief Magiftrate of thefe Three Na- 
tions, the Maintenance and Prefervation of the 
Peace and Safety, and of the juft Rights and Privi- 
leges of the People thereof: And (hall in all Things, 
according to my beft Knowledge and Power, go- 
vern the People of thefe Nations according to 

That your Highnefs's Succejfirs, do, lefore they 
take upon them the Government of thefe Nations, take 
an Oath in the Form aforefaid. 

That all fuch Perfons who now are, or fnall here- 
after be, of the Privy Council of your Highnefs or Suc- 
cejfors, before they, or either of them, do aEi as Coun- 
fellors, /hall rejpeftively take an Oath, before Perfons 


b The Words in the Italic Charafler were added by CromtvelCs 
own Defire, when the Committee appointed to draw up the Form of 
this Oath waited upon him with a Copy thereof, by Order of the 
Houfe, on the a5th of June. The fame Day it was refolved, That 
the faid Oath be engrofled in a Roll of Vellum j and an Entry made 
thereupon, of the Time and Place of his Highnefs's taking thereof: 
And that the fame do remain, as a Record of Parliament, to be made 
ufe of in future Times : And be alfo recorded in the four Courts of 
Wejlminfter, <vt%, the Chancery, Upper- Bench, Common-Pleas, and 

Of E N G L A N D. 149 

to be authorized by your Highntjs and Succeffors for Inter-regnum. 
that Purpojl'y in the Form following. l6 S7 

I A. B. do. in the Prefence, and by the Name of 
God Almighty, promife and fwear, That to the 
uttermolt of my Power, in my Place, I will uphold, 
and maintain the true Reformed Proteftant Chriftiaa 
Religion, in the Purity thereof, as it is contained in 
the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Teftament, 
and encourage the Profeffion and Profeflbrs of the 
fame : And that I will be true and faithful to his 
Highnefs the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Domi- 
nions thereto respectively belonging, as Chief Ma- 
giftrate thereof : And (hall not contrive, defign, or 
attempt any Thing, againft the Perfon or lawful 
Authority of his faid Highnefs ; and fhall keep fecrct 
all Matters that fhall be treated of in Council, and 
put under Secrecy, and not reveal them but by 
Command or Confent of his Highnefs, the Parlia- 
ment, or the Council ; and fhall in all Things faith- 
fully perform the Truft committed to me as a Coun- 
fellor, according to the beft of my Underftanding, 
in order to the good Government, Peace, and Wel- 
fare, of thefe Nations. 

That the fame Oath be taken by the Members of 
your Highnefs' s Council of Scotland and Ireland. 

That every Per/on who now is, or hereafter jhall 
be, a Member of either Houfe of Parliament, before 
he fit in Parliament, jhall, from and after the firjl 
Day of July, 1657, take an Oath before Perfons to 
be authorized and appointed by your Highnefs and Sue- 
cejfors for that Purpofe, in the Form following. 

I A. B. do in the Prefence, and by the Name of 
God Almighty, promife and fwear, That to the 
uttermoft of my Power in my Place, I will uphold 
and maintain the true Reformed Proteftant Chriftian 
Religion, in the Purity thereof, as it is contained in 
the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Teftament, 
and encourage the Profeffion and Profeflbrs of the 
K 3 fame: 

150 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

f ame . And t h at j w j}[ be true and faithful to the 
Lord Protestor of the Commonwealth of England, 
Scotland^ and Ireland, and the Dominions and Ter- 
ritories thereunto belonging, as Chief Magiftrate 
thereof; and (hall not contrive, defign, or attempt 
any Thing, againft the Perfon or lawful Authority 
of the Lord Protector, and (hall endeavour as much 
as in me lies, as a Member of Parliament, the Pre- 
fervation of the Rights and Liberties of the People . 

That your Highnefs would be pleafed, in convenient 
Time, before the next Meeting of this Parliament , / 
caufe federal Summons, in due Form of Law, to be 
ijjued forth to fucb Perfons as your Highnefs jhall 
think fit) (being qualified according to the humble Pe- 
tition and Advice of the Parliament^ whereto your 
Highnefs hath consented) to fit and ferve as Members 
in the Other Houfe of Parliament; by which ^umnwns 
the f aid Perfons (hail be refpeRively commanded to be, 
and perfonally to appear, at a certain Place and Time, 
to be appointed by your Highnefs, to give their Advice 
and AJfiftance, and to do fuch Things concerning the 
great and weighty 'Affairs of this Commonwealth, as 
to the Other Houfe of Parliament doth appertain, by 
the faid humble Petition and Advice. 

That the Perfons jo fummoned and ajfembled toge- 
ther, Jhall be, and are hereby declared to be, the Other 
Houfe of Parliament ; and fiall and may, without 
further Approbation of this Houfe, from fucb Time 
of their Meeting, proceed to do and perform all fuch 
Matters and Things, as the Other Houfe of Parlia- 
ment ought to do and perform ; and Jhall and may, 
have and exercife, all fuch Privileges, Powers and 
Authorities, as the Other Houfe of Parliament ot{ght, 
by the afore faid humble Petition and Advice, to have 
and exercife; the faid humble Petition and Advice ', or 
any Ttring therein contained, to the contrary thereof 

The Rifing of the Parliament being now near at 
Hand, and many Bills got ready for the Lord Pro- 
tedor's Affent, the gth of this Month was appointed 


Of E N G L A N D. 151 

for that Purpofe. About Eleven o'Clock that Day, Inter-regnum. 
the Houfe received a Meflage from his Highnefs, . _L^^j 
fignifying that he was then in the Painted Chamber, j unc> 
and dcfired to fpeak with them there. Accordingly 
the Speaker, attended by the whole Houfe, went up 
thither; and after a pithy and fhort Speech, (as the 
^Journals exprefs it) touching the deliberate and 
grave Proceedings of this Parliament, did, in their 
Name, prefent his Highnefs with three Bills for an 
Aficflment towards defraying the Charges of the 
Spanijh WW, and other Occafions of the Common- 
wealth* 1 ; together with divers other Bills," fome of a 
public, and others of a private, Concernment; be- 
ing but, as he ftyled them, Grapes preceding the 
full Vintage. 

In the Afternoon, the Houfe being met again, 
the Speaker reported the Lord Protestor's Speech, 
made that Morning, upon prefenting the Bills, 
which was to this Effect : 

Mr. Speaker, 

/Perceive that, among thefe many Acls of Portia- His Speech at 
went, there hath been a very great Care had by g^" 8 Mone y 
the Parliament to provide for the jujl and neceffary 
Support of the Commonwealth, by thofe Bills for the 
levying of Money, now brought to me, which I have 
given my Consent unto. 

Under (landing it hath been the Praftice of thofe 
who have been Chief Governors, to acknowledge, with 
'Ihanks to the Commons, their Care and Regard of 
the Public, I do very heartily and thankfully acknow- 
ledge their Kindnefs herein. 

The Houfe was ftill bufied, in feveral Commit- 
tees, about framing divers Bills, both public and 
private ; and fo continued every Day, Morning 
and Afternoon, without any thing intervening 


h The Bills here referred to, were, for laying an Afleflment of 
35,000 /. per Menfem upon England, 6000 /. upon Scotland, and 
9000 /. upon Ireland, for three Years, from the 24th of June, 1657, 
which is modeftly ftylcd a Temporary Supply towards the Mainte- 
nance of the Armies and Navie* of this Commonwealth, 

152 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter-regnum. worth Notice, till the 25th of this Month : At 
l6 57' which Time, having refolved upon a folernn In- 

lk """? v ' veftiture of their Lord Protector into his Office, 
they gave Orders for a Robe of Purple Velvet lined 
with Ermine, a Bible, a Scepter of maily Gold, 
and a Sword of State, to be provided for his High- 
nefs's Inveftitare. 

The next Day, June 26, Sir Oliver Flemyng^ 
Mafter of the Ceremonies, was ordered to wait up- 
on the feveral foreign Ambafladors and public Mi- 
nifters of State, and invite them to be prefent at 
the Ceremonial, which was performed with great 
State and Magnificence. 

There is but a very lame Account of this new Piece 
of State Pageantry in the Journals^ or Contemporary 
Writers: We therefore think proper, fince this 
Affair was tranfadled in Parliament, the Speaker 
and the whole Houfe attending, to exhibit the Nar- 
rative thereof at large, as publifhed by the Protec- 
tor's Authority. 

An exaff RELATION of the Manner of the folemn 
Higbnefs the LORD PROTECTOR at Weftmin- 
fter. d 

The Manner of c TfRiday the 26th of June^ being agreed upon for 
fo'SS'^rd 11 * the lnveftiture of his Highnefs the Lord Pro- 
Proteftor by the te & or an ^ a l ar g e Place being raifed and prepared at 
Parliament. the upper End of WeJlminJler-Hall for that Purpofe, 


d The Frontifpiece, engraved by Hollar, is a Reprefentation of the 
Manner of the Speaker's prefenting a Sceptre and Bible to Cromivell\ 
the Sword of State., and the Purple Robe, lying upon a Table before 

Lord Clarendon (Vol. VI. p. 597) reprefents the Solemnity of 
Cromiueir^ Inauguration as the EfTedl of his own pcrfonal Contri- 
vance and Management ; adding, That the Parliament had not only 
not provided for the Formality thereof, but that they had not indeed 
confidered of it; thinking enough had been done already for him. 
This appears, by the Journals, to be a great Miftake ; for the Par- 
liament actually appointed a Committee on purpofe to provide for and 
rnarfhal the Ceremonial of the Inauguration. The Contemporary 
, Hiftorjans have fallen into many Errors, which have been implicitly 

followed by later Writers, for want of confulting thofe Fountains of 
Authority, the Journal* of Parliament. 

Of E N G L A N D. 153 

there was in the Midft thereof, under the great Inter-regnunn. 

Window, a rich Cloth of State fct up, and under 

it a Chair of State placed upon an Afcent of two 

Degrees, covered with Carpets ; and before it a 

Table, with a Chair appointed for Sir Thomas Wid- 

drington, the Speaker of the Parliament; and on 

each Side of the Hall, upon the faid Structure, were 

Seats raifed one above another, and decently cover'd 

for the Members of Parliament ; and below them 

Seats on one Side, for the Lords the Judges of the 

Land, and on the other Side, for the Aldermen of 

the City of London. 

1 About Two of the Clock in the Afternoon his 
Highnefs came from Whitehall by Water, and land- 
ing at the Parliament Stairs, went up into the 
Chamber called the Lords Houfe ; where having 
retired himfelf a- while, Mr. Speaker and the Mem- 
bers of Parliament being come to the Painted- 
Chamber, his Highnefs attended by his Council, the 
Officers of State, and the Judges, met them; and 
gave his Confent to the Additional and Explanatory 
Petition and Advice of the Parliament, to a Bill for 
an Adjournment thereof to the 20th of January next, 
and to all fuch other Bills as were then prefented 
to him. 

' From thence the Speaker, with the Members 
of Parliament, departed to the great Hall at IVeft- 
rmnfter, where they feated themlelves in the Places 
provided for them. 

' His Highnefs, after a (hort Retirement in a 
Room near the Painted-Chamber, returned into the 
Houfe of Lords ; the Lords Commiflioners of the 
Great Seal, the two Lords Chief Juftices, the Ma- 
fter of the Rolls, and the Judges, in the Interim, 
placing themfelvcs on one Side of .the faid Houfe ; 
and the Lord Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen of 
the City of London, on the other. F'rom the faid 
Houfe his Highnefs parted towards the Hall in the 
Manner following : 

4 In, the firft Place went his Highnefs's Gentle- 
man and other Perfons of Quality ; next, an Officer 


154 3^ Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. of Arms going before the Recorder and Aldermen 
of London in their Scarlets ; next, another Officer 
of Arms went before Mr. Attorney-General and 
the Lords the Judges in their Robes and Order ; 
next them, Norroy^ King of Arms ; then four Ser- 
jeants at Arms, with their Maces, going before the 
.Lords Commiffioners of the Treaiury and of the- 
Great Seal, (the Lord-Commiflioner Flennes bear- 
ing the Seal) and the Lord-Prefident of his High- 
nels's Council ; then came Garter, principal King 
of Arms, before the Earl of Warwick^ who bore 
the Sword before his Highnefs j on whofe Left 
Hand went the Lord Mayor of London^ by his 
Highnefs's fpecial Favour, bearing the City Sword ; 
after whom came his Highnefs, being attended by 
his Council, the Principal Secretary of State, and 
divers of the Nobility and other Perfons of great 

' His Highnefs being entered on the Place, and 
Handing under the Cloth of State, Mr. Speaker did, 
in the Name of the Parliament, prefent feveral 
Things, ready laid upon the Table, to his High- 
nefs, viz. A Robe of Purple Velvet, lined with 
Ermine, being the Habit antiently ufed at the fo- 
lemn Inveftiture of Princes ; next, a large Bible, 
richly gilt and bofs'd ; next, a Sword; and, laftly, 
a Sceptre, being of mafly Gold ; which being fo 
prefented, Mr. Speaker came from his Chair, took 
the Robe, and therewith vefted his Highnefs, being 
aflifted therein by the Earl of Warwick^ the Lord 
Wbitlocke, and others : Which being done, the 
Bible was delivered unto his Highnefs j after that, 
Mr. Speaker girt about him the Sword j and, lartly, 
delivered his Highnefs the Sceptre. 

Thefe Things being performed, Mr. Speaker re- 
turned unto his Chair, and adminiftered to the 
Lord Protector the Oath, prepared by the Parlia- 
ment, for that Purpofe f ; which he having taken, 
the Speaker addrefied himfelf to his Highnefs in the 
following Speech : 


f Here follows the Form of the Oath, aheady given at p, 148. 

Of ENGLAND. 155 

May It pleafe your Higbnefs, 
* TT'OU are now upon a great Theatre, in a Inter -regmm. 

j[ large Chore of People. You have the Par- 
liament or England, Scotland^ and Ireland before 
you j on your Right Hand my Lords the Judges ; 
and on your Left Hand the Lord Mayor, Alder- 
men, and Sheriffs of London, the moft noble and 
populous City of England. The Parliament, with 
the Interpofition of your Suffrage, makes Laws ; 
and the Judges and Governors of London are the 
great Difpenfers of thofe Laws to the People. 

The Occafion of this great Convention and In- 
tercourfe, is to give an Inveftiture to your High- 
nefs in that eminent Place of Lord Prote&or : A 
Name you had before; but it is now fettled by the 
full and unanimous Confent of the People of thefe 
Three Nations aflembled in Parliament. You have 
no new Name, but a new Date added to the old 
Name ; the 1 6th of December is now changed to 
the z6th Qtjunt. 

* I am commanded, by the Parliament, to make 
Oblation to your Highncfs of four Things, in order 
to this Inauguration. 

4 The firft is a Robe of Purple; an Emblem of 
Magistracy, and imports Righteoufnefs and Juftice: 
When you have put on this Veftment, I may fay 
(and I hope without Offence) that you are a Gown- 
Man. This Robe is of a mix'd Colour, to ihew 
the Mixture of Juftice and Mercy, which are then 
moft excellent when they are well tempered toge- 
ther. Juftice without Mercy is Wormwood and 
Bitternefs ; and Mercy without Juftice is of too foft 
a Temper for Government : For a Magiftrate muft 
have two Hands, pleftentem et ampUttentem. 

' The next Thing is a Bible ; a Book that con- 
tains the Holy Scriptures, in which you have the 
Honour and Happinefs to be well verfed. This is 
the Book of Life, confifting of two Teftaments, 
the Old and New. In the firft we have ChrijTum 
velatum, Chi ift in Types, Shadows, and Figures; 
in the latter we have Ckrijlum rtvelatum, Chrift re- 

156 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. vealed. This Book carries in it the Grounds of the 
1657- true Chriftian Proteftant Religion ; it is a Book of 
Books ; it contains in it both Precepts and Examples 
for good Government. 

4 Alexander fo highly valued the Books of his Ma- 
fter Ariftoth, and other great Princes other Books, 
that they have laid them every Night under their 
Pillows. Thefe are all but Legends and Romances 
to this one Book ; a Book to be had always in Re- 
membrance ; I find it is faid in a Part of this Book, 
which I (hall defire to read, and it is this : 

Deut. xvii. And it /hall be when he fittetb upon 
the Throne of his Kingdom, that he Jhall write a 
Copy of this Law in a Book, out of that which is be- 
fore the Pr ufis and Levites. And it Jhall be with 
kirn, and he Jhall read therein all the Days of bis 
Life, that he may learn to fear the Lord God, and 
to keep all the Words of his Law, and thofe Statutes, 
to do them. 

That his Heart be not lifted up above his Brethren ; 
and that he turn not afide from the Commandment, 
to the Right Hand or to the Left, to the end he may 
prolong his Days in his Kingdom, he and his Children 
in the midjl 0/Ifrael. 

' The next Thing that I am to offer to your 
Highnefs is a Sceptre, not unlike a Staff; for you 
are to be a Staff to the Weak and Poor. 'Tis of 
antient Ufe in this Kind ; 'tis faid in Scripture, in 
reference to Judah, the Royal Tribe, That the 
Sceptre Jhall not depart from Judah. It was of like 
Ufe in other Kingdoms and Governments : Homer, 
the Prince of the Greek Poets, calls Kings and 
Princes Sceptre-Bearers. 

' The laft Thing is a Sword, not a Military, but 
a Civil Sword ; a Sword rather for Defence than 
Offence ; not to defend yourfelf only, but others 
alfo. This Sword is an Emblem of Juftice. The 
Noble Lord Talbot, in Henry the Sixth's Time, 
wrote upon his Sword, Ego fum Talboti propter 
occidendum Inimicos meos ; this gallant Lord was a 
better Soldier than a Critic. If I might prefume to 


Of E N G L A N D. 157 

fix a Motto upon this Sword, it fliould be this, inter-regnum. 
Ego fum Domini Proteftoris, ad protegendum Po- 
fulutn meum. 

* I fay, this Sword is an Emblem of Juftice, and 
is to be ufed as King Solomon ufed his, for the Dif- 
covery of the Truth in Points of Juftice. I may 
fay of this Sword as King David faid of Goliab's 
Sword, There is none like this. Juftice is the proper 
Virtue of the Imperial Throne, and by Juftice the 
Thrones of Kings and Princes are eftabliihed. 
Juftice is a Royal Virtue ; which, as one faith of it, 
doth employ the other three cardinal Virtues in her 

1. ' Wifdom, to difcern the Nocent from the In- 

2. i Fortitude, to profecute and execute. 

3. Temperance, fo to carry Juftice that Paf- 
fion be no Ingredient, and that it be without Coa- 
fufion or Precipitation. 

' You have given ample Teftimony in all thefe 
Particulars ; fo that this Sword, in your Hand, will 
be a right Sword of Juftice, attended with Wifdom, 
Fortitude, and Temperance. 

' When you have all thefe together, what a 
comely and glorious Sight it is to behold a Lord 
Protestor in a Purple Robe, with a Scepter in his 
Hand, a Sword of Juftice girt about him, and his 
Eyes fixed upon the Bible ! Long may you profper- 
oufly enjoy them all, to your own Comfort, and 
the Comfort of the People of thefe Three Nations.' 

' His Highnefs ftanding thus adorned in Princely 
State, according to his Merit and Dignity, looking 
up unto the Throne of the Moft High, who is 
Prince of Princes, and in whom is all his Confi- 
dence, Mr. Manton^ by Prayer, recommended his 
Highnefs, the Parliament, the Council, his High- 
nefs 's Forces by Sea and Land, the whole Govern- 
ment, <uid People of thefe Three Nations, to the 
Blefling and Protection of God Almighty. 

' After this the People giving feveral great Shouts, 
and the Trumpets founding, his Highnefs fat down 


The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. in the Chair of State, holding the Scepter in his 

' At the Right Elbow, by his Highnefs's Chair, 
fat his Excellency the Lord AmbafTador Extraordi- 
nary of France i ; at the Left, his Excellency the 
Lord Ambaflador Extraordinary of the States Ge- 
neral of the United Provinces k : On the Right Side 
of the Chair flood the Earl of Warwick, bearing the 
Sword ; and on the Left Side the Lord Mayor of 
London^ with the City Sword: Near to his High- 
nefs flood the moft Noble Lord, the Lord Richard 
Cromwell; his Excellency the Lord Fleetwood, Lord- 
Deputy of Ireland; the Rt. Hon. the Lord Cleypole* 
Mafter of the Horfe; his Highnefs's Council, and 
all the Officers of State attending. There flood 
alfo upon the lower Defcent, near the Earl of War- 
wick ^ the Lord Vifcount Lijle and General Mon- 
tagu; and on the other Side the Lord Whitlocke^ 
each of them bearing a drawn Sword. 

' While his Highnefs thus fate, a Herald flood 
up aloft, giving Signal to a Trumpet to found three 
Times ; after which he did, by Authority and Di- 
rection of Parliament, there publilh and proclaim 
his Highnefs Lord Protector of the Commonwealth 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Domi- 
nion* thereunto belonging, requiring all Perfons to 
yield him due Obedience. 

' Hereupon the Trumpets founded, and the 
People made feveral great Acclamations with loud 
Shouts, God fave the Lord Proteflor. Then an Of- 
ficer of Arms, ftanding upon the Top of the Stairs, 
made Proclamation again after the fame Manner j 
which was followed with Shouts and loud Acclama- 
tions as before. 

After a little Paufe, the whole Ceremony be- 
ing ended, his Highnefs faluting the Ambaffadors 
and public Minifters, r proceeded thence in his 
Princely Habit, the Train whereof was borne up by 


i M. De Bordeaux. " fc M. De Nieuport. Though the Parliament 
had invited all the foreign Minifters, yet only thefe two attended at 
the Ceremonial. It appears, from Thurlees Stan ftftrs, tkt their 
Prefencc was highly acceptable to Cnmwell. 

Of E N G L A N D. 159 

leveral Noble Pcrfons ; among whom was the Earl inter-regnum. 
of Warwick's Grandfon , the Lord Sherrard, and 1657. 

the eldeft Son of the Lord Roberts of Truro. The ^"" " J 

Aldermen, Recorder, the Judges, with the Officers 
of State, and the reft, proceeded in the fame Order 
as they came from the Houfe of Lords, and parted 
through the Hall to the great Gate leading into the 
New Palace-Yard^ where his Highnefs entered into 
his Coach of State, being in his Kobes. The Earl 
of Warwick fat in the other End of the Coach, and 
the Lord Richard Cromwell and the Lord IWritlockf 
&n one Side, the Lord IVhitlocke having one of the 
drawn Swords in his Hand. On the other Side fat 
the Lord Vifcount Lijle and General Montague, 
bearing the other two drawn Swords in their Hands. 
The Lord Cleypole, Matter of the Horfe, led the 
Horfe of Honour in rich Caparifons ; the Coach was 
attended by his Highnefs's Life-Guards, and other 
Guards, with the Officers of Arms on Horfeback ; 
the Officers of State, Judges, Lord Mayor, and 
Aldermen, all waiting on his Highnefs in their 
Coaches to Whitehall ; the whole being managed 
with State and Magnificence, fuitable to fo high 
and happy a Solemnity.' 

The Ceremonial being over, the Members re- 
turned to their Houfe, and made an Order for re- 
commending it to the Lord Protector, as the Defire 
of Parliament, that his Highnefs would be pleafed 
to encourage all Chriftian Endeavours for uniting 
the Proteftant Churches abroad j alfo to take fome 
effectual Courfe, upon Advice with the Judges, for 
reforming the Government of the Inns of Court, 
providing a fufficient Maintenance for the Encou- 
ragement of godly and able Minifters there, and 
for reviving the Readings, and keeping up Exercife, 
by the Students in thofe Seminaries of the Law. 
They alfo made an Order for printing all the public 
Acls and Ordinances then in Force, from the 3d of 
November, 1640, under the Care of Mr. Scobell, 

Hon. Rttert Rich, who afterwards married Cromwell's Daughter 

1 6 o The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. their Clerk ; and then, purfuant to an AcT: figncd 
'by the Protector that Morning, adjourned to the 
~ 2Oth of January enfuing. 

The Seafon of the Year now demanded a Recefs ; 
and there being a gi;eat Number of ufeful Bills de- 
pending at this Time, which would have been loft 
by a Prorogation, the Houfe took this Method to 
continue them over to their next Meeting. 

The moft remarkable Acts to which the Protec- 
tor gave his Confent, befides thofe already men- 
tioned in the Courfe of the Proceedings of this Par- 
liament, were thefe : 

The Parliament For punijhing of wandering, idle^ and diflblute 
adjourned. Perfons : By this Act, all fuch as were found wan- 
dering from their ufual Place of Abode, without 
fuch fufficient Caufe as the Juftice of Peace before 
whom they were brought (hould approve, although 
not taken in the Aft of Begging, were declared to 
be Rogues and Vagabonds within the Statute of 
39. Elizabeth^ Cap. 4. and to be profecuted as fuch. 
This Acl was alfo to extend to all Fidlers and Min- 
ftrels, playing in any Inn, Alehoufe, or Tavern, or 
offering themfelves to play in any fuch Places. 

Another, For punijhing fuch Perfons as lived at 
high Rates, having no vifible E/late y Profejjion, or 
Calling anfwerable thereto : The Preamble to this 
A61 fets forth, That feveral idle and diflblute Per- 
forjs maintained themfelves by cheating, debauch- 
ing, and deceiving the young Gentry and others of 
the Commonwealth; and then impowers Juftices of 
Peace to fend for the Offenders, and require Sure- 
ties for their Appearance at the next Quarter Sef- 
fion, to be there indicted for living at a high Rate, 
without any vifible Eftate or Calling anfwerable 
thereto ; and, if convicled, to be fent to the Houfe 
of Correction for three Months. Perfons winning 
Money at Cards, Dice, Tennis, Cock-fighting, 
Horfe-racing, or any other Game, were to forfeit 
double the Value'of Money or Goods fo won; and 
all Securities whatfoever, given for Money loft at 
Play, to be abfolutely void. 


Of ENGLAND. 161 

An Act For fettling the Poftage of England, Scot- Intcr-regnum. 
land, and Ireland. It is well worth obferving, l6 57- 
That, upon the third Reading of this Bill, a Pro- t """"'" 
vifo being offered for freeing Members of Parlia- 
mcnt, and other Officers of State, from Payment 
of any Money for Letters ; the fame, as the Jour- 
nals inform us, was rejected without a Queftion ! 

There were alfo Acls palled for taking away of 
Purveyance and Compofition for Purveyance: For 
limiting and fettling the Prices of Wines: For con- 
tinuing and eftablifhing the Subfidy of Tonnage and 
Poundage : For better Obfervation of the Lord's 
Day : For convicting, difcovering, and repreffing 
Popifh Recufants : For indemnifying fuch Perfons 
who had acted for the Service of the Public : For 
improving and advancing the Revenues of the Excife 
and Cuftoms : For giving Licence to export Fifh 
in foreign Bottoms : And for preventing the Mul- 
tiplicity of Buildings in and about the Suburbs of 
London, and within ten Miles thereof. 

The lafl Act we (hall here mention, was, For 
confirming certain A 51 3 and Ordinances, as alfo Or- 
ders of the Lord Protestor and his Council, and for 
repealing of others which had been made between the 
2?tb <7/"April, 1653, and the Meeting of this Parlia- 
ment the I jth of September, 1656. The Preamble 
to this Act is very remarkable, and runs thus : 
' Whereas, fmce the 20th of April, 1653, in tne 
great Exigencies and Neceffities of thefe Nations, 
divers Acts and Ordinances have been made, with- 
out the Confent of the People aftembled in Parlia- 
ment, which is not according to the Fundamental 
Laws of thefe Nations and the Rights of the 
People, and is not for the future to be drawn into 
Example, yet the Actings thereupon tended to the 
Settlement of the Eftatcs of feveral Perfons and Fa- 
milies, and the Peace and Quiet of the Nations, &c.' 
And then the Act recites the Titles of all fuch Or- 
dinances and Ordeis of Cromwell as were to be 
decm'd valid for the future, and declares all others 
to be abfolutely void, 

VOL. XXI. L The 

1 62 The Parliamentary HISTORY , 

inter-regnum. The Perufal of this long Catalogue of public-fpj- 
rited Acts, is a fufficient Evidence that many of the 
Members had employed their Time in Projects 
much better calculated to advance the Honor and 
Intereft of the Nation, than the Eftabliminent of 
Cromwell^ Protectorate. 

Remarkable E- Before we refume the Proceedings of this Parlia- 
vents during ment, it will be proper to' take Notice of the moft 
t eir ece s. remar kable Transactions that happened between the 
Rrfing of the Houfe and their next Meeting. 

On the firft of July, Cromwell was proclaimed 
Lord Protector, in London, at the ufual Places, and 
with as much Magnificence as if he had actually 
accepted the Crown : The fame was, afterwards, 
done at Edinburgh and Dublin, and throughout the 
Three Nations. l 

Being thus poflefs'd of the Sovereign Power, 
and having infured his own Greatnefs, he thought 
it neceflary to diftinguim. his Family by Titles 
of Honour and Preferment. Accordingly, in pur- 
fuance of this Plan, his eldeft Son, Richard, was, 
upon his own Refignation of the Office of Chanrcel- 
lor of the Univerfity of Oxford, inftalled therein, 
on the 2Qth of this Month, with great Solemnity : 
In the next, he was fworn a Privy Counfellor, made 
a Colonel in the Army; and, not long after, the firft 
Lord of the Other Houfe. 

On the i ith of November, the Protector's young- 
eft Daughter, Frances, was married to the Hon. Ro- 
bert Rich, Son of Lord Rich, and Grandfon of the 

Earl of Warwick m . There had been, fome few 

Months before, a private Negotiation on Foot, for 
a Marriage between this Lady and the exiled King 
Charles, under the Conduct of Lord Eroghill; who 


* Cram-well, while he was only Lord-General of the Parliament's 
Forces, bore for his Creft a Demi-Lion, holding in his Paw a Hal- 
bert, or General's Pike. After he was made Lord Proteftor, he 
took away the Halbert, and gave the Demi- Lion, holding a Diamond 
Ring in hit Right Paw, to fignify his political Marriage to the Imperial 
Crown of the Three Kingdoms. This appear; from a Comparifon of 
his Sign Manual when Lord-General, with another Sign Manual c*~ 
his when Lord Proteftor. Peck's Memrnrt of Cromwell. 

n Cram-well gave her 15,000 /. Fortune, fbvrlte, Vlt VI, 

Of E N G L A N D. 163 

"was not only very high in Cromwell's Confidence, Inter-regnum. 
but had Addrefs enough to procure the young King's ] " 

Confent to fuch a Treaty. And altho' no Men- ^ov^iJZ^ 

tion is made of this Affair by Lord Clarendon, who, 
for the Honour of the King his Matter, might be in- 
duced to pafs it over in Silence ; yet the under-cited 
Authorities feem to put this Matter out of doubt. n 
L 2 On 

n Biftiop Burnet writes, < That the Earl of Orrery [then Lord 
rofbi/l] told him, ' That, coming one Day to Crotirwell t during 
the Time of the Heats about the Propofal for his Acceptance of the 
Crown j and telling him, He had been in the City all Day, the Pro- 
tector a/k'd him, What News he had heard there ? The other an- 
fwercd, That he was told his Highnefs was in Treaty with the King, 
who was to be reftored, and to marry his Daughter. Cronnvell ex* 
prefiing no Indignation at this, Lord Orrery faid, In the State to 
which Things were brought, he faw not a better Expedient : They 
might bring him in on what Terms they pleafed : And Cromwell 
might retain the fame Authority he then had, with lefs Trouble. To 
which he anfwering, The King can never forgive his Father's Blood, 
Orrery faid, The Protestor was one of many that were concerned in 
that, but he would be alone in the Merit of reftormg him. To 
which Cromwell replied, He is fo damnably debauched, he would un- 
do us all ; and fo turned to another Difcourfe, without any Emo- 
tion j which made Lord Orrery conclude he had often thought of that 
Expedient.' Hijiory of bit own Tivei, Vol. I. p. 69. 

Mr. Morrice, Chaplain to the Earl of Orrery, in his Life of that 
Lord, relates this Affair with many additional L'j re urn fiances. We 
frail therefore cite the whole Narrative thereof, at large, in his own 

' After the Wart of 'Ireland were 1 finifhed, and that Kingdom fettled, 
Cram-well being made Lord Protestor, a Parliament was called j the 
Members of which were taken out of the Three Kingdoms, whereof 
Lord Bregbill was one. 

* His Lordfhip had, now and then, Opportunities of a fecret Cor- 
refpondence with fome Perfons about the King, by whom he had 
founded his Majefty's Inclinations, which were favourable to aDefign 
of making a Match betwixt him and one of CrwuW/'s Daughters, 
the Lady Franca, as I remember j to promote which he had Order* 
to do whatever lay in his Power : Thus, having his Majefty's Leave, 
he took a fit Occafion to move it to CremweU, which he did in the 
following Manner: 

' He firft acquainted Cram-weir* Wife and Daughter with his De- 
lign, and then caufed a Rumour of it to be fpread abroad in the 
Town j and, one Day, coming out of the City, and going to Crom- 
well's Clofet, Cromwell immediately came to him ; and, walking 
with him alone, he aflt'd, Where he had been ? My Lord anfwer'd, 
In the City. Crtmwll afle'd him, What News there ? My Lord an- 
fwer'J, Very ftrange News. Croarwcll earneftly inquiring what it 
wai, my Loid detained him a while, only by repeating, It taasjlrange 
Newt, and feruling at the fame Time. Crottvoell, by the Delay, be- 
came more earned to know it. My Lord, at laft, replied, That 
perhaps he would be offended to hear it. Crtmvuell, not enduring 


NOTCH) ber. 

164 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Qn the iQth of this Month, the Proteaor's third 
Daughter, Mary^ was married to the Lord Faucon- 
lerg, at Hampton-Court : And, on the 25th, his 
younger Son, Henry, was appointed Lord-Deputy 
of Ireland. 


any longer Delay, aflured him he v.-ould net, and therefore conjured 
him to tell it. Upon that, in a jocular Way, my Lord told him, all 
the News in the City was, That he was going to marry his Daughter 
Frances to the King. Cromwell then, with a merry Countenance, 
afk'd him, And what do the Foo/s think of it ? My i/otd then replied, 
All liked it, and thought it the -wifefl Thing he could do, if he could 
accomplljb it. Upon that Cromwell made a Stand ; and, looking 
ftedfaftly in my Lord's Face, afk'd him, And do you believe Jo too? 
His Lord/hip, feeing him a little moved, anfwered, He did believe 
it was the befl Thing he could do to fecure himfelf. 

' CrotKtvell then walk'd up and down the Room, with his Hands 
b?hind him, in a very thoughtful Manner ; and at laft afk'd my Lord, 
What Reafon he had to be of that Belief? His Lordihip repi'efented 
to him, how little he could confide in thofe cf his own Party, be- 
ing, upon every Occafion, fubjeft to murmur and repine j how un- 
likely it was for him to continue long in that Grandeur, the very 
fame Perfons who fet him up, being willing to pull him down ; and, 
on the other Hand, the King, in his great Exigencies, would be 
ready enough to hearken to any Proportion, rather than live in Exile, 
fo that he might make his own Terms with him, and be the General 
of all the Forces during Life: The Loyal Party would readily join 
with him in the Work} and if his Daughter had Children by the 
King, which was likely enough, he would thereby be endeared to 
King and Country, and would have fuch Intereft in the Crown, that 
Nobody could ever attempt any thing againft him ; having a King 
his Son-in-Law, an Heir Apparent to the Crown his Grandfon, and 
the whole Power of the Nation in his own Hands ; by all which his 
Greatnefs would be for ever eflablifhed : Whereas, if he neglected 
thefe Means, he could not expect to tranfmit his Greatnefs to the 
next Heir, and perhaps would hardly be able to preferve it during his 
own Life. 

' Cromwell gave great Attention to thefe Reafons ; but, walking 
two or three Turns, and ponderine within himfelf, he told Lord 
Brogbill, The King would never forgive him the Death of his Father. 
His Lord/hip defired him to employ fomebodv to found the King in 
this Matter, to fee how he would take it, and offered himfelf to me- 
diate in it for him : But Cromwell would not confent, but again re- 
peated, The King cannot, and iviil not, forgive the Death of his Fa' 
tber ; and fo he left his Lordfhip, who durft not tell him he had al- 
ready dealt with his Majefty in that Affair. 

Upon this my'Lord withdrew, and meeting Cram-weir* Wife and 
Daughter, they inquired how he had fucceeded ; of which having 
given them an Account, he added, They muft try their Intereft in 
him; but none could prevail, Guilt lay fo heavy upon him, that 
he thought there could be no Reconciliation j and fo that Bufinefs 
broke off.' 

Colleftien of Lard Orrery 'j State Litters, before cited, p. *z. 

Of ENGLAND. 165 

About this Time Advice was received of Mardyke Inter-regnum. 
being taken from the Spaniards, by the united For- l6 S' 

ces of England and France, and put into the PofTef- TT^T 
f r \ it /"i i ** r LTT/- r December, 

fion of Major-General Morgan, for the Ufe of 

Cromwell, purfuant to an Oftenfive and Defenfive 
Treaty, between the two Nations, againft Spain. 

Few Princes ever bore their Character higher, 
than Oliver Cromwell in his Treaties with Crowned 
Heads : A very remarkable Inftance of which we 
have in the League before us ; wherein he would 
not allow the French King to call himfelf King of 
France, but of the French ; whereas he took to 
himfelf not only the Title of Protector of England* 
but likewife of France. And, which is yet more 
furprifmg, in the Inftrument of this Treaty, the 
Protector's Name was put before that of the French 
King's. c 

In the Beginning of December, Cromwell, in pur- 
fuance of an Addrefs from his Parliament, on the 
Day of their Adjournment, fent an Agent to the 
D*uke of Savoy, to negotiate in favour of that Prince's 
Proteflant Subjects in Piedmont. And, 

On the loth of this Month, the Protector, ac- 
cording to the Powers vefted in him by the Humble 
Petition and Advice, nominated Another Houfe of 
Parliament, to fit and do Bufmefs in Imitation of 
the Houfe of Lords. The Commiffioners of the 
Great Seal, with the Advice of the Judges, had 
been ordered to prepare a Writ for fummoning the 
Members of this Other Houfe, directed to fuch 
Perfyns as the Lord Protector, under his Sign Ma- 
nual, mould appoint. The Form of the faid Writ 
was as follows : 


c Id, porro, Bellum Proteftoris in Hi/fanos adeo opportunum Gal- 
lo accedebat, ut fummo Studio iftum Foedore fibi innc&ere ftuderet j 
ctiam concerto, ut Crenrwellut eundcm Gallorum Regent, non Gallia- 
ruht, nuncuparet ; alias ipfc I'roteftoris, quoque Francis, vocabulum, 
ficut slnglix aH'umpturus : Simul pateretur Cronewellum Inftrumento 
fuo Nomen, Titulumque, ante Gallicutr., ponere. 

Puffer.d<>rff dc Rebut Gejlit Fredtrici Wilbclmi, EIeJrit BranJen- 
burgici, p. 313, 

1 66 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. /^\LIVER, Lord Proteftor of the Commonwealth 

1657. \J^ of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the 

* vj Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging : To 

December. our Trujly and beloved Son, Lord Richard Cromwell , 


Crmw//'s Writ Whereas, by the ddvice and JJJent of our Council, 
hh HraTof * f or Mr tain great and -weighty Affairs concerning us and 
Lords, the State and Defence of the faid Commonwealth >, We 

ordained our prefent Parliament to be held at our City 
of Weftminfter, the ijtb Day of September, in the 
Year of our Lord 1656, and there to confult and ad- 
vife with the Knight s t Citizens., and Burgejfes of our 
faid Commonwealth ; which Parliament was then and 
there held, and continued untill the 2.6th Day of June 
la ft pajt, and then adjourned untill the zoth Day of 
January now next coming: Therefore we command 
and firmly enjoin you, that, confidering the Difficulty of 
the faid Affairs and imminent Dangers, all Excufes 
leing fet ajide, you be perfonally prefent at Weftmin- 
fter aforefaid, the faid 2Oth Day of January next 
coming* there to treat, confer, and give your ddvice 
with us, and with the Great Men and Nobles in and 
concerning the djfairs aforefaid : And this, as you 
love our Honour and Safety, and the Defence of the 
Commonwealth aforefaid, you Jhall in no wife omit. 

Witnefs Ourfelf at Wejlminfler^ the loth Day of 
December , 1657. 

Mr. Whitlocke writes, c That, amongft the Mem- 
bers of this New Houfe of Lords, were many Noble- 
men, Knights, and Gentlemen, of antient Families 
and good Eftates, intermix'd with fome Colonels 
and Officers of the Army c .' Mr. Ludlow, though 
he admits that there were, in this Aflembly, feveral 
of the antient Nobility, together with fome of the 
Gentry, who had confiderable Eftates derived to 
them from their Anceftors, yet affirms that the prin- 
cipal Part of them were fuch as had procured their 
prefent Pofleffions by their Wits, and were refolved 
to enlarge them, by felling their Confcienccs to 
Cromwell, for the Purchafe of his Favour d . But 

c Memoriglt, p, 665. * Memoirs, Vol. II, p, 595. 

Of ENGLAND. 167 

<he Characters of the Members of this Unconftitu- Inter-regaum. 

tional Body, will bcft be known by exhibiting a Lift 

of them c ; obferving, by the Way, That tho' the 

Protedor had rcfufed the Title of King, yet the 

Regal Style, as Ourftlf, Our Great Seal, Our Fleet, 

Our Army, 6fr. is made ufe of in the refpe&ive 

Writs iiTued on this Occafion, viz. 



Lord Richard Cromwell, 

Lord Henry Cromwell, 

Nathaniel Fienncs, one of 
the Lords Commif- 
fioners of our Great 

John Lijle, one of the 
Lords Commiffioners 
of our Great Seal, 

Henry Lawrence, Prefi- 
dent of our Council, 

Claries Fleelwood, Lieu- 
tenant-General of our 

Edmund, Earl of Mul- 

Robert, Earl of War- 

Edward, Ear! of Man* 

William, Lord Vifccunt A Lift of them. 

Say and Sele, 
TkomaSf Lord Faucon- 

Charles, Lord Vifcount 

Howard, ofMorpeth, f 
Philip, Lord Wharton, 
Lord John Cleypole, Ma- 

fter of our Horfe, 
John Dejbrough, one of 

the Generals of our 

Edward Montague, one 

of the Generals of our 

Fleet, and Lord Com- 

miflioner of our Trea- 

IVilliam Sydenham, one of 

the Lords Commif- 



Cromwtll was under ib great Embarraffmcnt whom to fix upon 
for conftituting this Other Houfe of Parliament, that, in a Letter 
from Tburloe to Hotiy Cromwell, in Ireland, of the ift of this Month, 
the Secretary aflured him there was not then any one Perfon fully re- 
folved on, and nobody was able to fay who they fhould be (the Diifi- 
r i!-.y proving great between thofe who were fit, and not willing to 
fcive; and thofc who were willing, and expected it, but were not 
fit) ; although there were then but eight Days left for the final Refo- 
lution, there being a Neceflity for ifliiing the Writs forty Days before 
the Meeting of the Parliament. 

State Paptn, Vol. VI. p. 648. 

f So created by Cram-well, the loth of July, 1657 ; and, upon the 
Reiteration, advanced to Uxe Dignity of Earf of CtrJiJIf, 


Parliamentary HISTO.RY 

Jnter-regnum. Buljlrode Ifhitlocke, one 




of the Lords Commif- 
fioners of our Treafu- 

r 7 

Sir Charles Wolfeley, Bart. 
Walter Strickland, Efq; 
Philip Skippon, Efq; 
Francis Rous, Efq; 
'John Jones, Efq; 
George, LordEure, 
Edmund Thomas , Efq; 
Sir William Strickland, 


*70n Fiennes, Efq; 
Sir /Vrfwm ^*/, Bart. 
P:7/>, Vifcount LiJJe, 
Sir Thomas Honey wood, 
Sir Arthur HaJIerigge, 


Sir yA Hobart, Bart. 
Sir Richard Onflow y Knt. 
Sir Gilbert Gerrard, 

} Sir IVilliam Roberts, 

Knt. f 
7<? (?#*, Lord Chief 

Juftice of the Upper 

O/rW to. 7^ Lord 

Chief Juftice of the 

Common Bench, 
William Pierepoint, Efq; 
John Crew, Efq; 
Alexander Popham 9 Efq; 
Philip Jones, Efq; 
t Sir /totfw Lockbart, 


f Sir Chrijlopher Packe, 

f Sir Robert Tichburne^ 

. Knights, and Aldermen 
of our City of London^ 

Edward Whalley, Com- 

f Sir John Bark/lead, 
Knt. Lieutenant of the 

f Sir Thomas Pride, Knt. 

John Clerke, LL. D. 

Richard Ingcldjby, Efq; 

f S\r John Hew/on, Knt. 

James Berry, Efq; 

/raww Gc/>, Efq; 

George Moncke, Com- 
mander in Chief of 
our Forces in Scotland. 

David, Earl of Co/fills, 

Archibald John/Ion^ of 

jniliam S fee ft, Chancel- 
lor of Ireland, 

Roger, Lord Broghill, 

f Sir Matthew Tomlin- 
fon, Knt. 

Sir Gilbert Pickering^ 

f- Sir George Flectwocd y 

Thomas Cooper, Efq; 

William Lenthal, Mafter 
of the Rolls in our 

Richard Hampden, Efq; g 


f The Perfons diftinguiflied thus f were knighted by Cromtvell. 

8 In a Catalogue of the Members of this Aflembly, lent by Secre- 
tary Tburloe to Lockbart, then Ambaflador in France, the Number is 
only 58, the five laft being omitted. Wbitlockes Memorials, Dug- 
dalSs yiew of thi Troubles, Heath's Chronicle, and others, make 
them only 61 ; but the Lift, as above given, was publifhed in De- 
(emtcr, 1658, by T, Walkley, with a Copy of the Writ prefixed to it. 

Of E N G L A N D. 169 

The Judges of the Upper Bench, who, at this i nter -r c gnuni. 
Time, were IVarburton and Neivdigate ; of the 1657. 
Common Bench, Atkins, Hale, and IVyndhalh \ < v~ ' 
With the Barons of the Exchequer, Nicholas, Par- J a uar y- 
ker, and Hill, were fummoned, alfo, as Afiiftants 
to this Other Houfe. h 

All the Peers fummoned to this Aflembly, except 
the Lord Euro, prudcntully forbore to fit therein ; 
and Sir Arthur Haflerigge, to fhew his Contempt of 
them, took his Seat in the Houfe of Commons, as 
Member for the Town of Leicejler. This Gentle- 
man was one of thofe who had been fecluded by the 
Protector's Council, at the Opening of the Par- 
liament in September ; and then diftinguimed him- 
felf as the firft Man who fubfcribed the Remonftrancc 
againft that Arbitrary Proceeding. However, 

On the 20th of January , purfuant to Adjourn- The Parliament 
ment, the Parliament met; the Commons in theirmeet again, pur- 
own Houfe; the Members of the Other Houfe, in fuant to Ad ~ 
that which was formerly the Houfe of Lords : But, JOU ' 
there being no Journals kept of their New Lordfhips 
Proceedings that we know of, what they did, in the 
little Time they fat, muft be gleaned out of thofe 
of the Commons. The latter employed the Morn- 
ing in taking the Oath required by the Humble Ad- 
ditional and Explanatory Petition and Advice, and 
appointing a folemn Day of Fafting, Humiliation, 
and feeking of God, for his Affiftance and Blefling 
on their Endeavours. After which, being inform'd 
that the Uflier of the Black Rod, with fome MefTage, 
was at the Door, he was called in; and having made 
his Obeifance, and approaching towards the Middle 
of the Houfe with his Rod in his Hand, he acquainted 
them, That his Highnefs was in the Houfe of Lords, 
and (laid for them there : Hereupon the Speaker, 
and all the Members, went up, the Serjeant bearing 
his Mace upon his Shoulder, when his Highnefs 
was plcafed to make the following myfterious Speech 
to the Aircmbly, as entered in the Journals : 


& Moft of thefc were rc-appoiuted Judge* after the Reftoration. 

170 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

My Lords, and Gentlemen of the Houfe of Com* 
mons > 

I Meet you here, in this Capacity, by the Ad- 
vice and Petition of this prefent Parliament, af- 
^- ~*~~ r ter fo much Expence of Blood and Treafure, to 
January. fearch ^ ^ ^^ Bleffings God hath in Store for 

The Lord Pro- tne f e Nations. 

teftor's Speech ' I cannot but with Gladnefs of Heart remember 
to both Houfes. and acknowledge the Labour and Induftry that is 
paft, which hath been fpent upon a Bufinefs worthy 
of the beft Men, and the beft Chriftians. It is very 
well known unto you all what Difficulties we have 
pafled through, and what we are now arrived at : 
We hope we may fay we are arrived at what we 
aimed at, if not at that which is much beyond our 

The State of this Caufe, and the Quarrel, what 
that was at the firft, you all very well know : I am 
perfuaded naoft of you have been Actors in it, 

' It was the maintaining the Liberty of thefe Na- 
tions ; our Civil Liberties as Men, our Spiritual Li- 
berties as Chriftians. I ihall not much, look back, 
but rather fay one Word concerning the State and 
Condition we are all now in. 

' You know very well, the firft Declaration after 
the Beginning of this War, that fpake to the Life, 
was a Senfe held forth by the Parliament, That, for 
fome Succeflion of Time, Defigns were laid to inno- 
vate upon the Civil Rights of the Nations ; and to in- 
novate in Matters of Religion : And thofe very Per- 
fons, that, a Man would have thought, fhould have 
had the leaft Hand in the meddling with Civil Things, 
did juftify them all ; all Tranfactions that were in 
Pulpits, inPrefies, and otherwife; which was verily 
thought would have been a very good Shelter to them, 
to innovate upon us in Matters of Religion alfo ; 
and fo to innovate as to eat out the Core, and Power, 
and Heart, and Life of all Religion, by bringing on 
us a Company of poifonous, Popim Ceremonies, 
and impofing them upon thofe that were accounted 
the Puritans of the Nation, and Profeflbrs of Reli- 

Of E N G L A N D. j;i 

gion amongft us; driving them to feek their Bread i n ter-r g num, 
jn an howling Wildernefs, as was inftanced to our 1657. 
Friends, who were forced to fly for Holland, New- 
England, almoft any whither, to find Liberty for 
their Conferences. 

* Now, if this Thing hath "been the State and 
Sum of our Quarrel, and of thofe ten Years Wars 
wherein we have been exercifed ; and that the good 
Hand of God (for we are to attribute it to no other) 
hath brought the Bufmefs thus home unto us, as it 
js flated in the Petition and Advice, I think we 
have all Caufe to blefs God, and the Nations have 
Caufe to blcfs him. 

' I well remember I did a little touch upon the 
85th Pfalm, when I fpake unto you in the Begin- 
ning of this Parliament, which exprefleth well that 
that we may fay as tridy and as well, as it was faid 
of old by the Penman of that Pfalm. The firft 
Verfe is an Acknowledgement to God, that he had 
been favourable to his Land, and had brought back 
the Captivity of his People; and that he had pardoned 
all their Iniquities, and covered all their Sin, and 
taken away all his Wrath : And indeed of thefe un- 
fpeakable Mercies, Bleflings, and Deliverances out 
of Captivity, pardoning National Sins and National 
Iniquities, pardoning as God pardons the Man whom, 
hejuftifieth, he breaks through, and overlooks Ini- 
quity; and pardoneth becaufe he will pardon: And 
fometimes God pardoneth Nations fo ; and if the 
Enjoyment of our prefent Peace and other Mercies, 
may be Witnefles for God, we feel and we fee them 
every Day. 

* The greateft Demonftration of his Favour and 
Love appears to us in this, That he hath given us 
Peace and the Bleflings of Peace ; to wit, the En- 
joyments of our Liberties, Civil and Spiritual ; and I 
re-member well the Church falls into Prayer, and 
into Prailes, great Expectations of future Mercies, 
and much Thankfulnefs for the Enjoyment of pre- 
fent Mercies; and breaks into this Expreflion, Surely 
Salvation is nigh unto them that fear him, that Glo- 
ry may dwell in our Land. In the Beginning, he calls 

172 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Iflter-regnum, it his Land ; Thou baft been favourable to our Land: 
_ 5 Truly I hope this is his Land ; and, in fome Senfe, 

^T""Jf7"""' it may be given out that it is God's Land. And he 
January. ^ at ^^ tne ^y^^^ Knowledge, and the worft 
Memory, can eafily tell we are a redeemed People, 
(when firft God was pleafed to look favourably upon 
us) out of the Hands of Popery, in that never-to- 
be-forgotten Reformation, that moft fignificant and 
greateft the Nation hath felt or tafted. 

' I would but touch upon that, and but a Touch : 
How hath God redeemed us, as it is this Day, not 
from Trouble, and Sorrow, and Anger ; but unto a 
blefled and happy Eftate and Condition, compre- 
henfive of all the Intereft of every Member, of 
every Individual of thofe Mercies, as you very well 
fee ! 

' And then in what Senfe it is our Land, through 
this Grace and Favour of God, that he hath vouch- 
fafed unto us, and beftowed upon us, with the Go- 
fpel, with Peace, and Reft, out of ten Years War, 
and given us what we would defire ! Nay, who 
could have forethought, when we were plunged into 
the Midft of our Troubles, that ever the People of 
God mould have had Liberty to wormip God with- 
out Fear of Enemies ? Which is the very Acknow- 
ledgement of the Promife of Cbri/l> That he would 
deliver his from Fear of Enemies, that they might 
worfliip him in Holinefs and in Righteoufnefs all the 
Days of their Life. 

' This is the Portion that God hath given us ; 
and I truft we (hall for ever heartily acknowledge it. 
The Church goes on there, and makes her Boaft yet 
further ; His Salvation is nigh them that fear him, 
that Glory may dwell in our Land : His Glory not 
carnal, nor any thing elfe that accompanies this 
Glory of a free Pofleffion of the Gofpel ; this is that 
we may glory in. And he fays further, Mercy and 
Truth are met together^ Righteoufnefs and Peace 
have kij/ed each other. 

* And it fhall be fuch Righteoufnefs as comesdown 
from Heaven ; Truth Jhall grow out of the Earth, 


Of E N G L A N D. 173 

and Right toufnefs Jhall come down from Heaven, 
Here is the Truth of all ; here is the Righteoufnefs 
of God, under the Notion of Righteoulnefs, con- 
fuming our Abilities, anfwerable to the Truth that 
he hath in the Gofpel revealed towards us : And he 
clofeth with this ; Righteoufncfs Jhall go before /;////, 
and Jhall fet us in the IVay of his Steps : That Righ- 
teoufnefs, that Mercy, that Love, and that Kindnefs 
which we have feen, and have been made Partakers 
f from the Lord ; it {hall be our Guide to teach us 
to know the ri^ht and the good Way ; which is to 
tread in Steps of Mercy, Righteoufnefs, and Good- 
nete, that our God hath walked before us in. 

' We have a Peace this Day : I believe, in my ve- 
ry Heart, you all think the Things that I ipealc 
to you this Day ; I am fure you have Caufe. And 
yet we are not without the Murmurings of ma- 
ny People, who turn all this Grace and Goodnefe 
into Wormwood, who indeed are difappointed by 
the Works of God : And thofe Men are of feveral 
Ranks and Conditions ; great ones, lefier ones, of all 
Sorts ; Men that are of the Kpifcopal Spirit, with 
all the Branches, the Root and the Branches ; whe 
gave themfelves a fatal Blow in this Place, when 
they would needs make a Protection, That no 
Laws were good which were made by this Houfe, 
and the Houfe of Commons, in their Abfcncc ; and 
fo, without Injury to themfelves, cut off themfelves. 

' Indeed Men that know not God ; that know 
not how to account upon the Works of God ; how 
to meafure them out ; but will trouble Nations for 
an Intereft, which is but mixt at the beft ; made up 
of Iron and Clay, like the Feet of Nebuchadnezzar's 
Image; whether they were more Civil or Spiritual, 
was hard to fay, but their Continuance was like tw 
be known before-hand ; Iron and Clay make no 
good Mixtures, they are not durable at all. 

' You have now a Godly Miniftry ; you have a 
knowing Miniftry ; fuch a one as, without Vanity- 
be it fpoken, the World has not ; Men knowing 
the Things of God, and able to fearch into the 
Things of God i by that gnly that can fathom thole 


174 'fhe Parliamentary HISTORV 
Inter-regnum. Things in fome Meafure. The Spirit of a Beaft 
I "57- knows not the Spirit of a Man ; nor doth the Spirit 
January. ^ Man know the Things of God : The Things of 
God are known by the Spirit. Truly, I will re- 
member but this one Thing of thofe; their greateft 
Perfecution hath been of the People of God ; Men 
of the Spirit of God, as, I think, very Experiences 
will fufficiently demonftrate. 

* Befides, what is the Reafon, think you, that 
Men flip in this Age wherein we live ? As I told 
you before, they underftand not the Works of God ; 
they confider not the Operation of his Laws ; they 
confider not that God refuted and broke in Pieces 
the Powers that were, that Men might fear him j 
might have Liberty to do, and to enjoy, all that we 
have been fpeaking of: Which certainly God hath 
manifefted, that this was the End, and that he hath 
brought the Things to pafs. Therefore it is that 
Men yet flip, and engage themfelves apainft God ; 
and for that very Caufe, in the 28th Pfalm, faith 
David, He /hall break them down, and not build them 
tip. If therefore you would know upon what Foun- 
dation you fland, own your Foundation from God* 
He hath fet you where you are ; he hath let you in 
the Enjoyment of your Civil and of your Spiritual 

* I deal clearly with you : I have been under fome 
Infirmity ; therefore dare not fpeak further unto you, 
but to let you know thus much, that I have, with 
Truth and Simplicity, declared the State of our 
Caufe, and Attainments in it, to you, by the Indu- 
ftry and Labour of this Parliament, when they laft 
met upon this Foundation, (you {hall find I mean 

. the Foundation of a Caufe and Quarrel thus attained 
to) wherein we are thus eftated ; 1 mould be very glad 
to lay my Bones with yours ; and would have done 
it with all Heartinefs and Chearfulnefs, in the mean- 
eft Capacity -that I was ever yet in, to ferve the 

* If God give you, as I truft he will, he hath, gi- 
ven it you ; for, what have I been fpeaking of but 
what you have done ? He hath given you Strength 

Of E N G L A N D. 175 

to do what hath been done : And, if God fliould blefs Inter-rgnum, 

you in this Work, and make this Meeting happy 

upon this Account, you (hall all be called the Blef- 

fed of the Lord ; the Generations to come will blefs 

us ; you (hall be the Repairers of Breaches, and 

the Reftorers of Paths to dwell in : And if there be 

any Work that Mortals can attain to in the World 

beyond this, I acknowledge my Ignorance. As I 

told you, I have fome Infirmities upon me : I have 

not Liberty to fpeak more unto you ; but I have 

defired an Honourable Perfon here by me, to dif- 

courfe a little snore particularly, what may be more 

proper for this Occafion, and this Meeting.' 

The Protector having ended his Harangue, the 
Journals inform us, That the Lord-Commiffioner 
Fiennes made a Speech to both Houfes, by way of 
Enlargement thereupon. This Gentleman, when 
addreffing himfelf to Cromwell^ at the late Confe- 
rence concerning the Parliament's Tender of the 
Crown, argues like a Man of Learning and a found 
Lawyer; yet when he was, as it were, perfonating 
his Matter, he feems to have exceeded him in Cant 
and Hypocrify. - But let this Enthufiaftic Rhap- 
fody fpeak for itfelf. 

My Lords and G*ntlemen t of both the mojl Honour- 
able Houfes of Parliament , 

Mongft the manifold and various Difpenfa-The Lord-Com- 
' ' 1 ^*" 

_. tions of God's Providence of late Years, 
is one, and it is afignal and remarkable Providence, ca f lon> 
That we fee, this Day, in this PJace, a Chief Ma- 
giftrate, and two Houfes of Parliament. Jacob , 
fpeaking to his Son Jofepk^ faid, / bad not thought 
to have fe en thy Face, and t lo, God bath Jhewed me thy 
Seed alfo-y meaning his two Sons Ephraim and Ma- 
naffeh : And may not many amongft us well fay, 
Some Years fince we had not thought to have feen 
a Chief Magiftrate again among us; and, lo, God 
hath (hewn us a Chief Magiftrate in his two Houfes 
of Parliament ^Now may the good God make them 
like Ephraim and M*najfib, that the Three Na- 


176 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Int "g re ! nuaii tions may be blefled in them, faying, God make thee 

^ * 5 1^__ / like thofe two Houfes of Parliament, which two, 

jpuary. like Leah ar d Rachel, did build the Houfe of Ifrael ! 

' May you do worthily in Epbrata, and be famous 
in Beth/em / May it be your great Bufmefs to pro- 
cure the Peace, the Safety, the Profperity of thefe 
Three Nations! And thefeThings,too,not forthem- 
felves only ; but in order yet to greater and higher 
Ends, the Advancement of the Kingdom of Chrlft 
amongft us, and the Glory of God, in the Good of 
all Men, but efpecially of the Churches of God 
amongft Men ; which as they are God's moft pre- 
cious Jewels, and his chiefeft Care, fo muft they 
alfo hold the choiceft Place in the Eyes, and in 
the Hearts, of all them that act under him, and are 
cloathed with his Power and Authority. 

' In order to this great and glorious End, you may 
pleafe, in the firft Place, to reflect upon the Pofture 
that the Three Nations at the prefent are in ; a Po- 
fture (God be praifed !) of Peace, as within them- 
felves ; a quiet Pofture ; a Pofture looking towards 
a Settlement; a perfect Settlement; and the bleffed 
Fruits thereof Juftice and Piety, Plenty and Prolpe- 
rity ; if we take Care not to abufe the latter to the 
Deftru&ion of the former : Surely we ought, with 
all Thankfulnefs, to own and acknowledge the Out- 
goings of God for Good unto us, hitherto : We 
ought to confider how far, through the good Hand 
of God upon the Endeavours of his Highnefs and 
the Parliament before its Adjournment, we were al- 
ready advanced in this Way and Work. 

' After, you may pleafe to forefee and avoid the 
dangerous Rocks, which we may fall upon in our 
Courfe; which may not only ftop it, but cut it (hort,. 
and totally difappoint us of ever arriving at the de- 
fired Port. 

4 In the next Place, you may confider the Op- 
portunities and Advantages you have at this Time 
in your Hands, by what the Parliament hath already 
done, that you may improve them. 

' And, laftly, you may caft your Eyes upon the 
Difficulties we lye under, and the Impediments 


Of E N G L A N D. 177 

which lie in our Way, that you may endeavour to 
remove them. 

' Thefe Things I can only Ipeak to curforily and 
generally : The full and thorough Confideration of **** 
tliem will be the Work of your many and ferious 
Debates and Confultations j and wilJ eKercife not 
only your Wifdom and Induftry, but alfo your Faith 
and Patience : And may it pleafe the Lord to ac- 
company you with his Prefence and Affiftance, and, 
in the End, to crown you with his Bleffing, and 
with Succefs ! 

* Into what Condition the late Wars and Diftrac- 
tions had brought thefe Nations, and what a Cloud 
of Darknefs had overfpread the whole Face of the 
Government, being void, and, in a Manner, with- 
out Form, we all know, and the Three Nations fad- 
ly felt, and were very fenftble of thofe future Confu- 
fions that might have enfued thereupon : But it 
pleafed God, that Light fprang up among us, and 
Things began to move towards fomething of Or<lef 
and Confiftency; but as yet the Earth and the 
Water were in one Mafc together : Then were the 
Waters beneath the Firmament divided from thofe 
above the Firmament ; there was conftituted a 
Chief Magiftrate and a Parliament, the one diftind 
from the other ; that each one, from its own proper 
Place, might the better put forth its Influence and 
Ufefulnefs for the Good of the whole. 

4 After, it pleafed this Parliament, by their Hum- 
ble Petition and Advice, to diftmguifli alfo the Par- 
liament into two Houfes ; and that great and noble 
Body of the Waters retiring into their own Recep- 
tacle, the dry Land appeareth : And what now re- 
mains, but that, by the fweet Influence of that pow- 
erful Spirit that moved upon the Waters, every 
Herb (hould bring forth Seed according to its Kind ; 
and every Tree bring forth Fruit according to its 
Kind ; and that the Sun, Moon, and Stars, the 
Ordinances of Magiftracy and Miniftry, fhould 
ihine forth brightly in the Firmament of Heaven, 
in their greater and lefler Lights, according to the 
Proportion that God hath difpenfed to each one ; 

VOL. XXI. M and 

178 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

and that Fifli and Fowl fhould multiply in the Wa- 
ters and in the Air ; and Beafts and Cattle of all 
Sorts increafe in the Earth ; that all Trades, all 
January. p rofeffions> a n Ranks and Degrees 'of Men, may 
be fubfervier.t to that Second Adam and his Spouie, 
Chrift and his Church ; that they may be formed 
and fet up amongft us, and placed in a Garden of 
Eden; where, with all Freedom, without Fear or 
Difturbance, they may enjoy ail fpiritual Delights, 
and have Communion with one another and with 
God: Which, though laft in Execution, I hope al- 
ways was, and always will be, the firft and chiefeft 
in our Intentions. 

* The Holy Angels of God, when the Foundations 
of the Earth were laid, did not fay, Here is a rude 
Mafs of Earth and Water ; here is indeed a little 
Light; but where is Heaven, Sun, Moon, and Stars? 
Nay, where is Man, made after the Image of God ? 
But, on the contrary, as 'tis witnefs'd from the Mouth 
of God himfelf, when the Foundations of the World 
were fattened, and only the Corner-Stone thereof 
laid, the Morning Stars fang all together, and all the 
Sons of God fhouted for Joy. From hence we may 
difcover one, and that a mod dangerous, Rock ; 
which, if not heeded, we may fplit upon : It is a 
Spirit of Difcontent, and Diflike of the prefentDif- 
penfations of God, becaufe all Things are not per- 
fect in an Inftant, and fuch as is to be wifh'd they 
were, and fuch as poffibly, in God's due Time, 
they may be. 

' If the prefent Parliament, at their firft Meeting, 
had given Way to fuch a Spirit as that ; and had 
not, God affifting them fo to do, on the contrary, 
put on a Spirit of Patience and Refolution to reti fy, 
as far as in them lay, what was amifs; to improve 
what was good, and to make the beft of what God 
laid before them ; preffing on to Settlement and 
Perfection, as God fhould open them a Way, with- 
out attending either to Rumours or Humours of any 
Sort, as there were enough of all Kinds to have dif- 
couraged them and diverted them in their Work : 
I fay, if they had given Way to fuch a Spirit as 


Of E N G L A N D. 179 

that, I know not where we might have been by this inter- regnum. 
Time : But now, blefTed be God ! we know where 
we are in fome Meafure ; and that we are in an 
hopeful Way of Settlement, Safety, and Profperity. 
You did run well, let no Man hinder you : I do 
not know that it would be an uncharitable Wifh, 
to wifh them for ever cut off that (hould trouble you, 
and trouble the Peace of the Nation : But I am fure 
it is a Chriftian Wifh and Prayer, to bid you God 
fpced in your Way and in your Work, for the fur- 
ther Settlement of thefe Nations ; being confident, 
that the Child unborn will have Caufe to blefs you 
for what you have already done, and what, by God's 
Grace, you may yet further do, for their Good. 
Thofe that create new Troubles in a Nation, fel- 
dom attain either the Ends held forth in their goodly 
Pretenfions, or indeed aimed at in their good Inten- 
tions, if any fuch they have ; but ufually fomething 
falleth out, in the End of the Tragedy, much con- 
trary to their Expectation, and ordinarily fomething 
of greater Mifchief and Confufion, than ever they 
felt before. Thofe that throw Fire upon an Houfe 
cannot fay, when the Flame is once broken out, 
that it lhall go fo far, or fo far, and no farther : 
The Fire, when once broken forth, will after take 
its own Courfc, or fuch a Way as fome boifterous 
or tempeftuous Wind (hall carry it. Thofe that 
(hall pluck up the Flood-Gates of the great Deep, 
and let in the furging and raging Waves of War 
into a Nation, cannot flop them and bound them 
when and where they pleafe : He only can do that 
who firft fet Bounds and Doors unto them, and 
faid, Hitherto fialt thou come^ and no farther \ and 
here flail thy proud Waves be flayed. Let us 
therefore beware of the crafty Devices of that fubtle 
and malicious Serpent, that he beguile us not; and 
that there arife not in any of us an evil Heart of Un- 
belief, to depart from our Stedfaftnefs, and from our 
fixed Refolution to feek Peace and enfue it. 

< There is an evil Root, and it is one and the 

fame Root, though two different and contrary Fruits 

M 2 *P rm g 

180 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. fpring from it, but both tending to one and the fame 
t * , ^ nc * w hi cn is to overthrow our great End, the 
JanuaT P ea ce and Quiet of thefe Nations, and the blefled 
Fruits that grow upon them, more precious than 
the Peace itfelf, though that be a great Blefling of, 
and in, itfelf. This Root is a Root of Bitternefs 
and Difcontent, at the prefent Difpenfations of God : 
The different Fruits thereof are a reftive and a reft- 
lefs Spirit: The former caufeth Men, becaufe they 
cannot have all that they will, and when they will, 
to throw up all in a Difcontent ; and refufe to go 
God's Way and God's Pace, becaufe they cannot 
go their own. The other Spirit caufeth Men to be 
always reftlefs, to be always digging up Founda- 
tions, to be turning and overturning, and difliking 
all Things. As to the firft Sort; if they would but 
confider the Example of the great Workman and 
Creator of this beautiful Univerfe, in the Order and 
Manner of his Creation thereof, they might therein 
behold, as in a Mirror, the perfect Idea of the Me- 
thod and Manner of his Working, alfo in the con- 
tinual Courfe of his Providence, in the Prefervation 
and Government of the World ; and might be 
taught how to order their Thoughts and themfelves, 
in relation to the gradual Difpenfations of God ; 
and learn their own Duty, as they are called to act 
under the fame, .and in Subferviency thereunto. 
Not only God's Reft, but alfo his Working, was 
exemplary j as God refted the feventh Day, fo mun: 
Men : As God wrought the fix Days, fo muft 
Men; as well thofe that are to work with the Head 
as with the Hand ; as well Rich as Poor ; as well 
High as Low : None are too high to imitate the 
Moft High : None muft be idle ; but every one 
muft ferve God and his Country, according to his 
Calling ; and that Call cannot but be warrantable, 
which is neceflary ; and that is neceflary which God, 
by his Providence, fo orders, that a Man muft a<t 
'by it, or not at all : And that he fhould not act at 
all, is neither agreeable to God's Commandment, 
nor his Example. 


Of E N G L A N D. 181 

* Thus, as to the Subftance of God's Working ; inter-regnum. 
but the very Order and Manner of it hath alfo a l6 S7- 
Teaching in it. ^T"'*""'"' 

* No doubt, if it had feemed good to the Divine J MUXr y> 
Wifdorn, that powerful Breath, which called fome- 

fhing out of nothing, could, in the fame Breath, 
and in the fame Inftant, have given it its whole and 
entire Beauty and Perfection : But he was plcafed 
to create it by Degrees, and to proceed from one 
Meafure of Perfection to another. When he had 
drawn the firft Line thereof, he did not diflike his 
own Work, and throw it up, though the Earth 
was void and without Form, and Darknefc was 
upon the Face of the Deep, but went on to 
create Light ; and though it was ftill mixed with 
Darknefs, even before he had divided the Darknefs 
from the Light, he faw it was good : And fa, at 
every Period of his Work, he owned the Good 
that was already in being, and then went on till he 
had perfected the whole; and, when he had viewed 
all his Works together, he then faw they were all 
very good. What fhould this teach us, but that we 
ihould thankfully own and receive every Degree of 
Good which God reacheth forth unto us; and with 
Faith and Patience wait upon his Footfteps, follow- 
ing him from one Step of Perfection to another, till 
we arrive at the End of his Works ; and then, as 
we found the Parts thereof good, we (hall find them 
altogether very good : And if God, who could have 
made his Works perfect in an Inftant, yet was 
pleafed to perfedl them by Degrees, furely he would 
have us learn not to quarrel at the Works of Men, 
if they are not all perfect in a Day : Nay, if we 
will take God for our Pattern, (as all the Excel- 
lency that is in the Creature is fo far forth, as there 
is found in it fome Shadow and Rcfemblance of its 
Creator) tho' there be not only Defects, but alfo real 
Evils in Things, yet Men ought not to fit ftill, and 
let them take their Courfe, but to endeavour to 
amend them if they can ; or otherwife to draw 
Good out of them if they may : For although to. 
do Evil, that Good may come out of it, is a Doc- 
M 3 trine 

1 8 2 The Parliamentary Hi s TOR Y 

Inter-regnum. trine of Devils; yet, to draw Good out of Evil, is 
l6 57 a n high Imitation of God. 

V 'T^7" - ' * As to that other Sort of Spirit, that is over bufy 
and always turning up Foundations, I might have 
forborne to fay any thing of it to you, unto whom I 
addrefs my Speech, as in relation to yourfelves ; for 
that either you yourfelves have adviied the fettling 
that Foundation we now ftand upon, or elfe are 
laid upon it, or at leaft are, or ihould be, all 
fworn to it : And as to others, who would build 
upon contrary Foundations, or upon no certain 
Foundation, departing from, and not perfecting, 
that which is already fo well laid, (which may 
be equally deftruc"live to our great and good End 
of Settlement) I need not fay much to them 
neither : For thofe which conceit either Utopia's 
of I know not what Kind of imaginary Common- 
wealths, or Day-Dreams of the Return of I know 
not what Golden Age with the old Line ; their No- 
tions are rather bottomed in Conceit than in Rea- 
fon, and muft rather be worn out by Experience 
than argued down by Reafon ; for, when they come 
to be put in Practice, they prefently difcover their 
Weaknefs and Inconfiftency, and that they are al- 
together unpra&icable and infeafible, or of very 
fhort Durance and Continuance, as hath appeared 
fo often as they have been afiayed or attempted : 
Nay, as to the latter, there feemeth to be ri &HOV, 
aliquid Divini, to the contrary ; there having been 
fo conftant and ftrong; a Current of Providences 
againft it, that whofoever have attempted to ftem 
that Tide, have not only been carried violently back 
again, but alfo driven upon Rocks, whereupon they 
have (hipwreck'd themfelves in the Attempt ; not 
unlike to thofe Jews whom Julian the Apoftate, in 
Defpight of Chrift, fet to rebuild the Temple at 
Jerusalem upon its old Foundations, put of which 
Balls of Wild-fire ifiuing forth, affrighted and de- 
ftroyed the Workmen, and made them defift from 
their Work. Indeed our Author and the Party 
amongft us doth the like ; becaufe an Heathen, and 
, a great Friend of Julian, would not acknowledge 


Of E N G L A N D. 183 

the Hand of God in it, bait imputed it to a firong later-regnum. 
Accident, to the Pertinacy of the Klemcnt ; Perti- l6 57- 
nacla Element'^ crebris Infultil>us t territit Optra) ios ; * -v~ ' 
yet it made them dclift from their Work : But fo I 10 ""?* 
will not that Party amongft us: No Demonftrations 
of God's Hand againft them will prevail with them ; 
but, furpafling in Obftinacy the very Jtius them- 
felves, they will not leave off their Work, but are 
as hard at it, even at this Day, as ever. What 
lhall we do with thofe Men who will never be quiet? 
JEger intemperans crudelem facit Medicum, et im- 
medicabile Vulnus Enfe recidendum* 

4 There is another Rock, and it is alfo a danger- 
ous one ; it is a Rock upon which many have fplit 
themfelves in our View ; and it hath, lying right 
over againft it, a Quickfand, no lefs dangerous, 
which hath fwallowed many alfo in our Sight : The 
Rock is a Spirit of impofing upon Men's Con- 
fciences, where God leaves them a Latitude, and 
would have them free : The Quickfand is an abo- 
minable Licentioufnefs, to profefs and pradlife any 
Sort of deteftable Opinions and Principles : For the 
former, the Prelates and all their Adherents, nay, 
and their Mafter and Supporter too, with all his 
Pofterity, have fplit themfelves upon it. The bloody 
Rebels in Ireland^ that would endure no Religion 
but their own amongft them, have fplit themfelves 
upon it : And we doubt not but that the Prince of 
thofe Satanical Spirits, under whofe Banner, being 
caft out from hence, they are now retired as unto 
their Beelzebub^ will, in God's good Time, fplit 
himfelf alfo upon this Rock ; and be brought down 
to the Ground, together with his bloody Inquifuion, 
which therefore hath acquired the Surname of the 
Spanijh Inquifition. 

4 But as God is no Refpc&er of Perfons, fo nei- 
ther is he any Refpe&er of Forms ; but in what 
Form foever this Spirit appearcth, he hath, he will, 
teftify his Difpleafure againft it, though it be not of 
fo deep a Dye as that I have fpoken of before : If 
Men, though othcrwife good Men, will turn Cere- 
mony into Subftance, and make the Kingdom of 


184 *he Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter-regnuou Cbrift to confift in Circumftances, in Difciplines, 
in Forms (though thefe Things alfo may have their 
Ufe, as to Order and Decency, fo they be ftrained 
no farther, and not carried beyond their Line and 4 
Meafure) : But, I fay, if Uniformity in thefe 
Things fhall diflblve Unity among Brethren ; and 
efpecially if it grow to. fuch a Height of Animofity, 
and fo high a Degree of Afperity, that if one fay 
but Siboletb inftead of Sbiboleth, it fhall be accounted 
Ground enough to cut his Throat, though one of 
his Brethren ; if any Men fhall account all as Hea- 
thens, and no Chriftians, that are not under fuch 
or fuch an Ordinance; all Men Devils, that are 
out of fuch a Circle, and fuch a Form; and all Men 
the Seed of the Serpent, that will not father fuch 
or fuch an Opinion, (it may be but Fancies too, 
when all is done) fuch Principles, fuch Practices, 
Men cannot bear, God will not endure : And in 
vain do they proteft againft the Perfecution of 
God's People, when, as eagerly perfecuting all 
others, they make the Definition of God's People 
fo narrow, that their Perfecution becometh as broad 
as any others ; and ufually more fierce, becaufe or- 
dinarily edged with a fharper Temper of Spirit. It 
jnay be that many amongft thefe fhall, by God's 
Mercy, meet together in Heaven ; but certainly, 
had they Power at Will, they would not fuffer one 
another to live upon the Earth : Therefore, blefled 
be God, who, in Mercy to us and them, hath 
placed the Power in fuch Hands, as make it their 
Bufmefs to keep Peace amongft them, and to hinder 
them from biting and devouring one another: Nay, 
he is pleafed tacitly to influence fome amongft them- 
felves, of more moderate Spirits, to balance the reft, 
and to keep them in Peace at prefent ; and not 
without Hopes, by God's Blefling upon their Per- 
ftiafions and Examples, to bring them at length to 
a near Conjunction ef Hearts and of Minds : And 
if thofe that are more eaineft amongft them, would 
be but a little jealous over their own Spirits, and 
\vould but obferve the Rebukes of God upon all 
that have been tranfported unto thofe Extremes, 


Of ENGLAND. 185 

?nd trace the Footfteps of his Initiation againft 
then), (whereof he h-arh left feveial Prints ir> a-lf the 
Three Nations) it might he a good Help to reduce ^ 
them to that Golden Mean, which certainly is the 
right Way, which undoubtedly is God's Way : 
God was not in the Whirlwind, nor in th Earth- 
quake, nor in the Fire, when he came to Elijah, 6A 
the Mount of God ; but he was in theftill and finall 
Voice; yet it mult be a fmall and ftill Voice, enough 
to hold forth a certain and dittindt Sound, but not f* 
make fo great a Noife as to drown all other Voices 
befides : It is good, it is ufeful, to hold forth a cet- 

tain Confeffion of th Truth j but not fo as thereby 
to exclude all tbofe that cannot come up to it, in aft 
Points, from the Privileges which belong to them as 
Chriftians ; much lefe which belong to them a Men. 

4 For that otrurr Extreme, that Gi)ph and 
Quickfand whereupon fo many wretched Souls have 
made Shipwreck of Faith and a good Conference, 
abandoning themfelves to all Loofenefs of Opinions, 
Principles, and Practices ; denying and bbfpheming 
the Lord that bought us, and the Holy Spirit that 
famSlified us ; making z Mock of the Scriptures, of 
Heaven and Hell, and of all the Fundamentals f 
our moft Holy Faith, I need not fpeak more to it ; 
there is Te/limonium Rei in the Cafe ; the Things 
themfelves fpeafc Joud enough, to fober Conferences, 
that they are intolerable. 

' Between thefe two, that Rock and this Quick- 
fand, the Parliament, in their Humble Petition and 
Advice, have moft wifely and moft chriftianlir 
fleered their Courfe; wherein, rf they (hall ftill 
conftantly perfevere, all good Men in City, tn 
Country, in Army, and every where; nay, God 
himfelf will ftand by them, and own them in rt: 
And not only in Matters of Religion, but alfo in our 
Civil Concerns and Liberties, we have a very fair 
Way traced out to us by the Parliament, to fettle 
and fecure them both, and make the Three Nations 
happy thereby ; if fome therein would btrt rectify 
their Opinions, and bring them to Things as God 
would have them, and not ftrivc to bring Things 


1 86 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. with fo much Hazard and Difficulty to their Opi- 
l6 57- nions j like one that, being fcorched with ftanding 

V T"" v 'p 1<1 ' 1 too near the Fire, rather than ftir an Inch from the 

January. pj ace wnere he hath fet down his Foot, cafts about 

for Mafons and Workmen to pull the Houfe down, 

that fo he may fet the Chimney further off from 


' Give me Leave to fpeak one Word more in this 
familiar Way of Expreffion, in the Dialect, and to 
the Senfe and Experience, of every plain Country- 

. ' The late Wars and Confufions had fo trod 

and trampled down the Quickwood, whereby the 
Hedge was made to fence in our Laws and Liber- 
ties, that there is a Neceflity of fetting it over again : 
Now fome will admit of no other Way but to fet the 
very fame old Plants in the very felf-fame old Bank : 
Others run fo far to the Extreme on the other Side, 
that they will have none of the old Sets, none of 
the old Bank, no Bank at all ; but will have their 
Fence fet upon a Level, and upon the plain Ground. 
A third Sort like a middle Way; as on the one Side 
not to meddle with the old, dry, and dead Bank ; 
for that, upon often Eflays and Treaties, it hath 
been found the Sets will not take in it ; fo, on the 
other Side, not to fet them upon the plain Ground, 
left the Beafts, and the Herds, and Flocks fhould 
tread them down at every Turn, as they pafs to 
and fro, according as. their Food and Fancy leads 
them j but to place the Sets in two Tables, upon a 
Bank, railed up as before, but of frefh and live 
Mould ; and to make Ufe of all Plants, both old 
and new, that will take to the frefh Ground, and 
thrive in it. The Country Man finds this no ill 
Hufbandry in his Way ; and we may find the like 
no ill Policy in our Way : And, truly, if it pleafe 
the Lord to water our new-fet Plants with the Dews 
of Heaven ; and that, by our own Difcord amongft 
ourfelves, falling one from another, and from the 
Banks we ftand upon, we do not open Gaps for 
them who would make a Breach in our Mound ; we 


Of E N G L A N D. 187 

have great Opportunities and Advantages, by what 
the Parliament hath already done, to fettle a firm 
and lading Fence about our Liberties, both Civil 
and Spiritual; and fuch a one as no Beafts of the 
Field, neither great nor fmall, no Perfons whatfo- 
ever, neither high nor low, (hall be able to pafs 
through it, or get over it, or tread it down : But 
then we muft beware and take Heed of the fubtle 
Devices of fuch, who, defigning to deftroy it, judge, 
and not without Reafon, they have no fuch Time 
to compafs their Purpole, as to difturb and diftra& 
our Settlement in the Infancy thereof, before the two 
Rows of Sets have taken deep Root in the Bank, and 
before they be grown up together, and are inter- 
weaved and plained one into the other. For then, 
they fear it will be too late to do it ; the Fence will 
be grown ftrong, like a treble Cord, which cannot 
eafily be broken, unlefs they can untwift it and un- 
ravel it again : Which, after fome Time and Con- 
tinuance, and the mutual Intercourfes of Love and 
Expeiience of each other's Ufefulnefs to one another, 
and to the Commonwealth, it will not be eafy for 
them to do. 

* Therefore we muft have an Eye not only to the 
wild Boars of the Foreft, that they root not up our 
Fence, but alfo to the Foxes. Ob, take us thofe y 
thofe little Foxes which fpoil the Vines \ for our 
Vine bath tender Grapes! Let the Chief Magiftrate 
and the two Houfes of Pailiament efteem each other 
as Bone of their Bone, and Flefli of their Fle(h : 
Let them be of one Heart, and like the Form and 
Figure of an Heart, which, tho' triangular, is but 
one Heart : Let there be one Mind, one Soul, and 
one Spirit, that may a6l and animate the whole, and 
every Part; and be whole in the Whole, and whole 
in every Part : Let one and the fame good Blood 
run in and through them all, and, by a perpetual 
Circulation, preferve the whole, and every Part, in 
perfect Unity, Strength, and Vigour. 

* This Conftitution of a Chief Magiftrate and 
Two Houfes of Parliament, is not a Pageantry, but 
a real and well-meafured Advantage to itfelf, and to 


1 88 The Parliamentary HISTORY 
later-regmtm. the Commonwealth ; and fo confonant to Reafon, 
that it is the very Emblem and Idea of Reafon itfelf, 
which reafoneth and difcourfeth by a Medium be- 
tween two Extremes. If there be two Extremes, 
and the one vary from the other, how fhall they be 
reconciled, if there be no Medium to bring them to- 
gether ? Where one cannot prevail with one, two 
may with a third : Where one Foot flippeth, in- 
deed the other may keep the Body from falling ; but 
if both be tripped up, and it fall, what {hall relieve 
it, if there be not a third to put forth a Hand to 
help it up again ? If one be aflaulted, will not the 
other be concerned in it, and run to its Defence ? 
But if both be attempted and expofed to Violence, 
will they not ftand in Need of a Protestor ? If forne 
Hazard muft be run in popular Elections, to pre- 
ierve the People's Freedoms, may there not be fome 
Help therein by the Election of a Chief Magiftrate, 
that it turn not at any Time to its own Prejudice ? 
If any Thing inconvenient ftxxuld chance to flip out 
at one Door, muft it not pafs two more, before it 
come abroad to the Detriment of the People r" 
How exact, and of how great Refpect and Authori- 
ty, will be all your Acts, Laws, and Refolutions ; 
when as, after that they have pafled the Examina- 
tion of that great Body, which fees with the Eyes of 
the Three Nations, and is acquainted with the Con- 
dition, and fenfible of the Neceflities, of every in- 
dividual Part thereof, they {hall then pafs a fecond 
Scrutiny, and be publifhed and refined by fuch as, 
during Life, fliall make it their Bufmefs either to fit 
themfelves for, or to be exercifed in, Things of that 
Nature; being alfo affifted by all the Reverend 
Judges of the Land, and other learned Perfons of 
that Robe, fo oft as there {ball be Oecafion to re- 
quire their Advice ; and when, as after all this, they 
*nuft pafs alfo the Judgment and Aflfent of the Chief 
Magiftrate, who is placed on high as upon a Watch- 
Tower, from whence he may behold at one View, 
and difcover the State of the whole Body Politic 
and every Part thereof; and fee not only near at hand, 
but alfo afar off, how it ftandeth in relation to Fo- 

Of E N G L A N D. 189 

reign States, as well as to its own Parts within it- 

* I might enlarge much more on this Subject : And 
it is not to be forgotten that each Houfe taking a J anuar >'' 
more fpecial Care of what is moft proper for it, and 
it moft proper for, whilft the Reprefentative of the 
Commons provideth and ftrengtheneth the Sinews 
of War to preferve the Commonwealth from Dc- 
ftruclion in Grofs, by public Force and Violence, 
the other Houfe will preferve it from Deftru&ion by 
Retale, through the due Adminiftration of Juftice, 
fuppreffing private Wrongs and Oppreffions, which 
would foon break out into open Flames and public 
Rapines, if they were not prevented by the Courts 
of Judicature ; whereof the higheft and laft Reibrt 
is there : But I fhall leave what is omitted in this 
Point to Time and Experience ; which I ana con- 
fident will fpeak more fully, and more effecluaHy^ 
and convincingly, than the Tongue of any Man can 
fet forth. 

4 And fo I pafs on to the laft Point, and ihall 
briefly touch on fome Difficulties and Impediments, 
which we may meet with in our Way. And the 
firft, that fome may be in Danger to ftumble at, is, 
the Apprehenfion of Novelty in this Conftitution, 
becaufe it is not in every Point agreeable to what 
was before. For Removal hereof, let us confider, 
that neither is the Condition of the Nation at preient, 
as it was before ; and, it may be, it is not good it 
fhould be fo, or, at leaft, that it is jaot God'* Will 
it fhould be fo. It is rather little lefs than a Miracle, 
that, after fo great Shakings and Confulions, it fhoulJ 
fo Toon come to that State that it is already in : And 
if we well and wifely confider how great Variety of 
Humours and Judgments, and what different Inte- 
reils and Powers thefc Wars have raifed amongil us, 
and how differently placed and lodged from that 
which was before, it ia no Wonder if every one 
cannot have what he thinks beft in his Judgment to 
be done, but ought rather to -content Jiimfelf with 
what he may think next beft to that which -is firft in 
his Judgment, which probably may he belt of all 


190 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

later-regnum. in itfelf ; for that every one is a partial Judge, as 
l6 S7- to that Thing that hath taken the firfc Imprcffion in 

*T n ^""""' his Mind, and fo pafled into a prejudicate Opinion: 
January. g^ above all, we muft have the Peace and Settle- 
ment of the Nations, quacunque data Via^ as a Pole 
or Star before our Eyes, fleering our Courfe there- 
by, without giving Ear to the enchanting Songs of 
any Syrens; and without giving Way to any Sug- 
geftions of Indignation, which proud Flefli may af- 
fault our Minds withall ; but with generous Refo- 
lutions prefs on to Settlement, conquering our 
Temptations and fubduing our own Spirits, if in 
any Thing, at any Time, they (hall rife againft this 
Work ; whereby we (hall gain more true Honour 
before Men and before God, than if we had fub- 
dued a City, than if we had conquered a Nation : 
And indeed we (hall do no lefs thereby than preferve 
Three Nations. 

' Another Difficulty arifeth unto us from the Dif- 
fatisfadlion of fome of our antient Friends, who have 
been, and ftill might be, ufeful to us, in the Work 
which we have now in Hand ; which if it be not a 
greater Difficulty unto us th;>n that of our fecret 
and open Enemies, of whom I (hall fpeak anon, it 
is a greater Trouble and Grief to us, becaufe that 
we love them fo much, and fear the other fo little ; 
not that they are not a formidable Enemy ; but now, 
by the Conjunction of our late inbred Enemy with 
that old Enemy of our Nation and Religion, and of 
God himfelf, who is our Hope, and chiefeft Help, 
we fhall have God a greater and clofer Friend unto 
us, becaufe we have to do with his greateft Enemy : 
But for thofe of our Friends, who content them- 
felves with their Privacy and Country Retirements, 
in thefe great Difficulties of the Commonwealth : 
For the Divijions of Reuben there are great Thoughts 
of Heart. Why abide/t thou among the Sheepfolds 
to hear the Bleating of the Flocks ? Surety, for the 
Divifions of Reuben there are great Searching! of 
Heart / How Jhall we bind up the Wounds we re- 
ceive in the Houfe of our Friend ? What Jhall we do 
for our Sijier that hath no Ereajls j that will afford 

Of E N G L A N D. 191 

no Milk ? If Jhe be a Wall, we will build a Palace inter- regnum. 
of Silver upon her ; and, if Jhe be a Door, we will l6 S7- 
enclofe her with Boards of Cedar : If they will ^T"^ 1 ^ 
give us any Foundation to work upon, we will J am 
build upon it ; we will improve it ; we will multiply 
Obligations upon them ; we will heap Coals of Fire 
upon their Heads : If they will not let us follow 
them, let them follow us ; we will either lead or 
follow in the Work of God : And if our Words 
cannot convince them, we will endeavour that our 
Works may do it. And, what we cannot do our- 
felves, we will pray to God to do for us, and to find 
out Ways, which we cannot, to re-unite our Hearts 
and Hands, who have been engaged together in the 
fame Caufe, and are ftill embark'd in the fame Bot- 
tom, and muft fink and fwim, muft run the fame 
Hazard and Fortune together; I mean the fame 
Hue and Event of God's Providence towards us, 
whether it be for Good, or whether it be for Evil. 
As to our Enemies, both fecret and open, they arc? 
continually plotting and contriving to create us all 
the Trouble that they can ; and want not Means for 
to affect it, our home-bred Enemies being now iu< 
Conjunction with that our great foreign Enemy, who 
vaunt themfelves of their King, that he poflefletb 
more Riches, more Crowns, and more Dominions, 
than ever any Chriftian Prince did ; and that his- 
Empire is ten Times greater than that of the Great 
Turk, and larger than ever was that of the Romans ; 
and that he might, more juftly than the Per/tan 
King, ftyle himfeJf King of Kings, Brother of the 
Sun and the Moon ; and that the Sun never fets upon 
his Dominions, and the like : And yet, to all theie 
Riches and to all this Power, to all thefe Titles, we 
are not afraid to oppofe the one fmgle Name of the 
Lord our God : And if it do not diminifli our Dif- 
ficulty, yet it doth not a little eafe our Minds, that 
all our Enemies are reduced to that Head, which 
profefleth himfelf to be the Head of that Anti- 
chriftian Faction, which oppofeth all the Chriftian 
Churches in the World ; and would keep and bring: 
them under thq Iron Yoke of his bloody Inquifition : 


1 9 2 Tfoe Parliamentary Hi s f o R y 

Inter-regnum. And every Blow that we flial! level at that Head, hi 
^ '' way of Defence or Offence, will, in fome Propor- 
January. tion, rewound to the Advantage of all good Chri- 
ftians throughout the World. 

* And now it would he very ftrange, if all good 
Men ftiould not fee, and be convinced, what Thread 
if was that run all along through our Quarrel in the 
late Wars : And though, at firft, it was more finely 
fpun, and more clofely wrought, that it could not 
fo eafily be difcerned ; yet, now that it is unravell'd 
to its Bottom, it more clearly difirovereth its Rife 
fey its Refort : And if the Inrere-ft of that Party (hall 
be again inthroned amougft us, arid brought in upori 
the Wings of that double-h&aded Black Eagle, or 
rather Vuiture, what will become of the pofcw 
JLambs of Chri/1 ? What can we expedt, but, ac- 
cording to the Agreement between them, a Tolera- 
tion of Popery in England and Scotland) and a Pro- 
feflion and Protection of it in Ireland, with an Inun- 
dation of Loofenefs and Profanenefs on the one Side$ 
and of Tyranny and Oppreffion on the other ? We 
cught then to believe ; and we have good Ground to 
reft our Faith upon : But, Cum Deo movenda eft 
Manus, we ought fo to believe, as though we had 
made no Provifion at all ; and yet we ought fo to 
make Provifion, in Subferviency to God's Provi- 
dence, as if we did not believe at all. And his 
Highnefs doth acknowledge the great Care and Pro- 
vifion of the Parliament, for the carrying on of this 
War, in purfuance of their moft Chriftian arid truly 
Englijh Spirit and Refolution, in owning that Quar- 
rel againft that old Enemy of their Religion, and of 
their Nation : Yet I muft acquaint you, That the 
Supplies granted have fallen {bort of the Common- 
wealth's Neceflities ; becaule, indeed, they .have 
fallen flaort of the Parliament's own Expectations, 
according tp the loweft Eftimate that they were 
reckoned at j efpecially thatpf the New Buildings a : 


a By an Aft patted this Parliament, (the PrcaRjbk to v,-hich re- 
cites that the exceflive Number of Houfes newly built, in the City and 
Suburbs of London, and Parts adjoining, were founjj to be very mif- 
chievous anti inconvenient, and a fret* Nufmce to the Cmnm- 


Of E N G L A N D. 193 

Wherein what have been the particular Obftruc- Inter-regnum. 

tions, and what may be the proper Remedies, as ' 

alfo the full and perfect State of the Revenue, you ^7^7*^ 

will particularly underftand from the Lords Com- 

miflioners of the Treafury, and fuch other Perfons 

as his Highnefs will appoint to inform you therein; 

which cannot be expecled at this Time from me, 

who have already held you too long, andTpent too 

much of your Time, and tired out your Patience, 

which you will have Occafion enough to make ufe 

of to better Purpofes. 

4 This only I fhall add before I conclude, That 
though I fhall not, I mu'ft not, I dare not, flatter 
Man in the Prefence of God, (and his Prefence is 
more than ordinary in fuch Aflemblies as this) yet 
you all know, and the Three Nations know, and 
all the Nations round about us know, that the 
Quiet, the Peace, and Welfare of thefe Nations 
doth at prefent, in great Meafure, under God, de- 
pend upon his Highnefs's Life : And therefore, with 
Hearts and Hands lifted up to Heaven, let us pray 
for the Continuance of it, and of the Influences of 
God's gracious Spirit upon his Mind and Heart, for 
the Weal and good Government of thefe Nations. 

Then addrejjing himfelf particularly to the Lord 

* Sir, whatever you are or (hall be; whatever you 

have done or fhall do ; and whatever Abilities you 

VOL. XXI. N are 

wealth) it was enafled, ' That for every Dwelling-Houfc, or other 
Building, creeled upon any new Foundation in the laid City, or 
within ten Miles thereof, finee the 2jth of March, 1620, and not 
having four Acres of Land, at leaft, occupied therewith, according 
to the Statute De Terris menjurandit, there fliould be paid to the 
Lord Protector, for the Ufe of the Commonwealth, one Year's Rent 
at the full and improved Value. And all Houfcs erefted on new 
Foundations, after the agth of September, 1657, not having four 
Acres of Land occupied therewith, wercTto pay a Fine of One Hun- 
dred Pounds for every Offence, for the Ufe above-mentioned j and 
the fun her Sum of Twenty Pounds to the Poor of the Pari/h, for 
every Nfonth, that any fuch Houfe fhould be upheld and continued.' 
Itwaralloenjcled, 'That, for preventing the terrible Confcqucnco 
of Fires, all Manner of Houfes in London and Weftmittjltr, or the Li- 
berties thereof, and Scutlwark, whether upon old or new Founda- 
tions, rtiould, from and after the parting this Act, be built wi'h 
JJritk or Stone, or both, and ftrcight up, without jetting out into 
:, upon Penalty of One Hundred Pouirds-. 

194 yfa Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. are or fhall be endowed with, arc not from nor for 
5 y ur ^ e ^> b ut fr m anc * f r God, and for the Good; 
f Men, and efpecially of God's People among 
Men : To which End that you may lay forth your- 
felf and them, and improve all the Opportunities, 
and employ all the Power, which God hath put into 
your Hands, is the Hope, is the Prayer of all good 
Men ; and in fo doing you fhall have Comfort, you 
fhall have Honour, and we fhall have Safety, and we 
lhall have Happinefs j that Happinefs to fee Truth 
and Peace, Juftice and Mercy kifs each other, 
and Chrljl fit upon his Throne in thefe Lands ; 
not in that literal and carnal Way, which hath fo 
much intoxicated the Brains and Minds o( many 
in thefe our Days, but in Spirit and in Truth ; 
and more comformable to that which Chrifl him- 
felf hath pronounced, That his Kingdom is not of 
this World ; and yet muft all the Kingdoms of the 
World be fubfervient to that World which is to 
come, to that Kingdom which is above. 

' \Vhereupon, having our Eyes fixed, let us bend 
our Courfe that Way, with our Faces thitherward, 
difcharging every one his Duty in his Place, diligently 
and faithfully ; and finiihing the Work which God 
hath appointed us to do in this Life ; that, in the 
Life to come, we may bear that fweet and blefTed 
Voice directed unto us, Come^ good and faithful 
Servants, enter into your Mafter's Joy.' 

Thefe tedious Harangues being ended, the Com- 
mons returned to their own Houfe, and ordered 
that all the Committees concerning public Affairs, 
which had been appointed before their Recefs, 
Ihould be revived : But, before we advance any 
farther in the Tranfations of this Parliament, it 
will be necefTary to Temember, That, by the third 
Article of the Humble Petition and Advice, no Per- 
fons legally chofen by a free Election of the People 
to ferve in Parliament, were to be excluded there- 
from, but by the Judgment znd Confent of that 
Houfe whereof they were Members. In Confe- 
qucnce of this, all thole Gentlemen who had been 



denied their Seats in the Houfe of Commons, at lnt<?r-rgnum. 
the firft Meeting of this Parliament, on Pretence of 
their not being approved of by the Prote&or's Coun- 
cil, were freely admitted. This opened the Door to 
about one hundred of Cromwell's moft inveterate 
Enemies, who had obtained great Credit and In- 
tercft in the Houfe, by having been excluded for 
their Fidelity to the Commonwealth. 

It is alfo to be obferved, That the Protector, 
when he felefted out of the Houfe of Commons 
thofe who were his ableft Managers there, in order 
to inftitute his New Houfe of Lords, had not taken 
Care to fupply their Places with Men equally at- 
tached to his Intereft. 

Thefe two Circumftances quite chang'd the Com- 
plexion of the Houfe of Commons, and account for 
their endeavouring to overturn all that had been done 
for Cromwell's Service, in the former Seflion. 

Hiftorians charge Crowzw// with the Want of his 
ufual Sagacity in this Particular ; not confidering, 
that, by the feventeenth Article of the Humble Pe- 
tition and Advice, he was obliged to give his Af- 
fent to that whole Inflrument without Referve, 
And, confequently, his Submitting to fuch Articles 
therein as were Rsftri&ions of his Power, was the 
Price of a Legiflative Confirmation of his Protek>r- 
fhip. Befides, there was no Way of Recruiting 
th Vacancies of the Houfe of Commons but by 
the Speaker's iffuing new Writs for that Purpofe, 
which could not be done without the Order of that 
Houfe. But to return : 

On the 22d of this Month the Commons being A Meflag, fcy 
informed that fome Gentlemen were at the Door, l *'J f f jj 
with a MelTage from the Lords, they were ordered e Ne'wifaife 
to be called \n ; when it appeared that they werof Lords to tfc? 
two jof the Judges, If^ynJbam anil /////, who making Commoas > 
their Obeifances, and advancing to the Clerk's 
Table, the former of them delivered a Mefiage to 
this Effect : 

/ am commanded^ by the Lords^ ta (kfire of this 

Houfe, that you -will join with thtir Lard/hits* in an 

N 2 Humble 

196 The Parliamentary HrsTORY 

Inter- regnum. Humble Addrefs to his Highnefs the 

* 6 57- That he will be p leafed to appoint a Day of public 
"~*~ Humiliation^ throughout the 1'hree Nations o/Eno-- 

January. iicii ITII J & 

land, Scotland, and Ireland. 

After debating this Meflage, it was refolved, by 
a Majority of 75 againft 51, that the Houfe would 
fend an Anfvver thereto, by Meflengers of their 
own. This Refolution gave fo great Difguft to the 
Protector, that, 

Who beginning On the 25th, his Highnefs fent a Letter, directed 
^e C AuThorityof to the Speaker of the Houfe of Commons, which 
the Other Houfe, was this Day read, defiring them to give him a 
Meeting at the Banquetting- Houfe , Whitehall* at 
Three that Afternoon : Accordingly they went up 
thither, at the Time appointed, where the Protec- 
tor made another Speech to them. This is not en- 
tered in the Journals, nor have we met with it, at 
large, any where elfe ; and indeed it feems, from 
what followed thereupon, not to have been printed 
at all. But Mr. Whitlocke informs us, That the 
Purport of it was, an Exhortation to Unity, and to 
the Obfervance of their own Rules laid down in the 
Humble Petition and Advice j becaufe Sir Arthur 
Hafelrigge and fome others, not allowing of the New 
Houfe of Lords, had fpoken reproachfully of them, 
endeavouring to raife Difcontents between the Houfe 
of Commons and their Lordfhips j the latter of 
whom our Memorialing being now one of them 
himfelf, mentions with great Refpect. 

On the 28th, the Speaker having made a Report 
of the foregoing Speech, he further told them, by 
the Lord Protector's Defire, ' That his Highnefs in- 
tended to have imparted to them a Paper, concern- 
ing the State of the public Monies, which he had 
not then ready with him ; but that the Houfe fhould 
have it, whenever they did deiire the fame.' Here- 
upon it was refolved, That a Committee be ap- 
pointed to wait upon the Lord Protector, and defire 
him to caufe the Speech he had laft made, in the 
Banquetting-Houfe, to be printed ; alfo to commu- 
nicate tQ them the Paper concerning the State of 


Of E N G L A N D., 197 

the Public Monies ; and to acquaint him, that the Infer-rc-num. 
Houfe would take the Matters, imparted to them 
in the (aid Speech, into their ferious and fpeedy 

After which it was refolved, by a Majority of 92 
Voices againft 84, That no private Bulinefs be ta- 
ken into Confidcration for one Month. 

January 29. Mr. Nathaniel Bacon f , one of the 
Matters of the Rcquefts to the Lord Protector, re- 
ported, That the Committee, having waited upon 
his Highnefs, in a full Appearance, at the with- 
drawing Chamber at Whitehall^ and prefented him 
with the foregoing Refolutions of the Houfe, he 
gave this Anfwer : 

That his Highnefs faid, * He could not have 
looked upon the Committee as a Committee of 
the Houfe of Commons, had he not feen the Paper, 
and the Perfons of the Committee. 

' That what he fpake in the Banquetting-Houfe, 
was delivered to both the Houfes, the Houfe of 
Lords and the Houfe of Commons j and that he 
was exceeding tender of the Breach of Privilege of 
either Houfe, whereunto he had fworn; and which, 
by the Bleffing of God, would maintain ; and that 
he did not know, nor was fatisfied, that it was not 
againft the Privilege of either Houfe, for him to give 
an Anfwer to either of the Houfes apart. 

* That he fpoke to the Houfes thofe Things 
that did lie upon his own Heart; and that he did 
acquaint them, honeftly and plainly, how Things 
ftood in Matters of Fad ; but that of the Particu- 
lars he did not remember four Lines : That he had 
confidered with fome Perfons about the Papers re- 
lating to Money, and found fome Particulars ihort, 
and fome over ; but he would take them into Con- 
fideration, and fet them right, and would give a 
timely Account thereof. 

' That he defir'd his Affections might be prefent- 
ed to the Houfe ; and that he would be ready to 
ferve them, faithfully, in the Capacity he was in.' 
N 3 The 

f Author of the Difcoyrfes tit Government, 

198 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

The Commons, after hearing this Report made, 
j ^_ began to debate what Anfwer they fhould return to 
February. tne Mefiage brought from the Other Houfe, by Mr. 
Juftice Ityndham and Mr. Baron Hill: But came 
to no Refolution, till the next Day ; and then only 
ordered, that the firft Thing to be confider'd fhould 
be the Appellation of the Perfons to whom the 
faid Anfwer was t<? be given, but this Matter not 
to be entered into till after a Call of the Houfe. 

February i. The Thames of the Members were 
all called over ; and then the Debate upon the forer 
going Matter was renamed, which continued that 
Day, and the next ; when, at length, it being pro- 
p ofed to go immediately into a Grand Committee, 
to confider touching the Appellation of the Other 
Houfe, that Motion pafled in the Negative, by 93 
againft 87. However, their New Lordfhips, de- 
firous to try the Pulfe of the Commons once more, 
fent a Menage to them in Writing, by two of the 
Judges, Wyndham and Newdigate^ to this Effect, 
* That the Lords defir'd the Commons to join with 
them in an Addrefs to the Lord Protector, that his 
Highnefs would be pleafed to iflue a Proclamation, 
by the Advice of both Houfes of Parliament, com- 
manding all Papifts, and others, who had been in 
Arms againft the Commonwealth, to depart out of 
London and Weftminfter and the late Lines of Com- 
munication, and twenty Miles of the fame, by a 
certain Day ; and not return to the faid Cities, or 
cither of them, during the Space of three Months, 
nor to any other Place within the Limits aforefaid, 
fave only to fuch in the Country, where thofe Per- 
fons had their refpeftive Habitations.' This Mef- 
fage being read, the Commons refolved, without 
a Divifion, That they would fend an Anfwer to the 
Other Houfe by Meflengers of their own 5 and then 
adjourned the Debate till the next Day. 

Feb. 4. The Commons refurned the Debate con- 
cerning the Appellation of the Other Houfe ; and 


Of E N G L A N D. 199 

were in the midft of it, when the Speaker inform'd 
them, That the Umer of the Black -Rod was at 
the Door, with a MefTage from the Lord Protector; 
being called in, and making his Obeifance, he faid, 
Air. Speaker , his Highnefs is in the HouJ'e of Lords, 
and de fires to /peak with you. Hereupon the Com- 
mons refolv'd, That the Debate on the Appellation 
of the Other Houfe be adjourned to their Return. 
The Speaker then left the Chair, and went up 
with the Members to attend upon the Lord Pro- 
tector, where his Highnefs declared this prefent 
Parliament* to be diflblved. 

This is all that can be gathered from the Com- Cromwell dif- 
mons Journals, worth our Notice, touching the [ clves thc Par * 
Proceedings of this fhort Seflion ; neither do any of 1M 
the Diaries of thefe Times fupplythe Deficiency : 
But it appears by other Contemporary a Authorities, 
that notwithftariding the Advice and Intreaties of 
Whtthcke and others of the Protector's Council, 
againft the Diflblution of this Parliament, yet the 
Alarms from abroad daily increafing, and the frefh 
Informations brought him concerning the Diligence 
of his Adverfaries at home, quickened him to that 
Degree in his Refolution to difmifs them, that he 
would not ftay for his Coach of State ; but taking 
the firfl- that was at hand, went from Whitehall* 
attended only by Lieutenant-Colonel Cromwell his 
Nephew, and fix of his Guards, to Weftminfter ; 
and fending for the Commons to come up to him 
in the Houfe of Lords, he made the following 
Speech : b 

* T Had very comfortable Expectations that God His angry Speech 
1 would make the Meeting of this Parliament a on . that ceafion ' 
Blcflinj; and, the Lord be myWitnefs, I defired 
the carrying on the Affairs of the Nation to thefe 
Ends : The Blefling which I mean, and which 


a Ludtovj, Vol. II. p. 578. Wfitloekt, p. 673. Letters from 
M. De Bourdtaux, the French Ambaflador in England, to Cardinal 
Mazari*, and from Lord Fauetnbtrr to his Brother-in-Law, Hnrj 
Cmmwll, in Ireland. Tkurh,, Vol. V* 

* Pbitlifi, p. 63 1. 

2oc The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnurn. we ever climbed -at, was Mercy, Truth, Right- 
l6 57- eoufnefs, and Peace, which I defire may be im- 

*T7 V ^""' proved. 

4 That which brought me in{o the Capacity I 
now ftand in, was the Petition and Advice given 
me by you, who, in reference to the antient Con- 
ftitution, did draw me to accept of the Place of Pro- 
tector. There is not a Man living can fay I fought 
it; no, not a Man, nor Woman, treading upon 
Englijh Ground ; but, contemplating the fad Con- 
dition of thefe Nations, relieved from an inteftine 
War unto a fix or feven Years Peace, I did think 
the Nation happy therein. But to be petitioned 
thereunto, and advifed by you to undertake fuch a 
Government, a Burden too heavy for any Creature, 
and this to be done by the Houle that then had the 
Legiflative Capacity, I did look that the fame Men 
that made the Frame, fhould make it good unto me. 
I can fay, in the Prefence of God, in Comparifon 
of whom we are but like poor creeping Ants upon 
the Earth, I would have been glad to have lived 
under my Wood Side, to have kept a Flock of 
Sheep, rather than undertook fuch a Government as 
this is ; but, undertaking it by the Advice and Pe- 
tition of you, I did look that you, that had offered 
it unto me, ihould make it good. 

* I did tell you, at a Conference concerning it, 
that I would not undertake it, unlefs there might be 
fbme other Perfons that might interpofe between me 
and the Houfe of Commons, who then had the 
Power, to prevent tumultuary and popular Spirits ; 
and it was granted I fhould name Another Houfe. 
I named it of Men that fhall meet you whereloever 
you go, and fhake Hands with you, and tell you it 
is not Titles, nor Lords, nor Party, tha: they value, 
but a Chriftian and an Englijh Intereft : Men of 
your own Rank and Quality, who will not only be 
a Balance unto you, but to themfelves, while you 
love England and Religion. 

* Having proceeded upon thefe Terms, and find- 
ing fuch a Spirit as is too much predominant, every 


Of E N G L A N D. 201 

thing being too high or too low, when Virtue, Ho- Inter- r*gnum. 
nefty, Piety, and Jufticc arc omitted ; I thought I l6 S7- 
had been doing that which was my Duty, and V ^T V ^'~^ 
thought it would have fatisfied you ; but if every 
thing muft be too high or too low, you are not to 
be fatisfied. 

* Again : I would not have accepted of the Go- 
vernment, u;ilcfs I knew there would be a juft Ac- 
cord between the Governor and the Governed ; un- 
lefs they would take an Oath to make good what 
the Parliament's Petition and Advice advifed me un- 
to ; upon that I took an Oath, and they took ano- 
ther Oath upon their Part anfwerable to mine; and 
did not every one know upon what Condition they 
fwore ? God knows, I took it upon the Conditions 
exprefled in the Government : And I did think we 
had been upon a Foundation, and upon a Bottom ; 
and thereupon I thought myfelf bound to take it, 
and to be advifed by the Two Houfes of Parliament; 
and we (landing unfettled till we were arrived at 
that, the Confequences would neceflarily have been 
Confufion, if that had not been fettled : Yet there 
are not conftituted hereditary Lords, nor hereditary 
Kings ; the Power confifting in the Two Houfes and 
myfelf. I do not fay that was the Meaning of your 
Oath to you ; that were to go againft my own Prin- 
ciples, to enter upon another Man's Confcience : 
God will judge between me and you : If there had 
been in you any Intention of Settlement, you would 
have fettled upon this Bafis, and have offered your 
Judgment and Opinion. 

* God is my Witnefs, I fpeak it ; it is evident 
to all the World and People living, that a new Bu- 
fmefs hath been feeking in the Army againft this 
aclual Settlement made by your Confent. I do not 
fpeak to thefe Gentlemen, or Lords, [pointing to 
bis Right Hand'] whatfoever you will call them. 1 
fpeak not this to them, but to you. You advifed 
me to run into this Place, to be in a Capacity by 
your Advice ; yet, inftead of owning a Thing taken 
for granted, fome rnuft. have I know not what; and 


2O2 tte Parliamentary HISTORY 

Xnter-regnum. you have not only disjointed yourfelves; but the 
whole Nation, which is in Likelihood of running 
into more Confufion, in thefe fifteen or fixteen Days 
that you have fat, than it hath been from the Rifing 
o/ the laft Seflion to this Day, through the Intention 
of devifmg a Commonwealth again, that fome of 
the People might be the Men that might rule all ; 
and they are endeavouring to engage the Army to 
carry that Thing. And hath that iVfan been true to 
this Nation, whofoever he be, efpeoially that hath 
taken an Oath, thus to prevaricate ? Thefe Defigns 
have been among the Army, to break and divide us. 
I fpeak this in the Prefence of fome of the Army, 
that thefe Things have not been according to God, 
nor according to Truth, pretend what you will. 
Thefe Things tend to nothing elfe, but the playing 
the King of Scots' Game, if I may fo call him ; and 
I think myfelf bound, before God, to do what I 
can to prevent it. 

* That which I told you, in the Banquetting-Houfe, 
was true, that there were Preparations of Force to 
invade us j God is my Witnefs, it hath been con- 
firmed to me fince, within a Day, that the King of 
Scots hath an Army at the Water Side, ready to be 
ihipp'd for England. I have it from thofe who have 
been Eye-Witnefles of it : And, while it is doing, 
there are Endeavours from fome, who are not far 
from this Place, to ftir up the People of this Town 
into aTumulting: What if Ifajd into a Rebellion? 
And I hope I (hall make it appear to be no better, 
if God affift me : It hath been not only your En- 
deavour to pervert the Army, while you have been 
fitting, and to draw them to ftate the Queftion 
about a Commonwealth, but fome of you have been 
lifting of Perfons, by Commiflion of Charles Stuart , 
to join with any Infurreclion that may be made : 
And what is like to come upon this, the Enemy be- 
ing ready to invade us, but even prefent Blood and 
Confufion ? And if this be fo, I do aflign to this 
Caufe your not A/Tenting to what you did invite me 
to by the Petition and Advice^ as that which might 


Of E N G L A N D. 203 

he the Settlement of the Nation ; and if this be the lour 
End of your Sitting, and this be your Carriage, I l6 57 
think it high Time that an End be put unto your '^TT*""""" 
Sitting; and I do diflblve this Parliament : And let 
God judge between me and you.' 

At this many of the Commons cried out, Amen. 

By the fudden Diflblution of this Parliament, allufcful Bills d- 
the Bills then depending in the Houfe of Commons, JJf^" 8 * c thi * 
were rendered abortive. We have extracted, from 
their Journals, the following Catalogue of them, to 
(hew how many Projects were then on Foot for the 
Public Service ; and that the Qucftioning the Pro- 
tector's Title, and Affronting his Other Houfe, was 
not the fole Employment of the Commons : The 
Bills, at this Time under their Confideration, were, 
For uniting Scotland and Ireland into one Common- 
wealth with England : For eftablifh ing County Re- 
gifters : For regulating Ale-Houfes : For afcertain- 
ing of Fines upon Defccnt and Alienations of Copy- 
holds of Inheritance : For providing for Orphans, 
and Prefervation of their Eftates and Defcents : For 
Probate of Wills, and granting Adminiftrations : 
For compelling Priibnefs, who have Eftates, to pay 
their Debts, and for Relief of fuch as are not able: 
For fettling of Marriages, and for the regiftering of 
them, as alfo Births and Burials : To prevent Abufes 
in granting Certiorates : For the Increafe and Pre- 
fervation of Timber : To redrefs the Abufes in wear- 
ing of Gold and Silver Lace, Silks, fine Linen, and 
Excefs in Apparel, and alfo to reform indecent Fa- 
fliions: To regulate the great Inconveniences arifing 
from the Diverfity of Weights and Meafures : To 
amend the feveral Statutes concerning Baftardy, For- 
nication, and Adultery, and reduce them into one 
Law : For fuppreffing Cuftomary Oaths : For re- 
ftraining the exceflive Wages of Artificers and .La- 
bourers, and to prevent Exorbitancy in the Apparel 
of Servants : For the better t)iftributton of the Re- 
venues of Hofpitals : To reform the Abufes com- 
mitted by Attornies, Soliicitors, Stewards and Bai- 


204 Ybe Parliamentary HISTORY 
Inter-regnum. ^ff s Q f Liberties, and Under- Sheriffs : To reftrain 
unnecefTary Suits upon Bonds or Bills : For Reco- 
very of fmall Debts; and relieving Perfons, in cafe 
of fmall Trefpafles, within their refpedlive Counties: 
For impowering, and requiring, Pariflies to raife a 
Stock for fetting the Poor at Work: For preventing 
the Inhabitants of the Sea-Coafts from plundering 
fuch as have the Misfortune to be wreck'd there : 
For prohibiting the Making of Malt in the Heat of 
Summer: For Regulation of the Woollen Manufac- 
tury : For the farther Encouragement of Trade and 
Navigation : For erecting a Court of Law, and an- 
other of Equity, at Tork^ior the Relief of the Inha- 
bitants of Tork/bire, Northumberland, Cumberland, 
and We (Imor eland : To prevent the Non-refidence 
of Mafters, Provofts, Prefidents, Wardens, and 
Heads of Colleges and Halls in the two Univerfi- 
ties: For enabling Truftees to purchafe in Impro- 
priations : And for repairing of the Highways, and 
improving the Public Roads. 

It is obvious, from the foregoing Speech, that the 
Commons refufing to own the Protector's Other 
Houfe as a Houfe of Lords, and confequently a 
Court of Judicature, was one principal Reafon of 
his refentful Manner of diffolving this Parliament. 
But Cromweirs other Motives for this hafty Diflb- 
Jution, are more particularly pointed out in the 
following Letter from Mr. Hartlib p , Milton's in- 
timate Friend, to Dr. Pell q , the learned Mathe- 
matician; who was, at this Time, Cromwell's Refi- 
dent with the Swifs Cantons. 


P From the Original in the valuable Collections of the Rev. Dr. 
Birch, Secretary to the Royal Society. This Letter correfponds with* 
one from Mr. Payne to M. Nieuport, the Dutch Ambaflador, in 
Tburloe's State Papers. 

Mr. Hartlib was a Native of Poland, but bad refided many Years 
in England, where he was refpedled by the Learned of all Profeflions ; 
and was principally concerned in the firft projecting of thofe Meet- 
ings of the Virtuofi at Gre/kam College, which have fince been ho- 
noured with the Name of the Royal Society. 

1 Dr. Pell, after the Reftoration, took Orders, and became Chap- 
lain to Archbilhop Sheldon. The Reformation of the Calendar was 
his Work, affifted by Mr. Stncreft, afterwards Archbkhop of Can- 

Of E N G L A N D. 205 

SIR, London, Feb. II, 1657. Inter-regnum. 

f\N Thurfday lajl I fent away my Letter to Mr. ^jf 5 !^ 
^ Moreland s , about Twelve, o'Clock. Half an Hour February. 
after , / received the News of the Parliament's being 
dijfotvcd. I durft not make another Letter to fegnify Mr - Ifanli&'t 
the fame, hoping alfo that fome of the public P<fa$2w. 
would acquaint you with jo fudden and great a Mat- foiving the Par- 
tcr ; but, believe me, it was of fuch Necejffity, that, liaraent. 
if their Sfjfion had continued but two or three Days 
longer, all had been in Blood, both in City and Coun- 
try, upon Charles Stuart'j Account. 

An Army of 10,000 Men might have appeared 
with an ugly Petition to tht Parliament for the re- 
ejlablijhing of Charles Stuart, prefuming*they Jhould 
find a Party amongft them ; whiljt another Army of 
1 0,000 Men was landing in England, by the Juggling* 
to fay no vjorfe, of our good Neighbours. Bejides* 
there was another Petition Jet on Foot in the City, 
for a Commonwealth, which would have gathered 
like a Snow- Ball, but, by the refoiute and fudden 
Dijfolving of the Parliament, both thcfe dangerous 
Dejigns were mercifully prevented. 

Whether we Jhall have another Parliament fl)ortiy y 
r a Grand Council only of Optimates in. the mean 
Time, we cannot tell. 

All the Officers of the Army attended his Highnefs, 
en Saturday lajl, in the Banquetting-Houfe, where 
they were entertained with a Speech of two Hours 
long ; which made them, afrejh, refolve to jland and. 
fall, live and die, with my Lord Protector. Here 
you have his Highnefs's two lajl Speeches to both 
Houfes, as they wire taken at his Elbow. There is 
much Nonjenfe, especially in the laft ; but there are 
very few Men yet that have any Copy at all of them. 

Yours affe&ionately, 



Mr.' Mtrtland was one of Ttmrhet Under. Secretaries; and, at ' 
this Time, Cromwtirt Refulent at Geneva : But in the Beginning of 
May, 1660, having waited upon King Charles at BreJj, and made 
feveral important Difcoveries, be received theie the Honour of 
Knighthood from hit Majefty. 

- v 


206 *The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. Immediately after the Parliament was dillblved, 
Orders were ifliied by the Council, for preventing 
all private Aflemblies under the Pretence of Prayers 
or Preaching : And fo jealous was Cromwell of fuch 
Part of the Army as was, at this Time, quarter'd 
about St. James's, that he took the Infpection of 
the Watch at Whitehall, for feveral Nights fuccef- 
fively, in his own Perfon. And having now got rid 
of his Parliament, and thereby become once more 
an Abfolute Sovereign, he made Ufe of his Power 
to new-model the Army, by removing fuch Offi- 
cers as he fufpecled would obftrucr. hislDefign. In 
order thereunto he had difmifled Major- General 
Lambert fipm his Service, for refufing to take the 
Oath of Fidelity to him, as required by the Humble 
Petition and Advice ; but, at the fame Time, not 
thinking it fafe intirely to difguft a Man of fo great 
Intereft among; the Soldiery, he allowed him a Pen- 
fion of 2000 /. per Annurn^ to keep him from any 
defperate Undertaking. 

The Protector alfo made it his Bufmefs fo to ba- 
lance the Intereft of all Parties, that they fhould 
pot dare to oppofe his arbitrary Meafures, for fear 
of reducing themfelves to a worfe Condition than 
they were in. Yet, notwithftanding all thefe Arti- 
fices and Precautions, he was not without continual 
Apprehenfions. Some Machinations were form'd 
againft him by the Fifth -Monarchy Men-, of whom 
Major -General Harrifon was the Chief: Of this 
Plot the Protector had early Intelligence, and quickly 
fupprefs'd it, by imprifoning the principal Confpi- 
rators. But the repeated Information he daily re- 
ceived, from his Spies in the exil'd King Charles's 
forms the City c Bntflels, of an intended Invafion in Favour 

of London, and r \ -n \ \ n T--/I 

the Officers of of that Punce, which ftruck at his own very Exift- 
the Army, of a ence , fo highly alarm'd him, that, on the I2th of 
he f e " nt for the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Common Council of London, and alfo the principal 
Officers of the Army, to attend him that Day at 
Whitehall. What pafs'd at this Meeting we (hall 
exhibit from the Narrative thereof publi&ed by 

Cromwell in- 

Plot in favour of 
the King} 

Of E N G L A N D. 207 

< The Company being all admitted to the Lord Inter-regnum. 
Protestor's Prefence, his Highnefs reprefented to 'j^l ^ 
them the Danger wherein that City, and the whole Marc h. 
Nation, were involv'd at prefcnt, by reafon of the 
new Defigns of the old Enemy, Charles Stuart and 
his Confederates abroad, and his Party here at home; 
who had been at Work fecretly t6 imbroil the Nation 
again in Blood, as foon as he Ihould be able to make 
his intended Invafion. His Highnefs told them, that 
he knew this to be true ; that he knew it by Letters 
of theirs intercepted ; by certain Intelligence, from 
abroacj, of their Proceedings ; and by Information 
from the Mouths of fuch Perfons as h,ad been en- 
gaged to act with them. He acquainted them like- 
wife, that the Lord of Ormond, in Perfon, had been 
Jately in England for three Weeks together b , being 
come over on purpofe to promote the Defign, by 


* Mr. Morrice, in his Memoirs of Lord BrogbiH, gives us the fol- 
lowing Inftance of Cromwell's great Generofity towards the Marquis 
of Qrmond, when he had him in his Power : The Proteftor, being 
informed that the Marquis was in London, told Lord Brogbill of it, 
and acquainted him with the Time of his coming there. Lord Brag- 
bill declaring hi; Ignorance of that Matter, Cromwell bid him give 
Lord Qrmond Notice that he knew of his being in Town ; which be- 
ing done, accordingly, the Marquis inflantly haftened out of England, 
Lord Clarendon charges Sir Richard ff'iiits with having given Crm- 
zvfll this Intelligence. 

The Motives that induced the Marquis of Orrnond to come over in- 
to England, at this Time, and his Tranfaftions here with the King's 
Friends, are given in the Life of that Nobleman, written by Mr. 
Carte, Vol. II. p. 175. And, in that Gentleman's Collection of 
Letters, &c. found amongft the Marquis's Papers, (Vgl. 11. p. nS. 
etfeo.J is a particular Detail of his Lordmip's Proceedings in England, 
in Jan. 1657, drawn up by himfelf, and font to Sir Ediaard Hydt t 
afterwards Earl of Clarendon j with a Series of Letters on that Sub- 
ject, between the Chancellor, the Marquis ofOrmond, the Earl of Brt- 
fiol, and Cardinal DtRelx : It appears by theft Authoritej, that a Ne- 
gotiation was actually on Foot, to engage the Pope, through the Inter - 
pontion of that Cardinal, to lend a helping Hand to the Reftoration 
of King Cbarlet 11. and that hit Eminence exprefled the higheft Sa- 
tisfaction at the good Dilpofition of the Engltjh towards the Hoi/ 

Lord Clanndtn tlfo gives an Account of the Occafion of the Mar- 
quis of OrmWs coming into Eng'an4, and the Temper in which h 
found the King's Friends ; but takes no Notice of the Correspondence 
that was carried on between the Marquis of Onnond and Cardinal D 
Ret*. That there was fuch a Negotiation, is evident by Mr. Carte t 
Collections above-cited j but, it is highly probable, from the Nobl* 
Hiftorian's Silence, in this Particular, that he was known to be to 
good an Engltjbman to ba truAeU with fuch a Secret. 

208 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 
encouraging and engaging as many as he could in 
and about the City ; and that he went away again 
only three Days before : That, in order to this In- 
vafion, Charles Stuart was waiting in Flanders, ha- 
ving about 8000 Men quarter'd in feveral Places 
near the Water Side ; as at Bruges, EruJJels^ Ojlend^ 
&c. and that 22 hired Ships were in Readinefs to 
tranfport them, waiting only for the Opportunity of 
fome dark Night to flip by the Erigiijh Fleet ; which 
they might the more eafily perform, our Ships being 
of great Burden, drawing much Water, and fo not 
able to ride upon the Flats ; and therefore feeing a 
real Danger fo near at Hand, and that the Peace 
and Safety of the City, and the whole Nation, was 
highly concern'd in it, he defired the Citizens might 
be made fenfible of it, and how much it behoved 
them to provide for their own and the Nation's Se- 
curity. To that End his Highnefs recommended 
to the Lord Mayor and the Body of the City, the 
fettling their Militia ; and that it might be placed 
in the Hands of pious and fober Men, well-affected 
to the prefent Government, and fuch as were free 
from Difcontent and Faction ; Perfons that might 
carry on the Work with Alacrity and Difcretion ; 
to put the City in a Pofture of Defence, that they 
might be in a Condition to fupprefs all Tumults and 
Infurrections, defign'd by the Enemies of the Na- 
tion's Peace and Profperity. The Citizens, adds 

our Gazetteer* exprefs'd much Chearfulnefs in the 
Prefence of the Lord Protector, departed highly fa- 
tisfied, and immediately fet about putting his High- 
nefs's Direction, into effectual Execution.' 

Who thereupon' A few Days after this an.Addrefs was prefented 
refolve to fupport to the Protector by 'the Lord Fleetiuood^ in the 
theProteflor. Name o f the Officers of the Army, declaring, ' That 
they not only freely and heartily engaged to ftand 
by his Highnefs with their Lives, but alfo to im- 
prove their Intereft with the LORD GOD, for his 
gracious and mighty Afliftance of Cromwell in the 
further Profecution of the great Work which the 
Divine Majefty had called him unto ! 


Of E N G L A N D. 209 

The above-mentioned Attempt in Favour of the 
ICing's Rcftoration proving abortive, Cromwell re- 
folved to make an Example of fome of thofe in his 
Power; and, without admitting them to their Tri- 
als by a Jury, revived the High Court of Jufticc; by PC fons executed 
xvhich Sir Henry Sling/by, Dr. Hewit, and others, " '>';' of 
fell a Sacrifice to his Revenge. > 

On the 8th of April the Protector received Ad- 
vice of a Victory his Forces had obtained againft^ uc J* fsa S ainft 
thofe of the King of Spain, in 'Jamaica, with a Re- 
lation of the Spaniards lofmg their Plate-Fleet. 

About Midfummer the Town of Dunkirk, which ~ ... ^ rr 
at this Time belonged to the Spaniards, having fuf dere.t 
tained a Siege of fome Weeks againft the united */' 
Forces of England and France, furrendered upon 
Articles ; and Loikhart, Cromwell's Ambaflador, 
was put into the Pofleflion of it, (by the French King 
in Perfon, and in the Prefente of Cardinal Maza- 
rin) in the Name of his Mafter; to whom the Inha- 
bitants were obliged to take an Oath of Allegiance 
as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.* 
The Dukes of "Xork and Glouccjhr were prefent in 
the Spanijh Army under the Command of Don Juan^ 
which was fent to relieve the Town, and charged 
the Engli/h on Horfeback feveral Times fo gallantly, 
that it was with great Difficulty they efcapcd being 
either killed or taken. 


* The Proceedings againft thefe Gentlemen may be feen in the 
Statt Tri ah, Vol. IJ 

c Dr. H>'el<u.<o!>d gives us the following Anecdote, relating to the 
Affair of Dunkirk; 

1 The e was an Article in theTieatv betwixt f ranee and the Pro- 
teftor, That if Dunkirk ome to be t. ken, it ft'. old be immediately 
delivered up to the Englijh j and his Ambaflador, Lotkbart, had Or- 
ders to take Pofleflion or it accordingly. When the I r,-ncb Army, 
being joined by the Englifi Auxiliaries, was on it" n-arch to inveft 
the Town, Crcimutll Arnt, onr iM orninc , for the French Ambafl" dor 
to Wb'.ntall ; and upbraided him, publickly, for his Mailer'* defined 
Breach ot Promife, in fivinp fecret Orders to the I-rencb Gen*i-l to 
keep PoflVflion of Dunkirk, in cafe it wa* taken, conTiar\ to rhe 
Treaty between them. The Ambaflador protefhd he knew nothing 
of the Matter, as indeed hr did not ; ^nd bcgg'd Leave to allure him, 
"hut there was no fuch Thing thought of. 


2 j o The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. It was not long after all thde important Succeffes, 
J_ 6 S 8> that Cromwell himfelf was called upon to give an 
""^T"""^ Account of his Conduct to the Supreme Diipofer cf 

September, n t- T-* r /> 

all Events: Por, on the I2th ot Auguft^ he was 

His Sicknefs and taken iil at Hampton-Court^ and died on the 3d of 

Death. September following, being the fame Day of the 

fame Month on which he had gained the two great 

Victories of D unbar , and Worcefler-\ and which had, 

during his whole Protectorate, been annually obfer- 

ved as a General Thankfgiving. 

Remarks on his It is not within the Compafs of thefe Enquiries, 
JJJjJjJV'r wh ' c ' a are confined to the Proceedings of Varlia- 
ments. " ^^'went^ to attempt the General Character of this 


Upon this Cromwell, pulling a Paper out cf his Pocket, Here, fay 4 
he, is the Copy of Cardinal Mazarin's Order : And I you ia 
difpatcb immediately an Exprefs to let him know that I am r.ct to be 
impcfcd upon; and that if he deliver not up the Keys of the Tuivn cf 
Dunkirk, to Lockhart, within, one Hour after it jhall be taL-n, tnl 
him, V II come in Perfon, and dtm.ind tbim at the Gates of Paris. 
There \vcre but four Perfons Did to be privy to this Order, tht 
Queen-Mother, the Cardinal, the Marihal De "Turenne, and a Secre- 
tary. The Cardinal, for a long Time, blamed tire Queen, as it" /he 
might pofiibly have bl&bb'd it out to fome of her Women ; whereas 
it was found, after the Secretary's Death, that he had kept a fecret 
Correfpondencs with Crew-well for feveral Years j and therefoie it 
was not doubted but he had fent him the Copy of the Order above- 

' The Mcfl'ige hud its Effect ; for Dunkirk was put into the Pofleflion 
of the Englijb ; and, to palliate the Matter, the Duke DC Crejuy was 
difpatchrd into England Ambaflador Extraordinary, to compliment 
Cromwell, attended with a numerous and fplendid Train of Perfons 
of Quality 5 among whom was a Prince of the Blood, and Mancini, 
Maxarins Nephew, who brought a Letter from his Uncle to the 
Protestor, full of the higheft Expreffions of Refpeft ; and affuring his 
Uighnefs, That, being Within View of the Englijh Shore, nothing 
but the King's Indifpofition (who then lay ill of the Small-Pox at 
Calais) could have hindered him from coming over to England, that 
he might enjoy the Honour of waiting upon one of the greateft Men 
that ever was j and whom, next to his Mafter, his utmoft Ambi- 
tion was to ferve : But, being deprived of fo great a Happinefs, lie 
Jiad fent the Perfon that was neareft to him in Blood, to afl'ure him 
of the profound Veneration he had for his Perfon; and how much, 
he was icfolved, to the utmoft of his Power, to cultivate a perpe- 
tual Amity and Friend/hip betwixt his Mafter and him. 

Welnvood' 's Memoirs, p. 112. 

' Crumivell, not to be behind-hand with the Cardinal in point of 
Politenefs, Jent his Son-in-Law, the Lofd Fauccnl>erg,to Calais, t 
congratulate with the French King for their joint Profpeiity ; anjt 
mutual Profefiions were then renewed between them, with new Obli- 
Never to make Peace without each other's Confent. 

Tin f.-i-f f a Ptlnifati, f. 336, 

Of ENGLAND. 211 

Ufurper of Sovereign Power; who, under the Title Inter- 
of Lord Protector, excrcifed a much greater Autho- ^_^ 
rity than any King of England was ever pofiefled of. September. 
We lhall therefore content ourfelves with oblerving, 
That though Cromwell fupported the Honour and 
Dignity of the Nation abroad, with a Spirit and Re- 
folution equal to many, and fuperior to moft, of 
our Kings : Tho', during his Adminiftration, many 
excellent Laws, worthy of better Times, were en- 
acted for the Benefit of the Subject at home ; and 
the Benches of Juitiee filled, by him, with Men of 
the greateft Abilities at the Bar : Yet not one of 
our JVlonarchs, nor even all of them together, fince 
the Norman Conqueft, ever trampled upon the Li- 
berty and Privileges of Parliament with fuch Info- 
lence and Outrage : For he abfolutely nominated, 
by his own Warrant, all thofe that conftituted the 
firft Aflembly in his Protectorate : He excluded, by 
an arm'd Force, every Man from his fecond, tho' 
elected by the People, that would not fubfcribe an 
Engagement to fupport his lawlefs Authority : And 
as to his third, after ufing all the bafeit and moft 
unjuftifiable Means poffible to influence Elections, 
he denied Entrance into the Houfe to near 100 
Members, on Pretence of their not being approved 
by his Council, before he could obtain even the 
Appearance of a Parliamentary Sanction of his 

At the fame Time it muft be remembered, to 
Cromwell's Honour, that his regulating the Manner 
of Elections, by laying afide the leiler Boroughs, 
iiluing out new Writs to Capital Towns of Trade, 
and increafing the Number of Knights of Shires, 
(thereby tending to make Members of Parliament 
more really and effectually the Reprefcntatives of 
the People) was a Noble Work, and worthy the 
Imitation of Modern Times : Tho' we fear it will 
long remain among the Dtfiderata of our ConfU- 

Upon this Occafion, the Obfervations of two The Rcafonj 
modern Authors, touching the Origin and Founda- J ur y g |j ("",1 re . 
tion of the Leifer Boroughs, will be no improper Di- turned by.tocon' 

O 2 greffion : fidwaUe Twn, 

212 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. greffion : And, firft, the learned Mr. Carte d , who 

l6 S 8 accounts for it in this Manner : 

September * Great Part of the Lawyers, fays this Hiftorian, 
in the Inns ot Court, being infected with Puritanifm, 
in their Zeal for the Caufe, laboured to advance the 
Intereft of their Party in the Houfe of Commons; 
and, in their Searches of old Recotds, finding feveral 
Towns of the King's Demefne had been fummoned, 
once or twice, by Edward I. to fend their Deputies to 
Parliament, (tho' this wife Prince did not live above 
twelve Years after his Institution of the third Eftate, 
and varied the little Places which fent Members 
from Time to Time, only to Tighten a Charge, 
that, when their Reprefentatives received Wages, 
was too heavy for them conftantly to bear) yet on 
this bare Pretence of their having had one or two 
Summons, they took it into their Heads to main- 
tain, that thefe Demefne Towns, many of them 
inconfiderable Villages, were Boroughs by Pre- 
fcription ; and had a Right, contrary to the Inten- 
tion of the King who firft fummoned them, to fend 
Deputies to Parliament in all future Ages. 

' Thus the Earl of Leicefter's Town of Andover^ 
and near thirty others, in which the Great Men 
about Court had an Influence, re-aflumed the Pri- 
vilege ; and increafed the Houfe of Commons, in 
Queen Elizabeth's Time, by about flxty Members. 
This feems to have been done, during her Reign, 
only by the Sheriffs of Counties fending Precepts to 
fuch Places ; probably by the Direction of powerful 
Courtiers, who had Intereft enough in the Houfe 
of Commons, (when a Debate arofe, in the i3th 
Year of that Reign, on the Introduction of eighteen 
Members for Towns never known to fend any be- 
fore) to protect them, and keep the Practice from 
being cenfured ; but, in the fucceeding Reigns, the 
Commons themfelves made ufe of the fame Pre- 
tence to increafe their Members. Thus the Puri- 
tans got the Afcendant in that Houfe: And thus- 


d Hi/lay of England, Vol. IV. p. 4. 

Of ENGLAND. 213 

jr/as an unreasonable Difproportion in the Repre- inter-regnum . 
fentation of the Kingdom introduced, to the inn"- 
nite Prejudice of the Confli ution. 

4 When Edwardl. in the 23d Year of his Reign, 
firft fummoncd the Cities and Towns, which either 
held of him in Fee-farm, or were Part of his Royal 
Demefnes, to Parliament, in order to agree for 
themlelves, and others of the like Tenure, upon 
the Rate of the Talliages due from them, which 
had before been fixed either by the Privy Council, 
or the itinerant Judges, there were not above 106 
Places admitted to this Privilege Of thefe, fifty- 
five were either Cities or the principal Towns of 
Counties, lummoncd conftantly ever fince ; the 
other fifty-one were fmall inconfiderable Towns, 
Parcels of his Demefne, without any continued Suc- 
ceffion ; the Places varying, whilft the Number was 
generally preferved. There was no ill Proportion 
in this Representation, efpecially at a Time when 
the &epre(entatives of thele Cities and Towns were 
folely concerned in rating their own Talliages, and 
had no Suffrage in the Taxation of the Gentlemen 
and Freeholders of Counties, which was fettled by 
the Knights of Shires alone, aflembled a-part by 
themfelves. But the Cafe is now vaftly altered ; 
there is no longer any juit or reasonable Proportion 
in the Reprefemation ; for, whiHt all the Landed 
Intereft is rep-refented by ninety two Members, and 
the Trading cr Monied Intereft by about an hun- 
dred Deputies of Cities and great Towns, there are 
above 300 Reprefentatives of fmall, inconfiderable, 
and many of thefe, bepgarly Boroughs; who, by a 
Majority of three to two, are able to difpofe of the 
Property of all the landed and opulent Men in the 
Kingdom, in Defpite of their unanimous Difient. 
Thefe have been long confidcrcd as the rotten Part 
of our Conftitution ; and, being venal as well as 
poor, they h;we been the chief Source of the Cor- 
ruption complained of in modern Parliaments. 

* Foreigners, that know and reflect on this Ine- 
quality in the Reprefentation, which they cannot 
ils to common Senfe, ftand amazed at heaiv 
O 3 ing 

2 1 4. The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ing us brag of the Excellency of our Conftitutution, 
when it labours under fo Fundamental a Defect j and 
are apt to doubt, whether the Senfe of Parlia- 
ment be really the Senfe of the Nation. The Evils 
of this Inequality are great and notorious ; frequent 
Complaints have been made on the Subject, and va- 
rious Expedients fuggjefted for Redrefs j but, whe- 
ther thefe gave Diftafte by a too fudden and remark- 
able Alteration of the Forms and Cuftoms to which 
the Nation had been long inured, none of them 
have been yet adopted, and Room is left to offer 
another to the Confideration of the Public. 

' Machiavel, obferving that all Constitutions alter 
in a Courfe of Time, and, in confequence thereof, 
become fabject to Corruptions which threaten their 
utter Subverfion, thinks no Method fo likely to 
prevent the impendent Ruin, as by refolving them 
into their firll Principles ; and bringing them back,, 
as near as poffible, to their original Condition. 
Were this Method thought proper to be followed, 
and Parliaments reduced nearer to their original 
Conftitution, which, neither in this, nor in any 
other European Country, admitted any other Re- 
prefentatives than of the Gentry and Freeholders, 
it may be done by giving the Landed Intereft a 
greater Power and Influence in Parliament, than they 
have at prefent ; by conferring on all Freeholders, 
pofFefied of Eftates of 40 or $ol. a Year, (who 
ought certainly to have a better Share in the Repre- 
fentation, than a Man of forty Shillings) within 
the Hundreds in which fitch fmall poor Boroughs 
are fituated, a Right of Voting, equally with the 
Freemen and Inhabitants, for the Election of Mem- 
bers to reprefent the Boroughs ; and by making the 
Steward, or Judge of the Hundred-Court, a joint 
returning Officer, with the Reeve, Conftable, or 
other Chief Magiftrate of the Borough. As Free- 
holders of that Subftance retain more of the old 
Englijh Spirit than any other Set of Men in the 
Nation, and are the leaft corruptible, this would 
cut off at once all the fcandalous Bargains now made 
by Brokers for Boroughs : Nor will it be an eafy 


Of ENGLAND. 215 

Matter to find another Method for putting a Stop 
to Corruption grown fo genera), and to the Vcnali- 
ty of Elections, leis exceptionable than this, which 
hath the Advantage of being agreeable to the Spirit 
of" our Conftitution ; and will, without any (hock- 
ing or glaring Breach of Forms, rectify the unhap- 
py Difproportion which reigns at prefent. When 
the infamous Bribery of the Inhabitants of StacJc- 
bridge and Hindon provoked an Houfe of Commons 
fo bring in Bills for disfranchising them e , had this 
Expedient of letting in the neighbouring fubftantial 
Freeholders to vote with them in Elections been 
thought of, the Remedy would have appeared lefs 
extreme, and it might have effectually flopped a 
Corruption, which hath not been lefTencd by the 
Danger thofe Boroughs ran of being disfranchifed. 
This likewife may be done gradually, and almoft 
imperceptibly, by a general Refolution of punching 
the Bribery of Boroughs, in fuch a Manner, when- 
ever Occasions fhould offer: And it would, in Time, 
reform an Evil, which, if continued, mu(l prove 
the utter Ruin of the Conftitution.' 

That ingenious Antiquary and Naturalift, Mr. 
Borlafe, accounts, very judicioufly, for the great 
Difproportion of BurgeiTcs elected in Cornwall f . 
* As this County, fays he, has a fo much greater 
Number of Boroughs than any in Great- Britain, 
and fends as many almoft as the Kingdom of 
Scotland itfelf g , it will not be foreign to our Pur- 
pofe, to inquire into the Original of this fo much- 
envied Privilege, offending To great a Number of 
Reprefentatives to the Houfe of Commons, from fo 
fmall a County, and from Boroughs moftly fo in- 
confiderable as to Trade, Inhabitants, and every 
thing that can intitle Places to Diftinction j whilit 


e In the Year 1702. See Biihop Eurncfs Hillary of bit own 
limei, Vol. II. 

f Tbt Natural Hijlory of Corn-Mali, printed at Oxford, Anno 1758, 
p. 309, et fey. 

This Gentleman alfo publiflied, Anna 1754, Obfervatiom on tb 
Antiquities, Hiftorical and Monumental, of the County of Cornwall. 

9 Cormvai/ fends 44 Members to Parliament; and Sutljnd 4 j, 

216 The Parliamentary HISTORY* 

Inter-regnum. f evera l Towns in England^ much fuperior in all 
^* ^ refpedts x , huve never been ad itied to the fame 

4 This Pre-eminence of Cornwall is not antient : 
From the 23d of Edward I. five Boroughs only, 
(viz. Lance/ion, Lifkerd^ Truro, B dman, and Hel- 
fton) fent two Members each, and the County two. 
Lojlwythyel has held the fame Privilege from the 4th 
of Edward II. and fent two Members once before, 
viz. in the 33d of Edward I. * Thefe are the only 
fix antient Boroughs, and the Number was neither 
diminifhed nor increafed, till the 6th of Edward VI. 
excepting only in one Inftance, which fhall be ta- 
ken Notice of. 

' At this Time (viz. in the latter End of the 
Reign of Edward VI.) feven other Boroughs, viz. 
Saltajh, Camelfordy Weft-Loo, Granpont, Tindagel 9 
Michel^ and Newport , were permitted to fend up 
two Members each. 

* In the ift of Mary, Penryn, and in the 4th and 
5th of the fame Reign, St. Ivfs, had the like Pri- 

* In the ift of Elizabeth^ Tregeny was admitted ; in 
the 5th, St. German's and St. Maw's ; in the I3th, 
EaJl-LoQ and Fawy ; and, in the 2yth of that Reign, 
Callington, making up the Number of twenty- one 
Boroughs ; which, with the County, return to Par- 
liament forty four Members. 

' The Reafon of this modern Addition to the Bo- 
roughs of this County, may (our Author thinks) beft 
appear from confidering that the Duchy of Cornwall 
(then in the Crown, and oftener fo than feparated 
from it z ) yields, in Tin and Lands, an hereditary 
Revenue,, much fuperior to what the Crown has in 
any County in England; and that eight of thefe Bo- 
roughs a had either an immediate or remote Con- 
nection with the Demefne Lands of this Duchy; a 


x Sberberxe, Manchefter, Birmingham, Ely, Burton upon Trent, 
Leeds and others. 

y Notitia Parliament aria, by Dr. Will's, Vol. II. p. 37, &c. 

z Whenever the Sovereign has no Son, the Duchy of Cornwall is 
in the Crown. 

a Xa.'tofi, Camelford, Weft-Ley, Gratpont, Tindagel, Tregeny, 
St. Maw's, and Eaft-Leo, 

Of E N G L A N D. 217 

formerly of much ftridcr Union and higher 
Command than at prefenc. Four other Boroughs 
depended on, or wholly belonged to, Religious 
Houfcs, which fell to the Crown at the DiiTolution Sc P tcrnbe f 
of Monafteries in the Reign of Henry V11I. For 
Inltancc, Newport rofe with Launcejion Priory b , and 
with it tell to the Crown. Penryn depended much 
on the rich College of Glafney, and iti Lands; the 
Manor alfo was alienated by Ed-ward VI. c but re- 
ftored by Queen Mary^ and the Town privileged 
by her. St. German's was, after Bodrnan, the chief 
Priory in Cornwall ; and the Borough of Fawy fell 
to the Crown, wich the Priory of Trewardralthy to 
which it belonged. 

4 The other Boroughs remain to be taken Notice 
of. Michel belonged to the rich and highly allied 
Family of the Arundth of Lanhearne\ and St. I-ves 
and Callington to the Family of Pauulet^ (Marquis 
of tiPincbtfttr. now Duke of Boston) by marrying 
the Heirefs of Willoughby Lord Brook, fometime of 
Newton- Ferrers^ in this County. Now thele fe- 
veral Connections of the additional Boroughs, may 
point out to us the Rile of this Privilege. 

4 Henry VII. reduced the Power of the ancient 
Lords ; and, consequently, advanced that of the 
Commons. Henry VIII. enriched many of the 
Commons with Church-Lands ; and, in the latter 
End of the Reign of Edward VI. the Duke of 
Northumberland could not but perceive of" what 
Confequence it was to his ambitious Schemes, to 
have a Majority in the Houfe of Commons; and 
Cornwall Teems to have been pitched upon as the 
mod. proper Scene for this Stretch of the Preroga- 
tive, becaufe of the large Property d ; and, confe- 


b The Religiou of Sit Stephen's Collegiate ('hutch being removed 
from the Brow of the Hill into lower Situation, contiguous to the 
"Walls of Lavncefton, about 300 Years before, the Town of Ne-wfort 
wai built on the Ground adjoining. 

Netitia Parliamenttin i, Vol. II. p. 109. 

d In the i 5 hof//?ry VIII. the Revenue of the Duchy of Corn- 
wall, with its dependent Rights and Manors, was reckoned, fays 
Sir j. Dodder. d^e, at 10,095 A * I ' 9^' which i'roperty became 
incre.ife.1 by the Fiil'.jf Religious Ho.:U:s in the End of tht 

218 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. <juent!y, Influence of the Duchy: Six Towns there- 
1658. f ore depending on the Duchy and Church-Lands, 
^ ~v~ ' ' and one Borough of a powerful Family, were in- 
( Septem er. j u jg e j to f enc j j^ j\,j ernberSi The Miniftry of thofe 
Days were not fo defective in Artifice, as not to 
oblige powerful Lords, now and then, with the 
fame Indulgence which they granted to thefe Bo- 
roughs ; thereby endeavouring either to reconcile 
them to their Adminiftration, or to make this guilty 
Increafe of the Prerogative lefs invidious. Queen 
Mary, in her fhort Reign, (probably from the fame 
Motives) admitted two more; and Queen Elizabeth^ 
who never rejected any Political Precedent which 
might confirm her Power, (though always, it muft 
be owned, exerting that Power for the Profperity of 
her People, as well as her own Glory) admitted fix 
other Boroughs. 

' The only Inflances which could give the leaft 
Colour of Juftice to thefe Proceedings, were few 
and weak. The Borough of Tregeny fent BurgefTes, 
indeed, twice, viz. in the 23d and 35th ofE&udrdl, 
but no more till the ift of Elizabeth. EaJl-Loo and 
Fawy fent one and the fame Merchant, then called 
a Ship- Owner, to a Council at Weftminfler (not to 
Parliament) in the I4th of Edward III. c . Of 
thefe, however, Queen Elizabeth laid hold, for the 
more fpecious promoting her Defigns : In her firft 
Year, (he revived the Claims of Tregeny, in the 
fifth of her Reign f , BurgeiFes being returned for 
St. German's and St. Maw's, in Cornwall, the 
Speaker declared in the Houfe, That the Lord- 
Steward agreed they (hould refort unto the Houfe, 
and with convenient Speed, to {hew their Letters- 
Patents why they be returned in this Parliament :* 
But they were no farther queftioned, the Queen's 
Inclinations being well underftood. % 

4 In the 1 3th of Elizabeth, both EaJl-Loo and 


e See the original Writ, Prynnes Bri-v. Parliament, Vol. IV. 
ji. 186, 187, where J. Shake/ok was returned at the fame Time for 
Fclrtian only ; and thefe Members allowed, for forty-four Days, in 
going to, Maying, and returning from Wcflminjltr^ 4/, I2i. 
f Prynnis Brrv. Par!. Vol. IV. p. JI7&, 

S WMit, Vol. II, p. 1 68. 

Of E N G L A N D. 219 

Fawy elected two Members ; which being taken 
Notice of and examined into, * Report was made 
by the Houfe of the Validity of the JJurgefles ; and 
it was oio'.Tcd, by the Attorney-General's Aflent, 
That the Burgefles (hall remain according to their 
Returns; for that the Validity of the Charters is 
elfewhere to be examined, if Caufe be V By 
which Means little or no Difptite being made againft 
the Queen's Power, the Houfe became greatly in- 
; with Reprefenratives, especially by the feud- 
ing of Burgefles from thofe Boroughs. * 

* Nor was it any Objection, adds this judicious 
Antiquary, to their fending up Members, that thefe 
Boroughs had little Trade, few Inhabitants, and 
thofe poor and of no Eminence : Thefe Circum- 
frances, in all Likelihood, did rather promote than 
prevent their being privileged, as rendering them 
more tradtable and dependent, than if they had been 
Jarge and opulent Towns, inhabited by Peifons of 
Trade, Rank, and Difcernment. 

' It is true, indeed, thefe Places, fo fummoned, 
were old Boroughs, in the legal Acceptation of the 
Word ; that is, had Immunities granted them by 
their Princes or Lords, Exemptions from Services 
in other Courts, Privileges of exercifmg Trades, of 
electing Officers within their own Diftri6r, and in- 
vefted with the Property of Lands, Mills, Fairs, &c. 
paying annually a certain Chief or Fee-P'arm Rent; 
molt of them alfo were Parts of the antient Demefnes 
of the Crown, and had been either in the Crown, or 
in the Royal Blood, from the Norman Conqueft k , 
and by paffing to and from the Crown often, and 
their Privileges conftantly referved and confirmed at 
every Transfer, thefe Towns had acquired a Kind 
of nominal Dignity ; but were, in every other Light, 
inconfiderable, and no ways intitled to the Power of 
lending Members to Parliament j much lefs in Pre- 
ference to fo many more populous Communities in 
the other Parts of England. 


h Prime's Part. Re^ifltr, Part IV. p. H7q. 
i Jf'/.'AV, Vol. II. p. 102. 

k Once only exempted, when Pierce Gaveflon was, by the F*vouf 
Of r.d"jvar,i II, Earl of Corn-watt for a fliott Time, 

220 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Thus much by way of Digreflion : Return 

we now to our Hiftory of Crom well 's Protectorate ; 
which we (hall conclude with a Catalogue of thofe 
who thought it no Difgrace to receive Titles of Ho- 
nour from that Ufurper, (befides his New Houfe of 
Lords, and the Judges appointed by him in the fe- 
veral Courts at Wejlmmfter, whofe Names have been 
already mentioned in the Courfe of our Hillory,) viz. 


Honours eonff 1657, July 20. Col.Charles Howard, of Gillejland, 
c5J2^//TiriB in Cumberiand ^ created Baron of 

jjs F^otcftoraTe! Gillejland* and V ifcount Howard 

of Morpetb. k 

2658, April 26. Edmund bunch, Efq; created Ba- 
ron Burnel, of Eaji Wittenham, 
in Berkjhire. 


1656, June 25. John Read, of Brocket- Hall, in 

Hertfordjhire, Efq; 
^657, July 16. JohnCleypole, of Northampton/hire, 

Off. 6. Thorns* Chamberlain^ of Wickham^ in 

Buckinghamjhire^ Efq; 
Thomas Beaumont ', of St ought on- 

Grange, in Leicefterjh'ire^ Efq; 
24. y^ Twijleton^ of Horfeman 's- 
Place, in Dartford, in ^/ 3 
Efq; ' 

Col. /&I0JI Ingoldjby. 
Henry Wright^ of Dagenham, in 

/^, Efq; 
28. Griffith Williams t of Carnarvon- 

Jhire, E^q; 

^/wg 1 . 13. Edmund Prideaux, of Padftow, in 
Cornwall, Attorney- General to 
his Highnefs. 


k Mr. Wbithcke had an Offer of a Vifcount's Patent, but did not 
think proper to accept it. Memorials, p. 675. 

1 The Original Patent, granted by Cromwell to this Gentleman, is 
now in the Poffeflion of his Dependents, at Ravtcli/t, in the County 

Of E N G L A N D. 221 

BARONETS. Inter-regnun, 

1658, Aug. 13. William Ellis, of Grantham, in 
Lincoln/hire. Sollicitor General. 
28. William Wyndham, of Orcha*d- 
in Somerjetjbire, Efqj 

1653, Feb. 8. Thomas Finer, Lord Mayor of 

1655, June x. John Copleflon,E^ Sheriff of Dt- 

1 1 . John Reynolds, Commiflary-Genc- 

r.:l in Ireland. 
Sept. 20. Chrijiopher Pack> Lord Mayor of 

Jan. 17. Col. Thomas Pride. 

19. John Bark/lead, Lieutenant of the 
Tower of London. 

1656, May 3. M. De Coyte* Relident from the 

Court of Sweden 
Augujl. Richard Combe, of Combt, in Hert- 

ford/hire, Efq; 
Sept. 15. John Dethick) Lord Mayor of 

Geirpe Fleetwood, of Buckingham- 

/hire, Efq; 

Dec. 10. Col. William Lockhart, his High- 
nefs's Refident at the Court of 
James Calthorpe, Efq; Sheriff of 

15. Robert Titchburn^ Lord Mayor of 


Lijlebone Long, Recorder of London. 
Jan. 6. Col. James Whitlo he, Son of the 

Lord Commiflioner. 
March 3. Thomas Dicktnfon, Alderman of 

1657, June xi. Richard Stainer, Commander of 

the Speaker Frigate. 

Aug. 26. William Wheeler* of Channel- Row, 
Wcjlminller, Efq; 


T,'he Parliamentary Hi s T OR V 


Nov. 2. Edward Ward, Efq; Sheriff of 

1 4. Thomas Andrews^ 1 . , , 
r* 0-7. r * f Aldermen of 

ZJjr. c. Thomas Foot, > r , 

cri * L- London. 

Thomas Atkins. } 

Col. y0/; Hewfon. 
Jan. 6. 7<wx Dr/st*-, Efq; 
//^. ii. Henry Pickering, of Cambridge- 

/hire, Efq; 

Col. P/;;7/> Tiu'ijteton. 
March 9. 7/? Lenthall, Efq-, Son of 7F/7- 
//tfw Lentball, Maftcr of the 

Ireton, Alderfhan of London. 

To thefe may, not improperly, be adued the 
Names of the feveral Barriflers called to the Degree 
of Serjeants at Law, during Crorreuiell'* Protecto- 
rate ; many of whom, after the Reiteration, be- 
came the great Ornaments of the Bench. 

1653, Jan. 25. Richard Pepys^ Thomas Fletcher, 

and Matthew Hale, Efqrs. 
Ftb. 9. William Steel, Efq; Recorder of 
London, afterwards Lord Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer; and, 
fince, Lord Chancellor of Ire- 

John Maynard, Richard Newdi- 
gate,ThomasTwifden, and Hugh 
frFyndham, Efqrs. 

^654, June 21. Union Crake and John Parker, 

,j655, - 28. Rc^er Hill, Efq; 

1656, Off. 25. William Shephard* Efq; 

Nov. 17. John Fountain and.Ww&ytf, Efqrs* 

Befides the Honours conferred by Oliver Crom- 
well, his Son Henry, when Lord-Deputy of Ireland, 
knighted the following Perfons, viz. Col. Matthew 
Tomlinfan, Col. Robert Goodwin^ and Henry Jones, 
Efq; a Volunteer at Dunkirk. 

Of E N G L A N D. 223 

Immediately upon the News of Cromwell's being Inter- regminu 
dead, the following Account thereof was publifhed 
by Authority : 

Wliiteball* Sept. 3, 1658. 
6 TTTIS moft Serene and Renowned Highnefs Oli- 

JL JL ver Lord Protector, being, after a Sickncfs 
of about fourteen Days (which appeared an Ague 
in the Beginning) reduced to a very low Condition 
of Body, began early this Morning to draw near the 
Gate of Death ; and it pleafed God, about Three 
o'Ciock in the Afternoon, to put a Period to' his 

* We would willingly exprefs, upon this fad Occa- The Privy Coun- 
fion, the deep Sorrow which hath poflefled the cil declare his el- 
Minds of his moft Noble Son and Succeflbr, w4 
other deareft Relations, had we Language fuffici-for. 
ent : But all that we can ufe, will fall fliort of the 
Merits of that moft excellent Prince. 

4 His 

a In a Letter from Richard Cromwell, to a Relation of his, he 
exprefles himfelf in this Manner concerning his Father's Sicknefs j 
from whence may be formed feme Idea ot" his own Dilution and 

Whitehall, Auguft 28, 1658. 

For my worthy Friend Captain John Dunche, at Peufey, near 
Abington, in Berk/hire. 


T Intended to have written to you by the fuft Return, but fine* 
' J. his Highnefs has been fo ill, that I have not had either Oppor- 
' tunity or Delirc to fet Pen to Paper j we have not been without 
' very great Fears j for his Highnefs's Illnefs hath been fuch as hath 

* put the Phyficians to a Nonplus. Our Hopes are fomewhat incrcafed 
' by this Fit of an Ague ; and fliall it pleafe God to go on with his 

* gentle Hand, and bring him temperately out of this Fit, and not 
' renew it, at the Time his former Fit began, or vifit us with * 
' Quartan, we mall have fome reviving Comfort, and Caufe to mag- 
' niry his Goodnefs j it being a new Life to his Higlmefs and the Af- 
' fairs, as they now ftand, of this Nation, with the Proteflant In- 

* tereft of Chriftendom. J believe the Rumours of this dangerous 
' Illnefs hath flown into all Parts of thi Nation, and hath caufcd 
' feveral Perfonsof ill Affeclions to prick up their Ears, which will 
' caufe Friends to be vigilant, for they will hope they have a Game 
' to play : It is a Time that will difcover all Colours, and much of 
' the Difpofition of the Nation may now be gathered. I heard that 

* thofe who have been Enemies, others that have been no Friends, 
' fome of both, are ftartled ; fearing their PolTeflions, and worjfe 
' Conditions, not confidering their Affeclion, in this Hazard his 

J: mud be tke Gesdpcfs of God t,)ut fhall fave 



224 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

His firft Undertakings for the Publick Intereft, 
his working Things all along, as it were, out of 
the Rock; his founding a Military Difcipline in. 
thefe Nations, fuch as is not to be found in any 
Example of preceding Times ; and whereby th 
Noble Soldiery of thefe Nations may, without Flat- 

' him, and his Knowledge of the State of England and Chriftendom j 

* the Spirit of Prayer which is poured out for him, and the Faith 

* which is ac"red on Behalf of him, gives us the beft Comfort and 
' Hopes : Mine and my Wife's Refpecls to your Father and Mother.* 

/ reft yours, 


For the above Letter, and feveral others of Oliver and Richard 
Cromwell, we are obliged to the Hon. Horace Walpole, Efq; Member 
of Parliament for Lynn, who tranfcribed them from the Originals 
found at Peufey, the Scat of the Duncbes Family, in Berkjkire. 

Sir Philip Warwick and Mr. Ludtoi-j inform us, That during 
Cromwell's Illnefs, Goodivyn, his Chaplain, ufed this Expreffion in his 
Prayer, Lord, -we leg r.ot for bit Ren-very, for that tbou baft already 
granted and afjured us of$ but for bit ffeedy Recovery, becaufe there 
are divers Things of great Moment to be difpafcbed by him 

Another Contemporary, (in a Pamphlet, infilled, A Second Nar- 
rative of the (ate Parliament, printed in the ffth Tear of England's 
Slavery, under its new Monarchy , 16158 ) writes, That when the News 
of Cromvueirs Death wa ; brought to the Minifte-s and others who were 
praying for him, iri the Chapel at Whitehall, Peter &terry, one of his 
Chaplains, flood up and defiied the Company not fo be troubled : 
For, faid he, This is good News : Then holdin forth his Bible, he 
ipoke to this Purpofe : That if that -were the Word of God, then at 
certainly that bleJJ'ed holy Spirit (mean ; ng the late Pro'cdlor) ivas 
with Cbrift at tbe Right Hand of the Father : And if he were tbert, 
vjhat might not his family, and tbe People of God, novj expflJ from 
him ? For if b; taere Jo ufeful and helpful, and fo much Good was in- 
fluenced, from him to them, whin be ivas here in a mortal State, boio 
much more Influence would ccme frim him novj be isas in Heaven f Tbe 
Father, Son, and Spirit, th>o him, bejlo<wing Gifts and Gracat upon 
them With a great deal more to the f>me blafphemous Purpofe. 

But thefe EnthufiafticRhapfodies were not confined to Cromweirs 
Chaplains j for Fleetivood, Henry Cromwell, Lord Fauconberg, Tbur- 
loe, and others, fall very lirtle fhort of them j as may be fcen in their 
Letters on Occ^fion of the P o eclor's Sirknefs and Death 5 of which 
the following Extracts are a fufficient Specin.en, vix. 

THURLOE'S Letter to HENRY CROMWELL, Lord Deputy of Ire- 
land, Avgxfi 24, 1658. 

' Your Excellency will eafily imagine. hw much Trouble we are 
' all under here, on Occafron of his Highr.cfs's Illnefs : And though 
it laall pieafe the Lord to recorer him again, yet certainly confider- 
ing the Time that this Vifiuticn is in, and other Ckcumftanccs 


Of ENGLAND. 225 

tery, be commended for Piety, Moderation, and inter- rc^num. 
Obedience, as a Pattern to be imitated, but hardly 1658. 
to be equalled, by fucceeding Generations : His * ~^" 
Wifdom and Piety in Things Divine j his Prudence S*P teml>er ' 
in Management of Civil Affairs, and Conduct of 
Military, and admirable SuceefTes in all, made him 
a Prince indeed among the People of God ; by whofe 
Prayers being lifted up (o the Supreme Dignity, he 
became more highly feated in their Hearts, becaufe, 
in all his Aclings, it was evident that the main De- 
VOL. XXI. P fign 

' relating thereunto, it cannot but greatly afTecl us all towards Ged j 
' and make us deeply fenfible how much our Dependance is upon 

him, in whofc Hands is the Life and Breath of this his old Servant j 
' and if he ftiould take him away from amongft us, how terrible a 
' Blow it would be to all the good People of the Land ; and that 
' therefore we fiiould be careful how \ve walk towards God, left ws 
' provoke him to depart from us, and bring upon us this great Evil. 

The People of God, here, pray much for his Recovery, and I hope; 
' thofe in Ireland will do the fame j for to have his Life fpared, and 
his Health reftored, by Prayer, will be a great Addition to r.hp 

General FLEITWOOD to HENRY CROMWELL of the fame Date tvitk 

the abwe. 

' There arc none but what are deeply concerned in this Difpenfa- 
' tion of the Lord towards his Highnefs, that have a true Love to 
' the blcffed Caufe : For the further carrying on of the fame, the 
' Lord will bring him forth with more Vigour, Life, and Zeal, his 
' Highnefs having had very great Difcpveries of the Lord to him in 
' his Sicknefs ; and hath had fome Afluiances of his being reftorcd, 
' and made further in this Work : This latter is fecretly 
' kept, and therefore I ihall dtfire it may not go further than ycup 
' own Breaft ; but I think there is that in this Experience, which, 
' may truly be worthy of your further Knowledge.' 

THURLOI to HENRY CROMWELL, Stft. 4, 1658. 
The Lord Proteftor died Yefterday, about Four of the Clock in 
' the Afternoon. I am not able to fpeak or write, this Stroke is fy 
' fore, fo unexpected ; the Providence of God in it fo ftupcnduous, 

< confidtring the Perfon that is fallen, the Time and Seafon wherein 
' God took him away, with other Circumftances, that I can do no- 

thing but put my Mouth in theDuft, and fjy, It :t the Lord-, an4 

though his Ways be not always known, yet they are always rigrxe- 
' ous ; and we muft fubmit to his Will, and xefign up ourfelvcs to 
' him with all our Concernments. 

' It is not to be fdid what Affliction the Army and all People 
' fiiew to Lis late Highnefs ; his Name is already precious. Never 

was there any Man fo prayed for as he was during his Sicknefs ; 

< fulemn Afll-mblies meeting, every Day, to befccch the Lord for 
' th: Continuance of Life ; fo that he is gone to Hea\en, em- 

balmed with the Tears of his People, and upon the Wings of th 
' ?ra.yers of the Saints,' b-.attPaftrt, Vol. VII. p. 355, tt ftj, 

226 The Parliamentary HISTORY 
fjg n was to make his own Intereft one and the fame 
with theirs, that it might be fubfervient to the ereat 

' And in the promoting of this, his Spirit knew 
no Bounds ; his Affeclion could not be confined at 
home, but broke forth into foreign Parts, where 
he was, by good Men, univerfaily r.dmired as an 
Extraordinary Perfon raifed up of God, and by them 
owned as the great Proteclor and Patron of the Evan- 
gelical Profeffion. This being faid, and the World 
itfelf witnefs of it, we can only add, That God 
gave him Bleffings proportionable to all thefe Vir- 
tues; and made him a Bleffing to us, by his Wif- 
dom and Valour, to fecure our Peace and Liberty, 
and to revive the antient Renown and Reputation of 
our Native Country. 

* After all this, it is remarkable, how it pleafed 
the Lord, on this Day, to take him to reft, it having 
formerly been a Day of Labours to him ; for which 
both himfelf and the Day (Sept. 3.) will be mod 
renowned to Pofterity ; it having been to him a Day 
of Triumphs and Thankfgiving for the memorable 
Victories of Dunlar and Woreefter: A Day which, 
after fo many ftrange Revolutions of Providence, 
high Contradictions and wicked Confpiracies of 
unreafonable Men, he lived once again to fee ; and 
then to die, with great Afiurances and Serenity of 
Mind, peaceably in his Bed. 

* Thus it hath proved to him to be a Day of Tri- 
umph indeed j there being much of Providence in 
it, that, after fo glorious Crowns of Victory placed 
on his Head by God, on this Day, having neglect- 
ed an Earthly Crown, he fhould now go to receive 
the Crown of Everlafting Life. 

* Being gone, to the unfpeakable Grief of all good 
Men, the Privy Council immediately afiembled ; 
and being fatisfied that the Lord Protector was dead, 
and upon fure and certain Knowledge that his late 
Highnefs did, in his Life-time, according to the 
Humble Petition and Advice, declare and appoint 
the molt Noble and Illuftrious Lord the Lord Rich- 
ard, JDldeft Sou of his &id Highnefs, to fucceed 


Of ENGLAND. 227 

him in the Government as Lord Protector, it was inter-regnum. 
fo rcfolved at the Council b > which being made 
known to the Officers of the Army, it was pleafant 
to behold, with how much Content and Satis- 
fa6tion they received the Notice of it, and unani- 
moufly concurred therewith; being reiblved, to 
their utmoft, to maintain the SucceiTion, according 
to Law : Which worthy Refolution of theirs, as it 
fpeaks them Men of Honour, Prudence, and Fideli- 
ty, mindjjul of the Merits of their late great Leader, 
and Common Father, and of the grand Intereft of 
Eftablifhment, after all our Shakings ; fo it is but 
anfwerable to the Worth and Noblencfs of his Son, 
who, in all Refpe&s, appears the lively Image of 
his Father, the true Inheritor of his Chriftian Vir- 
tues ; a Perfon, who by his Piety, Humanity, and 
other Noble Inclinations, hath obliged the Hearts 
of all ; and thereby filled this People with Hopes of 
much Felicity, through God's Bleffingupon his Go- 

' The Council having waited upon the New Lord 
Protector, the Prefident acquainted him with their 
Proceedings, to which his Highnefs made a fuitable 
Return, in Countenance and Language, exprefling 
a very deep Senfe, as well of his own Sorrow for 
the Lois of his rnoft dear Father, as of the Faith- 
fulnefs and fmgular good Affection manifefled by 
the Council toward his deceafed Father and himfelf, 
in the prefent Occasion, and of the great Weight of 
P 2 Govern- 

* Sir Philip War-wick, in his Memoirs, fays, ' He was aCuted by 
one of Cromwell' 's Phyficians, with whom he was intimately ac- 
quainted, that the Protector, during his whole Sicknefs, was never 
Matter of fo niuch Rcafon as to determine any thing concerning his "* 
Succeflbr, or Matters of State ; altlio' it was pretended, by Secretaiy 
1 'burke, and Gt'.dinln his Chaplain, that he appointed his Son Rich- 
ard to furceed him 5 and that the Council duift not proclaim him 
as Protector ontill fleeiiowd, his Brother-in-Law, and Deftaraxgi, 
his Uncle, had given their Confent j betaufe it was well known that 
Oliver had figned an Inftrument, by which the Protedoifhip was to 
devolve upon FltefwooJ. 

Mr. Mcliett in Iiis Life of Lord Brogblll, confirms the Account 
ofCiwwtir* Intentions Ln Favour of bi^nvcodi adding, That when 
Crewel! was a/ked, Who fhould fucceed him ? he aalwered, Th r 
in fuch a Drawer in a Cabinet of his Clofer, they ffiould find his W,ll } 
but that one cf his Daughters had taken it awvy, and burnt it, 

228 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 


Inter-regnum. Government, by God's Providence, now laid up- 
1 on k' s Shoulders ; and which he could not hope to 

^ u ^ am anv other Way, than by being borne up by 
their Prayers, and by the Prayers of the reft of 
God's People, whofe Peace and Profpeiity he 
would, to the utmoft of his Power, endeavour to 
promote in the Government of thefe Nations, &c. 

' The next Morning, about Nine, the Lords of 
the Council meeting in the Council -Charffber, gave 
Command for the proclaiming of the Lord Protec- 
tor ; and all Things being in Readinefs, with divers 
Troops of Horfe and Companies of Foot attending, 
betwixt the Hours of Ten and Eleven, the Trum- 
pets founded ; the Trumpeters went before the 
Heralds and Officers at Arms in their Formalities, 
and three Serjeants at Arms with their Maces fol- 
lowed. As they pafied along the Court, they did 
Obeifance, three Times, to their Lordfhips of the 
Council, who (hewed themfelves, out at the Coun- 
cil-Chamber-Window, Witneffes of this high and 
happy Solemnity before a numerous Concourfe of 
People. Then the Officers drawing near under the 
Window, a Trumpet founded ; after which one of 
the Clerks, attending the Council, produced the Pro- 
clamation, which was read aloud by Norroy King at 
Arms, in the following Words : 

er of TfcrHEREAS it hath pleafcd the rmji Wife GW, 

r " 7 * his Prov ' ldence -> to take out f this World) 

the mo ft Serene and the moft Renowned Oliver, late 
Lord Proteflor of this Commonwealth ; and his fold 
* Highnefs having, in his Life-time , according to the 
Humble Petition and Advice, declared and appointed 
the mcft Noble and Illuftrious toe Lord Richard, 
eldeft Son of his faid late Highnefs, to fucceed him 
in the Government of thefe Nations : We therefore of 
the Privy Council, together with the Lord Mayor^ 
Aldermen, and the Citizens cf London, the Officers 
of the Army, and Numbers of other principal Gentle - 
da now hereby, with one full Voice and Con- 


The Mann 

Of E N G L A N D. 229 

fent of Tongue and Heart, publijh and declare the 
faid Noble and IlluJIrious Let a Richard to be right- 
fully Protector ef this CwimomueaUh of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and the Dominions and Ter- 
ritorics thereto belonging ; to whom we do acknowledge 
all Fi.'Ielitv and conjlant Obedience, according to Law, 
and the faid Humble Petition and Advice, with all 
hearty and humble Affections ; befeeching the Lord, 
by whcm Princes rule, to blefs him with long Life* 
and thefe Nations with Peace and Happinejs under 
his Government. 


Mayor. Jo. THURLOE. 














God fave His Highnefi RICHARD Lord Protestor. 

* This was follow'd with loud Acclamations ot" 
the People, God fave the Lord Protector. 

' Then the Heralds, Serjeant at Arms, and other 
Officers, mounting on Horfebaclc at the Court- 
Gate, departed towards Weftminjhr\ and the Lords 
of the Council, in their Coaches, accompanied 
them, together with the Lords Commiffioners of the 
Great Seal and other high Officers of State, with 
the Officers of the Army, attended by his Highnefs's 
Gentlemen of his Life-guard, the Gentlemen of 
his Houfhold, and a large Train of Perfons of Ho- 
nour and Quality mounted on Horfeback, as alfo 
by feveral Troops and Companies of Horfe and 
P 3 Foot; 

230 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. Foot j who being arrived in the Palace-Yard at 
1658. Weftminfter^ Proclamation was made, as before, by 
~v~~' f Sound of Trumoet, and feconded bv the Rejoicings 
September. of the p eop}e . 

' From thence they proceeded along the Strand 
towards Temple-Bar^ where the Lords of the Coun- 
cil and the whole Company being received by the 
Lord Mayor of London, in his Purple Velvet Gown, 
with the Aldermen his Brethren, in State, on Horfe- 
back, their Attendant Officers, and the Committee 
of the Militia of London, they proceeded to Chancery 
Lane End, and thence to the End of Wood-Street^ ia 
Cbeapjide ; at both which Places Proclamation was 
made again, and the good Affections of the City 
abundantly teftified by their joyful Acclamations. 

' From thence the whole Company went to the 
Royal Exchange, in Cornhill^ where they arrived at 
high Exchange-Time ; and, in the Audience of an 
innumerable Concourfe of People, his Highnefs our 
moft Serene Prince, RICHARD Lord Protector, 
was, the laft Time, proclaimed j after which, the 
largeft Demonftrations of Love and Loyalty were 
lively fet forth in the Tongues and Countenances 
of the Citizens of that renowned City, whofe Wel- 
fare and Profperity was much in the Eye and upon 
the Heart of his Princely Father ; and their Senfe 
of it was manifefted by their reiterated Shouts and 
Acclamations, upon this great Occafion ; many 
Vollies of Shot alfo were given by the Soldiery, 
drawn up there to attend the Ceremony. 

* About Four in the Afternoon, the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen, in their Formalities, went to White- 
hally to make their dutiful Acknowledgements, in 
the Name of the City, to the New Lord Protestor, 
as well to condole with him for the Death of his 
late Highnefs, as to congratulate him touching his 
own Pofleflion of the Prote&oral Dignity, and to 
/urrender up the Sword of the City ; who being in- 
troduced into a Room of Attendance, the Council 
in the mean Time met together ; and, after a while, 
their Lordfhips, together with the Lord Mayor and 
Aldermen, being admitted to his Highnefs's Prefence 


Of E N G L A N D. 231 

in a large Room, the Lord Mayor presented the 
City Sword to him, which he receiving, immedi- 
ately returned it into the Hands of the Lord Mayor, 
After fome other Ceremonies pafled, Dr. Thomas 
Goodwin flood forth and prayed unto the Lord for 
a Bleiling upon his Highnefs's Perfon, his Govern- 
ment, his Forces, by Sea and Land, and upon all 
the People of tliefe Nations, &c. which being ended, 
the moil Noble Nathaniel Lord Plenties, one of the 
Lords Commiffioners of the Great Seal, and one of 
his Highnefs. 's moft Honourable Privy Council, ad- 
miniftercd the Oath to his Highnefs, as prefcribed 
by the Humble Petition and Advice. a 

* This being done, his Highnefs addrefled him- 
felf to the Lord Mayor, exprcfling his high Appre- 
henfions, touching the good Affections and Fidelity 
of. the City toward his own Perfon and Government; 
his Lordfhip and his Brethren thereupon humbly 
took their Leave and departed ; and his Highnefs, 
with his Privy Council, retiring into another Room, 
a Proclamation, pafled by the Council, was there 
prcfented and read to him, and confented to by him, 
iignifying his Highnefs's Pleafure, That all Perfona 
who were in Office under the Government, at the 
Deceafe of his late Highnefs, (hould fo Continue till 
further Directions. 

* Then the Council departing, the Officers of the 
Army went in, and made their perfonal Addrefles to 
his Highnefs, by whom they were gracioufly receiv'd. 

* The Ceremony of the Day being over, the 
Evening concluded with the Report of an hundred 
Pieces of Ordnance planted upon the Tower. 

Our Gazetteer clofes his Narrative with the 
following Prayer, May all the Days of his High- 
neffs Life be crowned with the Blejfings of the moft 
High God, and the high eft- Affeftions of bis People.' 
Thus was Richard Cromwell proclaimed Oliver's 
lawful Succcflbr ; and became poflefled of all his 
Father's Greatnefs, and all his Glory, without the 
public Hate that vifibly attended the other; in Ho- 
ziour of whofe Character, fome of the greateft Ge- 
The Form of this Oath if already given, at p, 148, 

"Parliamentary HISTO&V 

Intcr-regnum. n i u s' of the Age, as Waller * Dryden, Sprat, and 
5s8> others, facrificed their own. Both the Universities, 
September. a ^ exerc ^ e ^ tne i r Wits upon this Occafion, iii 
poetical Condolences and Congratulations. 

Lieutenant- General Fleet-wood ', in the Name of 
HiVluittfsAccef-the Officers of the Army in England; Monk> for 
feTbyth? Three thofe of Scotland > Sir Charles Coote, for Ireland; and 
Kingdoms. Lockhart^ from Dunkirk ; all congratulated Richard's 
Acceffion, and renewed their Vows of Fidelity to 
him ; Admiral Montague, in Behalf of the Navy, 
did the fame ; the City of London appeared more 
Unanimous for his Service, than they were for his 
Father's ; and moft Counties, Cities, and capital 
Towns in the Three Nations, and even the Planta- 
tions, by Addreffes under their Hands, teftified their 
Obedience to their New Sovereign. 

In many of thefe folemn Congratulations the 
young Protector was highly magnified for his Wif- 
dom, Noblenefs of Mind, and lovely Compofition 
of Body; his Father Oliver was compared to Mo- 
fes 9 'Lerubbabel^ Jojhua, Gideon, and Elijah ; to 
David, Solomon, and Hlzekiah ; to Conftantine the 
Great, and to whomfoever elfe that either the Sa- 
cred Scriptures, or any other Hiftory, had celebra- 
ted for their Piety or their Goodnefs, their Wifdoni 
or their Valour, with all the mod fulfome Comple- 
ments the bafeft Flattery could fuggeft. Of thefe 
we fhall give one only as a Specimen, which feems 
to have been the Model of all the reft ; and this the 
rather, as it is a direcl: Contraft to what was pre- 
fented from the fame Body of Men, a few Months 
after. The Curiofity of this Piece will attone for 
the Prolixity of it. * - 

g From a Pamphlet, intitlcd, d true Catalogue, or an Account of 
the feveral Places, and weft eminent Perfons in the Three Nations, and 
etfeivbere, ivbere, and by lobom, Richard Cromwell tvas proclaimed 
Lord Protefhr oftbeCommor.'wealtbof^.n^&n^, Scotland, and Ire- 
land : As a'fo a Col/efiion of the moj} material PaJJ'ages in the J'rveral 
blafpbemous, lying, faltering AddreJJ'es, being 94 in Number, -wbicb 
lucre fent to the afirefaid Pcrfon, with the Places from, and 
rnojl eminent Perfons from, and by <wbom they came, and were pre- 

fented. Printed in the f.rfl Tear of the Englifli Armies final/, or 

Jcarce beginning to return from their dlmoft fix Years great Apflacy. 

The Author of this Performance appears to have been a zealous 
Fifth- Monarchy- Man, 

Of ENGLAND. 233 

To his Higbncfi the Lord Protettor of the Common- inter-regmim. 
wealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and 1658. 

the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging^ *--* v~ 


The HUMBLE ADDRESS of the Officers of your 
Highnefs's jinnies in England, Scotland, and 

May it pleafe your Highnefs, 
c "T T THEN we call to Mind how God, the great A remarkable 

W and wife Difpofer of all Things, hath, by A k ddr f fro!n 

to- f-rt i . , ' the Army on 

' a Ions; continued benes of Providence, carried on that Qccafian. 

* his Work in thefe Nations by the Hands of feve- 
' ral Inftruments, making it manifeftly to profper in 
' the Hands of a!! thofe that did heartily own his 

* Caufe and People ; but inoft remarkably and 
4 eminently, in the Hands of that Man whom he 

* had chofen, your deceafed Father, whofe Memo- 
' ry (hall be bleft, and will be had in perpetual Re- 
' membrance amongft good Men, as having been 

* the great Aflertor of the Liberties of God's People, 
' an Inftrument to reftbre thefe Nations to Peace, a 

* Lover of their Civil Rights, and fo indefatigable in 

* his Endeavours after Reformation ; the mention- 
' ing of whom may well ftrike our Hearts with 
' unconceiveable Sorrow and Abafement, to think 
that we, by our Sins, have provoked the God of 

* all our Mercies to give us fuch a Stroke, by taking 
' from us the Delight of our Eyes, and, under God, 

* the Captain of his People, upon whom the Eyes 
c of Foreign Princes were fixed with Reverence and 
' Expectation. 

4 Oh ! how glorioufly did the Lord appear for and 
' with him in the midft of his People, making the 
' Mountains to become a Plain before him, and 

* carrying him upon the Wuigs of Faith and Prayer, 
' above all Difficulties and Oppofitions. How did 

* the Graces of God's Spirit evidently fliine forth in 
' him ! In his Armies he reckoned the choiceft 
' Saints his chicfcft Worthies j in his Family, thofe 
' that were near and dear to God, were near and 


234 ^ oe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' dear to him. His Eyes were upon the Faithful ia 
the Land, to relieve many, to advance fome, to 
' protect and countenance all. In the Things of 

< God he had a tender and large Heart, to love all 
' the Saints though of different Judgments. He had 
c great Acquaintance with the Lord, mighty in 

* Faith and Prayer, which made him fo conilant 

* and glorious a Victor. 

' Your Highnefs, your Armies and People, reap 
the Benefit of his Prayers and SuccefTes ; but, alas ! 
this our Mofes (your dear and bleffed Father) the 
e Servant of the Lord is dead, and fhall we not 

* weep ? Though we weep not for him, yet we can- 

* not but weep for ourfelves. We cannot but look 

< after him crying, Our Father,, our Father, tke 

* Chariots of Ifrael and the Horfemen thereof ! 

' When we confider thefe Things, we cannot 

* but reverence the fame Providence, in bringing 

* your Highnefs to fucceed him in the Government, 

* with fo much Serenity and general Confent and 

* Approbation of the People, when the Enemy fo 

* ftrenuoufly endeavours to promote Diffractions and 

* Divifions ; and we cannot but hope, though it 

* hath pleafed the Lord fliarply to rebuke us, yet he 

* will not caft us off, nor withdraw his fatherly Af- 

* fedlions from us ; but, in our Returnings, he will 

* give us Reft, and will enable your Highnefs to 

* carry on that good old Caufe and Intereft of 
' God and his People upon your Heart continually, 

* and then he will carry you as upon Eagles Wing?, 

* above all the Malice and wicked Machinations of 

* ungodly Men, to do valiantly in Ifrael, in the 
' further enlarging of the Kingdom of 'Jefus Chrift, 

in maintaining the Chriftian Liberty of all fober 
dly Men, though of different Opinions in fonie 
hings ; the defending of the Civil Rights of the 
' whole People of thefe Nations j and the Reform a- 
* tion of all Abufes ; 

* And more particularly, that we may open our 
' Hearts before you, we hope and pray that God 

* will enable your Highnefs to endeavour, that the 

* Army which fhall bethought fit to be kept up in the 


' godl 
' Thi 

Of ENGLAND. 335 

< Three Nations, may be continued, and kept un- 
' der the Command of fuch Officers as are of ho- 
' neft and godly Principles, free to adv&nture all 

< that is dear to them, by all lawful Ways and Sc P Umk<:; - 

* Means to maintain an equal and juft Liberty to all 

* Perfons that profefs Godlinefs, that are not of tur- 

* bulent Spirits as to the Peace of thefe Nations, nor 
' Difturbers of other?, though different in fome 

* Things from themfclves, according to the true In- 
' tent of the Humble Petition and Advice. 

' That the Vacancies in your Highnefs Council, 

* and other Places of Public Truft, be, from Time 

* to Time, fupplied and filled up with Men ot known 
' Godlinefs and fober Principles, that they, with, 

* your Highnefs and your Armies, may make it their 
' Work to carry on the Concernments of the Godly 
' in thefc Nations, and the Civil Rights of the 
' People thereof, upon their Hearts, with full Pur- 

* pofe to maintain the fame ; and that a Work of 
' Reformation, tending to good Life and Manners* 
' may be vigoroufly carried on by the Hands of good 

* Magiftrates, and thofe Things that are vexatious 
' and oppreffive to the People may be fupprefled. 

' That the Provifion made for the eje&ing fcan- 

* dalous, ignorant, and infufficient Minifters ; and 

* that for the Approbation of Minifters, tending to 
' the bringing in of godly and able Preachers into 
' the feveral Places of thefe Nations (whereby poor 
' and ignorant Souls may be brought to the Knoif - 

* ledge of the Truth) may be own'd and maintain'd 

* in their Power, according to the Afts of Parliament ; 
' and that any who (hall difcourage or difcotmte- 
' nance good Minifters in thefe Nations, by encou- 
c ra m g loofe and profane Perfons to orppofe and flight 
' them for not admitting fuch as are loofe and profane 
' to the Sacrament, may be difcountenanced and pu- 
4 nifhed. 

* In your Profccution whereof, we hope that God 
c will affift us to make it known to your Highnefs* 
< and all the World, that we aim not at any private 

* Intereft or End of our own ; but that we (hall be 
' heartily and faithfully with you, as we have been 



The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum, wt your Father, to adventure our Lives and all 
1658. * that is dear unto us to ftand by you. Thefe being 
* v* J ' the Principles upon whieh we engaged with your 
September. < bleffed jr at h er , and were blefied of God in, and 
' we truft God will direct your Heart to be fixed 
4 and bottomed upon the fame Principles, which we 

* are perfuaded God will own you in, and blefs us 

* in {landing by you againft all that {hall oppofe you 
' therein, or make it their Defign to change or al- 
' ter the prefent Government eftablifh'd in a fingJe 
' Perfon and two Houfes of Parliament, according 

* to the Humble Petition and Advice, or fhall en- 

* deavour the Subverfion thereof, or the Difturbance 
of the Peace of thefe Nations. 

6 And we are confident you will have the concur- 
< rent Helps of the Prayers and Endeavours of the 
' People of God, whereby your Heart and Hand 

* will be ftrengthened to ride on profper-oufly, to the 
' Joy and Rejoicing of all good Men, and to the 
' Terror and Difappointment of all your Adverfa- 
' ries, when they {hall perceive you inherit, not 
' only your Father's Glory and Authority, but alfo 

* the Hearts of his old faithful Followers ; and 
' (which crowns all) the Blefling of the God of youu 

* Father ; which that it may be continued unto you, 
' and profper you, in all that you put your Hand un- 

* to, is and fhall be the continual Prayer of 

Tour Higbnefs's mojl bumble and loyal Servants. 

The foregoing Addrefs, which was prefented to 
the Protector by Lieutenant-General Fleetwood and 
the Officers, then in and about the Head Quarters, 
we are told h , was drawn up at Court, and Copies 
thereof fent to the feveral Regiments of the Three 
Nations, to be fubfcribed. This is highly probable, 
when we confider how nearly related Flcctivocd was 
to Richard Cromwell. The prefenting one General 
Addrefs from the Three Armies was the Contrivance 
of Henry Cromwell^ Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in 


l> On the Authority of the laft- cited Writer, who gives feveral 
good Reafons for his Aflertion. 

Of E N G L A N D. 237 

order to difplay the great Unanimity of the Soldiery intcr-regnum. 
in Support of his Brother's Succeflion. * But 1658. 

The Refpect paid to the young Lord Protector * v~ ' 
was not confined to his own Subjects. Foreign Se P tembcr 
Princes and States addrefled their Condolences to 
him, and fought a Renewal of their Alliances : On ^he Foreign 
this Occafion M. de Bourdeavx, the Ambaffa-^S? JJ! 
dor from France (with which Court Oliver hadvoirs to his 
eftablifhed the moft intimate Connections and Pro- Highnefs. 
feflions of Friendfliip) diftinguiflied himfelf before 
all others k ; for, at an Audience he had of Richard* 
to which he was introduced by Sir Oliver Fleming^ 
Mafter of the Ceremonies, he prefented to his High- 
nefs two Letters ; one from his Majefty of France^ 
the other from his Eminency Cardinal Mazarin^ as 
Chief Minifter of State ; and delivered himfelf, in 
a Speech, to this Effect : * That his Mafter, the 
King of France^ having heard of the Death of his 
late Highnefs, of glorious Memory, did very much 
take to Heart the Lofs of fo great a Captain, and 
fo good an Ally of his Crown : That his Majefty 
rejoiced at being informed that, in order to the re- 
pairing fo great a Lofs, it had pleafed God to eftablilh 
his Highnefs, as his Father's undoubted SuccefTor : 
That it was the Defire of his moft Chriftian Ma- 
jefty, by all Means, to maintain that Alliance and 
Amity, which had hitherto been of fo great Advan- 
tage to both Nations : And that his Majefty, to 
manifeft the Sincerity of his Friendfliip, would be 
ready upon any Occafion, either with his Councils 
or Forces, to aflift the Lord Protector againft any 
of his Enemies or Oppofers whatfoever.' 1 To which 
the Ambaflador added, on his own Behalf, ' That 
as he himfelf had a great Affection for the Englijb 
Nation, having now many Years refided here, and 
a particular Regard for the Perfon of his late High- 

i WmrlH, Vol. VII. 

k Nouvelltt Orjinaires dt Londres. 

1 Although Maxann proftficd fo great Regard for Cromwell, yet as 
foon as that Cardinal heard, at Purii, of Oliver's Death, he pcrfo. 
nally waited upon the Queen-Mother of England, to congratulate her 
thereupon, as the moft probable Accident that could have happened 
to advance her Soa's Re/Uration, 

238 jT/6f Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. n e f s the Lord Protestor, to whom he always bore a 
l6 5 8 Profound Reverence on account of his Princely 

September ^ * rtues > f ne &ould at all Times be ready to give 
his moft Noble Son and Succeffor a Teftimony how 
joyful he was to fee his Highnefs thus happily efta- 
bliftied in the Government, and how ueurous he 
was to render him every pofiible Proof of his Kfteem 
and Devotion.' 

A general Faft ^ ne 10[h of this Month was obferved, by his 

on account or Tr . . r . ,,, ., ... r T> n- 

the Death of Highnefs and the Council, as a Day of fairing 
Oliver Crotewell.yoA Humiliation, in a Senfe of the Hand of God 
for taking away the late Lord Protector, and to 
ieek for a Bleffing on his Highnefs, the New Lord 
Protector, and his Government. The lame was 
afterwards folerruiized throughout the Three Na- 

Before we make any further Progrcfs into the 
Protectorate of Richard Cromwell^ it may, perhaps, 
be no incurious Digreffion to take Notice of the 
RefpeiSt he (hewed to his Father's Memory ; by 
cauimg his .Body to be interred in the Sepulchre of 
the Kings of England, with all the Obfequies due 
to Royalty. The Ceremonial thereof was publifh- 
ed, at this Time, by Authority, in the following 
Terms : 

The Manner of ' n t ^ ie 2 ^ n ^ ^ e P tem ^ er tne Corpfe of his late 
tiis lying in State Highnefs Oliver Lord Protector, having been em- 
at Somerfet- balmed the Day after his Death, was removed from 
Hm f e > Whitehall, attended by the Lord Chamberlain, and 

the Comptroller of his Highnefs Houihold, the 
Gentlemen of the Life-Guard, the Guard of Hal- 
berdiers, and many other Officers and Servants of 
his Highnefs. Two Heralds, or Officers of Arms, 
went next before the JBody, which, being put into a 
Herfe drawn by fix Horfes, was conveyed to Somer- 
fet-Hoiife, where it refted fomeDays privately; but 
afterwards was expofed to publick View, in the fol- 
lowing Manner : 

The firft Room the People entered, was for- 
merly the Prefenee Chamber, which was hung 


LAND. 239 

and at the upper End a i nt er. re gnui. 

Of E N G 

compleatly with Black ; 

Cloth of iState, with a Chair of State ftanding up- 
on the Haut-pas, under the Cloth of State. 

4 From thence they pafled to a fecond large 
Room, which was the Privy-Chamber, all com- 
pleatly huno- with Black, and a Cloth of State at 
the upper End j having alfo a Chair of State upon 
the Haut-pas, under the Cloth of Sate. 

' The third Room was a large Withdrawing 
Chamber, compleatly hung as the other with black 
Cloth, and a Cloth of State at the upper End ; ha- 
ving alfo a Chair of State, as in the other Rooms. 

4 All thefe three large Rooms were compleatly 
furnifhed with Efcutcheons of his Highnefs Arms, 
crowned with the Imperial Crown ; and upon the 
Head of each Cloth of State, was fixed a large Ma- 
iefty-Efcutcheon fairly painted, and gilt, upon Taf- 

' The fourth Room, where both the Body and 
the Effigies lay, was compleatly hung with black 
Velvet j the Roof of the faid Room cieled alfo with 
Velvet, and a large Canopy or Cloth of State or 
black Velvet fringed, over the Effigies, which was 
made to the Life in Wax, and appareled in a rich 
Suit of uncut Velvet, being robed firft in a Kirtle- 
Robe of Purple Velvet, laced with a rich Gold Lace, 
and furr'd with Ermins ; upon the Kirtle was a Royal 
large Robe of the like Purple Velvet, laced and furr'd 
with Ermins, with rich Strings and Taflels of Gold ; 
the Kirtle was girt with a rich embroidered Belt, in 
which was a fair Sword richly gilt, and hatcht with 
Gold, hanging by the Side of the Effigies ; in the 
Right Hand the Golden Scepter, repreienting Go- 
vernment; in the Left Hand a Globe, reprefenting 
Principality; upon the Head, the Cap of Regality ot" 
Purple Velvet, furr'd with Ermins ; behind the Head, 
a rich Chair of State of Cloth of Gold tiflued ; upon 
the Cufhion of the Chair flood the Imperial Crown 
fet with precious Stones. 

' The whole Effigies lay upon a Bed of State co- 
ver'd with a large Pall of black Velvet, under which 


< <~~i 


240 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum, was fpread a fine Holland Sheet, upon fix Stools of 
1658. Cloth of Gold tiflued ; on the Sides of the Bed of 
State lay a rich Suit of complete Armour, reprefent- 
em er. ^ ^; s late Highnefs's Command as General; at 
the Feet of the Effigies flood the Royal Creft of 
Arms, as ufual in all antient Monuments; and over 
all the following Inscription : 


Lord Proteftor of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 

Born ut Huntingdon, 
Of the Name of Williams, of G;.tnorgan, and ly 

King Henry VIII. changed into Cromwell ; 
Wai educated in Cambridge, afterwards of Lincoln's 

At the Beginning of the Wars, Captain of a Troop of 

Horfc raifed at his own Charge ; 
And by the Parliament made Commander In Chief. 

He reduced Ireland and South-Wales ; 
Overthrew Duke Hamilton'* Army^ the Kir&'s Army, 

at Dunbiir ; 

Reduced all Scotland ; 

Defeated Charles Stuart'* Army at Worcefter. 

tie had two Sons, 

Lord Richard, Proteffor in his Father' 1 's room j 
Lord Henry, now Lord Deputy of Ireland ; 

And four Daughters, 
Lady Bridget, firft married Lord Ireton, afterwards 

Lieutenant -General Fleet wood ; 

Lady Elizabeth, married Lord Cleypole ; 

Lady Mary, married Lord Fifcount Fauconberg ; 

Lady Frances, married the Hon. Robert Rich, 

Grand-Child to the Rt. Hen. the Earl of Warwick. 

He was declared Lord Pruie-ftor of England, 

Scotland, and Ireland, Dec. 16, 1653. 

Died Sept. 3, 1658, after fourteen Days Sicknefs> of 

an Ague ', with great njjitrancs and Serenity cfMmdi 

Peaceably in his Bed. 
Natus, Ap. 15, 1599. 

Dunkirk, in Flanders, furrendered to him, June 20 S 


Of ENGLAND. 241 

The Bed of State, upon which the Effigies Jay, 
was afcended to by two Steps, cover'd with the t 
aforefaid Pall of Velvet ; and the whole Work in- September. 
compafll-cl about with Rails covered with Velvet; 
at each Corner was erected a fquare Pillar, cover- 
ed with Velvet, upon the Tops whereof were the 
Supporters of the Imperial Arms, bearing Banners, 
or Streamers, crowned ; the Pillars were decorated 
with Trophies of Military Honour, carved and gilt; 
the Pedeftals of the Pillars had Shields and Crowns 
gilt, which made the whole Work noble and com- 
pleat; within the Rails Hood eight great Standards, 
or Candlefticks of Silver, being almoft five Feet 
in Height, with great Tapers in them of Virgin's 
Wax, three Feet in Length. 

* Next to the Candlefticks, were fet upright in 
Sockets, the four great Standards of his Highnefs's 
Arms, the Guidons, the great Banners and Ban- 
Rolls of War, all of Taffity, richly gilt and painted; 
the Cloth of State had a Majefty-Efcutcheon fixed 
at the Head ; and upon the Velvet Hangings on each 
Side of the Effigies, was a Majefty-Efcutcheon ; and 
the whole Room fully, and compleatly, furnifhed 
with Taffity-Efcutcheoos ; feveral of his Highnefs's 
Gentlemen attending bare-headed round about the ^ 

Bed of State in Mourning; and fome of his inferior 
Servants waiting in the other Room*, to give Direc- 
tions to the Spectators,, and to prevent Diforders. 

4 The Effigies ftood upon an Afcent, under a Of his landing 
rich Cloth of State, vefted with Royal Robes; a in State Aere 
Scepter in one Hand, a Globe in the other, and a 
Crown on the Head ; a little diftant beneath lay his 
Armour, and round about were fixed the Banners, 
Ban-Rolls, and Standards, with other Enfigns of 
Honour ; and the whole Room being fpacious, was 
adorned in a Princely Manner. * 

VOL. XXI Q <The 

a In a little Piece, intituled, J true Portraiture of bit ROYAL 
HIGHNESS Oliver, late Lcrd Prcteftor, in bis Life and Death, ivltb 
a Jbort yitvo of bi*G*9trnwent, there is, by way of Frcntifpiece, 
very neatly engraved, an exa& Repiefentauon of Cnir.wc.Ts Effigies, 
as above vlefcribed. 

Mr. Ludiow, whcXe Refentmeat againft Croxnuttt, after Jiis be. 
Hg nude Protedw, was equal to that of tke oft injured Cavalier, 


2 " 2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-remum. The 2^d of November^ being the Day ap- 
poinr- ' for rhe \\,}> nn Funeral of the moft ferene 
November and ren < owned Oliver Lord Protector, and all Things 
being ready prepared, the Effigies of his Hi. hnefs, 
{landing under ;\ rich Cloth of State, was remov'd, 
and plated on a Heife, richly <idon:ed and fet forth 
with Efcutcheons and other Ornaments, the Effi- 
gies itielf being vefted with Royal Robes, a Scepter 
in one Hand, a Globe in the other, and a Crown 
on the Head. After it had been a while thus 
placed in the Middle of the Room ; when the Time 
came that it was to be removed into the Carriage, 
it was carried on the Herfe by ten of his Highnefs's 
Gentlemen into the Court, where a Canopy of 
State, very rich, was borne nver it, by fix other of 
his Highnefs's Gentlemen, till it was brought and 
placed in an open Chariot ; at evich End whereof 
was a Seat, wherein fat two of the Gentlemen of his 
Highnefs's Bed-Chamber, the one at the Head, the 
other at the Feet of the Effigies. The Pall, being 
rhade of Velvet and fine Linen, was very large, ex- 
tending on each Side of the Chariot, to be borne 
by Perfons of Honour, appointed for that Purpofe ; 
the Chariot itielf was adorned with Plumes and 
Efcutcheons, drawn by fix Horfes, covered with 


gives the following farcaitical Account of this Piece of Pageantry : 
' The Council having refolved that the Funeral of the late Ufurper 
Ihould be very magnificent, the Care of it was referred to a Commit- 
tee of them, who fending for Mr. Kir.nerjly, Matter f the Wardrobe, 
defired him to find out fome Precedent by which they might govern 
themfelves in this important Affair. After Examination of his Books 
and Papers, Mr. Kinnerjly, who was fufpefted to be inclined to 
Popery, recommended to them the Solemnities ufed upon the like 
Occafion far Philip the Second, King of Sfnin, who had been iepre 
fented to be in Purgatory for about two Months. In the like Man- 
jier was the Body of this Great Reformer laid in Sowerfet-Houfe. 
The Apartment was hung with Black, the Day-light was excluded, 
and no other but that of Wax Tapers to be feen. This Scene of Pur- 
gatory continued till the ifi of Ne-vemter, which being the Day pre- 
ceding that commonly called All Souls, he was removed into the 
great Hall of the .fad Houfe, and reprefented in Effigy. 

' Four or five hundred Candles fet in flat fhining Candlefticks wer 
fo placed round, near the Roof of the Hall, that the Light they gave 
feemed like the Rays ot the Sun : By all which he was reprefented 
be now in a State ot Glory. This Folly and Profufion, fays our 
Aftmcriati/}, fo far provoked the People, that they threw Diit in the 
Night on his Efcutcibeen that ws placed over the great Gate of S.t- 
*!r* f -amt[eS Minv'rs, Vol. li. p. 615, 

Of E N G L A N D. 243 

black Velvet, each of them like wife adorned with inter- regnum. 
Plumes of Feathers. sjS^J 

' The Manner of the Proceffion to the Interment 
was briefly thus : 

' From Somerfet-Houff to Weftminfter^ the Streets And the Solemn 
were railed in, and ftrawed with Sand; the So^' 6 
cloathed in new red Coats with black Buttons, be- 
ing placed on each Side of the Streets without the 
Rails, and their Enftgns wrapp'd up in Cyprus 
Mourning Veils. 

Firft went a Knight Marflial on Horfeback, 
with his black Truncheon tipt at both Ends with 
Gold, attended by his Deputy, and thirteen Men 
on Horfeback, to clear the Way. 

' After the Knight Marflial went the poor Men 
of Weftminjler^ two and two, in Mourning Gowns 
and Hoods. 

Then the Servants to Perfons of all Qualities; 
alfo all the Servants of his Highnefs, as well inferior 
as fuperior, as well thofe within his Houfhold as 
without ; likewife all his Highnefs's Bargemen and 
Watermen ; next went the Servants and Officers of 
the Lord Mayor of London ; Gentlemen Attend- 
ants on public Minifters and Ambafladors ; poor 
Knights of Wmdfor'i Secretaries, Clerks, and other 
Officers belonging to the Army, the Admiralty, the 
Treafury, the Navy, and the Exchequer ; Officers 
of the Fleet and Army; Commiffioners of the Ex- 
cife, and of the Army ; Committee of the Navy ; 
Commiffioners for Approbation of Preachers ; Of- 
ficers and Clerks belonging to the Privy-Council ; 
Clerks of both Houfes of Parliament; his High- 
nefs's Phyficians ; Head Officers of the Army ; 
the Aldermen and Chief Officers of London ; Ma- 
flers in Chancery ; his Highnefs's learned Council 
at Law ; Judges of the Admiralty ; Mailers of Re- 
quefts; Judges \K Wales \ Barons of the Exchequer ; 
Judges of both Benches ; Lord Mayor of London ; 
Perfons allied in Blood to his late Highnefs; the 
Members of the Lords Houfe ; Public Minifters 
and Ambafladors of foreign States and Princes j the 

244 yh* Parliamentary HISTORY 

Holland AmbaiTador alone, whofe Train was borne 
j6 S 8 - up by four Gentlemen; next to him the Portugal 
~ x 'T""*' Ambaflador alone, whofe Train was held up by four 
' Knights of the Order of Ckrtf ; and then the French 
Ambafiador alone, whofe Train was held up by four 
Perfons of Quality ; the Lords Commiiiioners of the 
Great Seal; the Lords Commi.Tioners of the Trea- 
fury; and the Lords of his Highnefs's Privy-Council. 
' A great Part of the nobler Sort were in clofe 
Mourning, the reft in ordinary. They were divers 
Hours in pafling ; and, in their railage, difpofed in- 
to Divifions, each Dividon being diftiiigu idl- 
ed by Drums and Trumpets, a Standard or Banner* 
borne by a Perfon of Honour and his Ailii'tant, 
and eleven Led-Horfes, four of which were co- 
vered with black Cloth, and feven with Velvet ; 
thefe, being pafled in their Order, were followed by 
the Chariot with the Effigies ; on each Side of 
which were borne the Banner- Rolls, being twelve 
in Number, by twelve Perfons of Honour; and 
feveral Pieces of his Highnefs's Armour were borne 
by Honourable Perfons, Officers of the Army, eight 
in Number. After thofe Noble Perfons that fup- 
ported the Pall, followed Garter Principal King at 
Arms, attended by a Gentleman on each Side bare- 
headed ; next him the Chief Mourner, and thofe 
Lords and Noble Perfons that were Supporters and 
Afiiilunts to him, and bore up his Train ; next fol- 
lowed the Horfe of Honour in very rich Trappings, 
embroidered upon Crimfon Velvet, and adorned 
with white, red, and yellow Plumes, led in a long 
Rein by the Lord Cleypole, Mafter of tbe Horfe ; in 
the Clofe followed his Highnefs's Guard of Hal- 
bardiers, the Warders of the Tower, and a Troop of 

* The whole Ceremony was managed, with very 
great State, \.QWejiminJhr, many thousands of People 
being Spectators. At the Weft-Gate of the Abbey 
Church, the Herfe, with the Effigies thereon, was 
taken off the Chariot by thofe ten Gentlemen 
who removed it before ; who paffing on to enter 
the Church, the Canopy of State was by the fame 

Of ENGLAND. 245 

Perfons borne over it again ; and, in this magnificent inter-regnum. 
Manner, they carried it into King Henry the Se- lf "> & - 
venth's Chapel, at the Eaft-End of the Abbey, and " 
placed it in a ftiperb Structure, raifed there on pur- 
pofe to receive it, buili. in the fame Form as one be- 
fore had been, on the like Occafion, for King Jawes, 
but much more (lately, wh?re it remained, for fome 
Time, expofed to public View. b 

The Narrative concludes with thefollowingCom- 
pliment to Oliver Cromwell : 'This was the lafl 
Ceremony of Honour, ar.d lefs could not be per- 
formed to the Memrry of him, to whom Pofterity 
will pay (when Envy is laid afleep by Time) more 
Honour than we are able to exprefs.' 

Having thus conducted Oliver Crdmwell to his 
Grave, return we now to Richard his Succeflor. 

Hitherto was nothing heard of in England, but thcfl/VW Cre 

Voice of Jov and larze Encomiums on their New So- u calls a Par - 

11 - J i j j i r i> r o -i liament. 

veicign, Ritoara; and this promifmg rrofpecl might 

probably have continued much longer than it did, had 
not the Neceflities of the State required the Calling 
of a Parliament : For it is to be remembred. That 
the late Alliance made by Oliver with the Crown 
of Sweden, and of which he was fonder than of all 
the reft of his Engagements, obliged him, in the 
Spring, to ferrd a ftrong Fleet into the Sound, to 
nflift that King againft Denmark ; or at leaft, by 
way of Mediator, to induce the latter to accept of 
fuch Conditions as the other fhould be willingr to 
propofe. And this could hardly be done without 
the Afliftance of Parliament ; the New Protedtor, 
therefore, by the Advice of his Council, iflued out 
Writs, about the Middle of December, to call a Par- 
liament to meet on the twenty- feventh of January ; 
till which Day, for near five Months, Richard re- 
mained as great a Prince as ever his Father had 
been before him. 

We have already obferv'd, to the Honour of O//- 

<uer Cromwell, that, in his two lail Parliaments, no 

Q.3 Writs 

b TheExpence ofCrom-wtirt Funeral is fid to have been not Icfg 
than 60,000 /. King Jama the Firft's coft only about 30,000 /. ' 

246 %e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-reenum, Writs for Elections were iflued out to the meaner 
l_ ^f t Boroughs, but only to Capital Towns ; and that, 
January. ' n ^' cu thereof, he had increafed the Number of 
Knights of Shires, in Proportion to the Afleflrnents 
paid by each County to the public Service. This 
popular and equitable Scheme had filled the Houfe 
of Commons with fo great a Number of indepen- 
dent Gentlemen of the beflr Families and Eftates in 
the Kingdom., that he had no way to manage 
them but by excluding, either by Fraud or Force, 
thofe who were the true Friends of the Conftitution. 
His Son, Richard, therefore, to avoid fplitting upon 
the fame Rock, and not having Courage or Capa- 
city fufficient to rule without a Parliament, deter- 
mined to call his upon the Old Model. Accord- 
ingly, only two Knights of Shires were elected for 
each County, and all the petty Boroughs were re- 
ftored to their antient Ufages and Returns, under 
Pretence of ingratiating himfelf wkh the People ; 
but really to make Way for his own Creatures and 
Dependents. This will appear by the following 
Catalogue of the Members which compofed the 
Lower Houfe, the Upper beinsi; all fufficiently at- 
tached to the Protector's fntereft by his Father's or 
or his own Choice and Election. 

returned to ferve in the Parliament of the Com- 
monwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
bolden at Weftminfler, January 27, 1658. c 

The Nanws of BEDFORDSHIRE. Col. John Okey. 

theSe^ Ma J r Richard Wagftaffe. 

Commons, cleft- Bedford T. Samuel Brown, Serjeant at Law. 

ed to ferve there- Thomas Margets, Efq; Judge - 

Advocate of the Army. 
BERKSHIRE. Capt. John Dunch, of Eaft Wit- 

Sir Robert Pye, Knt. 


c This Lift is taken from the Diaries of the Times, compared 
with Dr. Willis's Nttitia Parliamentaria, and correfted by t>c 
Journals of the Houfe of Commons. 

Of ENGLAND. 247 

New-Windfor B. George Starkey, Efq; 

Chiiitopher Whichcote, Efq; 
Reading B. Henry Nevile, Efq; 

Daniel Blagrave, Efq; 
jyllingfwd B. William Cook, Efq; 

Walter Bigg, Efq; 

Abingdon B. Sir John Lenthall, Knt. and Bart. 

BUCKINGHAM- Francis Drake, of Amerfham, Efq; 

SHIRE. Richard Grenville, Efq; 

Buckingham T. Col. Francis Ingoldfby. 

Sir Richard Temple, Bart. 
IPicombe B. Thomas Scot, of Lambeth-Houfe, Efq; 

Major-General Tobias Bridge, made his 

Eledtion for Newcaftle under Line. 
Aylejbury B. Sir James Whitelocke, Knt. 

Thomas Terrill, Efq; 

Amerjham B. Francis Drake, Efq-, made his Election for 
the County of Buckingham. In his Place, 
William Bowyer, Efq; 
Col. John Bifcoe. 
JVtndwer B. William Hampden, Efq; 

John Baldwin, Efq; 

Mar low B. Peregrine Hobby, Efq; 

William Borlace, Efq; 
CAMBRIDGE- Sir Thomas Willis, Bart. 
.SHIRE. Sir Henry Pickering, Knt. 

Cambridge Univ. Rt. Hon. John Thurloe, Principal Secretary 

of State, and Poft-Maftcr of England. 
Thomas Slater, M. D. 
Cambridge T. John Lowrye Efq; 

Richard Timbs, Efq; Alderman. 

JPiJbecb. Rt. Hon. John Thurloe, Efq; made his 

Election for the Univerfity of Cambridge. 
CHESHIRE. John Bradfhaw, Serjeant at Law, Chief Ju< 

ftice of Chefter, and Chancellor of the. 
Duchy of Lancafter. 
Richard Legh, of Lyme, Efq; 
Chffter C, Jonathan Ridge, Efq; Alderman. 

John Griffith, Efq; Alderman. 

CORNWALL. Hugh Bofcawen, of Tregothan, Efq; 

Francis Buller, jun. Efqj 


248 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Dunchevit, alias Thomas Gewen, of Bradridge, 

Launcejlon B. Robert Bennet, Efq; 
Lejkard B. Thomas Noell, Efq; 

Hunt Greenwood, Efq; 
Lcftvritbiel'B. Walter Moyle, of St. Germains, Efq; 

John Clayton, of the Jnner Temple, Efq; 
ruro B. Charles Bofcawen, Efq; 

Walter Vincent, Efq; 
Bodmyn B. John Ceely, of St. Wen, Efq; 

William Turner, LL. D. 
Helfton B. Robert Roufe, of Wooton, Efq; 

Thomas Juxon, Efq; 
Saltajb B. John Buller, of the Middle Temple, Efq; 

made his Election for Ea/lhw. 
Edmund Prideaux, of Padftow, Efq;. 

Camelfordl&, John Maynard, Serjeant at Law, made his 

Election for Newton, in the Ifle of Wight* 
Capt. William Bradden. 

Portplgbam^ alias William Whitelocke, of the Middle Tem- 
Wejllow B. pie, Efq; 

William Petty, of London, M. D. 
Grampound B. Thomas Herle, Efq; 
Robert Scawen, Efq; 
EaftLow B. John Buller, of the Middle Temple, Efq; 

John Kendall, Efq; 
Penryn B. John Fox, Efq; Recorder of this Borough. 

Thomas Ceeley, of Trevimam, Efq; 
Tregony B. John Thomas, Efq; 

Edward Bofcawen, Merchant. 
J&JJiney B. Anthony Nicholl, of Penrofe, Efq; deceafed. 

In his Place, 
Thomas Povey, Efq; 
Samuel Trelawney, of Ham, in Devonfhire, 

St. Ives B. John St. Awbyne, of Clowance, Efq; 

Peter Ceeley, Efq; 
Fowey B. Edward Herle, of Prideaux, Efq; 

John Barton, of the Middle Temple, Efq; 
St. Germains B. John Glanville, Serjeant at Law. 

John St. Awbyne, of Clowance, Efq; made 
his Election for St, Ives, 


Of E N G L A N D. . 249 

Miclcl B. James Launce, of Pennare, Efq~, 

Richard Lobb, Efq; 

Newport B. William Morrice, of Werrington, in Devon- 

(hire, Efq; 

Sir John Glanville, Knt. 
St. Afaiues B. John Lampen, jun. Efq; 

William Tredenham, Efq; 
Kcllington B. James Carew, of the Inner Temple, Efq; 

Anthony Duller, of Shillingham, Eftjj 
CUMBERLAND. Sir Wilfrid Lawfon, Knt. 

Col. William Brifcoe. 
Carlijle C. Col. George Downing. 

Thomas Craifter, Efq; 
Cockermoutb B. John Stapleton, Efq; 

Wilfrid Lawfon, Efq; 
DERBYSHIRE. John Cell, Efq; 

Thomas Sanders, Efq; 
Derby T. Gervafe Bcnnet, Efq; Alderman. 

John Dalton, Efq; Alderman. 
DEVONSHIRE- Sir John Northcote, Bart. 

Robert Rolle, of Heanton, Efq; 

Exeter C. Thomas Bampfield, Recorder of this City 5 

the Third SPEAKER of this Parliament. 

Major Thomas Gibbon. 
Honyton B. Walter Young, of Eitcot, Efq; 

Samuel Searle, Efq; 
Totnefs B. Capt. John Pleydell. 

Gilbert Evelyn, Efq; 
jijhburton B. Thomas Rcynell, Efq; 

John Fowell, Efq; 
Plymouth B. Chrtftopher Ceely, Merchant. 

Timothy Alfop, Merchant. 
Okekampton B. Robert Everland, Efq; 

Edward Wife, Efq; 
Earnftaple B. Sir John Copleftone, Knt. 

George Walters, Efq; 
Plympton B. Capt."Henry Hatfell. 

Chriftopher Martin, Efq; 
Taviftokt B. Edmund Fowell, Efq; 

Capt. Henry Hatfell, made his Efe&ion for 



Clifton, Dart- 
mouth^ Hard- 
ntfs B. 

Beralftoni B. 

The Parliamentary HISTORY 


Thomas Boon, of Mount Boon, Efq; 
Col. John Clark, of Weftminfter. 

John Maynard, Serjeant at Law, made his 
Election for Newton in the Ifle of Wight. 

Elizeus Crynes, Eiq; 
Tiverton B. Sir Copleftone Bampfield, of Poltemore, Bart. 

Francis Warner, Alderman of London* 
DORSETSHIRE. Sir Walter Erie, Knt. 

Col. John Bingham, Governor of Guernfey. 
Poqle T. Sir Anthony Afhley Cooper, Bart, made his 

Election for the County of Wilts. 

Samuel Bond, Efq; 
Dorcbefter B. James Gould, Efq; / 

John Bulftrode, Alderman. 

Lyme-Regis B. Sir Edmund Prideaux, Bart. Attorney- Gene- 
ral to his Highnefs. 

Henry Henley, Efq; 
Weymoutb B. John Trenchard, Efq; 

Col. Walden Lagoe. 
Melcomb-Regis B. Col. John Clark. 

Peter Middleton, Merchant. 
jBridport B. Edward Cheek, of Gabriels, Efq; 

John Lee, Efq; 
Sbaftflury B, Henry Whitaker, Efqj 

James Baker, Efq; 
Wareham B. Elias Bond, LL. D. 

James Dewey, Efq; 
Cerfe-Caflle B. Ralph Banks, Efq; 

John Tregojiwell, Efq; 

ESSEX. Hon. Charles Rich, Brother to the Earl of 


Edward Turner, of Gray's Inn, Efq; 
Colchejler B. John Shaw, of this Borough, Efq 

Abraham Johnfon, of London, Merchant. 
Maiden B. Col. Henry Mildmay, of Grays. 

Joachim Matthews, Recorder. 
Harwich B. John Sicklemore, Efq; 

Thomas Kiog, Efq; 

GLOUCESTER- John Grubham Howe, Efqj 
SHIRE. John Stephens, JLfqj 




Glcucefter C. James Stephens, Efq; Alderman. 

Laurence Singleton, Efq; Alderman. 
Cirencefter B. John Stone, of Weftminfter, Efq; 

Richard Southby, Efq; 
Teivkefiury B. Edward Cook, Efq; 

Robert Long, of Draycot, Efq; 
HEREFORDSHIRE. Col. Wroth Rogers. 

Bonnet Hofkins, Efq; 
HtrefordC. Nathan Rogers, Efqj 

Roger Bofworth, M. D. 
Leominjltr. Col. John Birch. 

Edward Freeman, Efq; 
Weolly B. Herbert Perrot, Efq; 

Robert Andrews, Efq; 
HERTFORD- Rowland Litton, of Knebworth, Efq; 

SHIRE. Richard Gulfton, of Widdiall, Efq; 

S/. Allans B. Richard Jenyns, Efq; 

Col. Alban Cox, 
Hertford T. Ifaac Puller, Efq; 

Major-General William Packer, not duly 
elected. In his Place, 

James Cooper, Efq; 
HUNTINGDON- Col. Henry Cromwell, of Ramfey. 

SHIRE. Nicholas Peclley, Efq; 

Huntingdon T. Rt. Hon. John Thurloe, Efq; Principal Secre- 
tary of State, made his Election for the 
Univerfity of Cambridge. 

John Barnard, of Brampton, Efq; 
KENT. William James, Efq; 

Sir Thomas Style, Bart. 
Canterbury C. Thomas St. Nicholas, Efq; 

Col. Robert Gibbon. 

Rocht/ter C. Richard Hutchinfon, Efq; Treafurer of the 


Peter Pett, Efq; Commiflioncr of the Navy. 
Maidflone B. Andrew Broughton, Efq; 

John Banks, Efq; 

>uecnborougk B. Hon. James Herbert, Brother to the Earl of 

Thomas Baylcs, Efq; 
LANCASHIRE. Sir George Booth, Bart. 

Alexander Rigby, Efqj 


252 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Lancajler T, Col. William Weft. 

Henry Porter, jun. Efq; 
Prefton B. Col. Richard Shut tie worth. 

Col. Richard Standifh, of J3uckfbury, 
Wigan B. Hugh Forth, of' London, Merchant. 

Robert Markland, Efq; 
Col. Gilbert Ireland. 
Alderman Blackmore. 
Newton B. William Brereton, Efq; 

Peter Legh, of Lyme, Efq; 

LEICESTER- Sir Thomas Beaumont, of Stoughtpn- 
SHIRE. Grainge, Bart. 

Col. Francis Hacker, ofQakham. 
Leicefter T. Sir Arthur Hafilrigge, of Nofeley, Bart. 

William Stanley, Efq; Alderman. 
LINCOLNSHIRE. Edward Rcffiter, of Somerby, Efq; 

Thomas Hatcher, of Carleton, Efq; 
JLincoln C. Robert Marfiial, Alderman. 

Thomas Meres, Efq; 
J&ofton T. Sir Anthony Irby, Knt. 

Francis Muflenden, Efq; 
Great Grlmjby B. William Wray, Efq; 

Edward Afcough, Efq; 
Stamford B. Chriftopher Clapham, Efqj 

John Weaver, Efq; 

Grantham B. Sir William Ellis, Bart, his Highnefs's Soli- 


Thomas Skipwith, of this Borough, Efq; 
MIDDLESEX. Chaloner Chute, Efq; the Firft SPEAKER, of 

this Parliament. 
Francis Gerrard, Efq; 
Weftmin/ler C. Richard Sherwyn, Efq; 

Edward Grofvenor, Efq; 

London C. William Thompfon, Efq; Alderman. 

Theophilus Biddulph, Efq; 
Capt. John Jones. 

Major-General. Richard Browne, Alderman* 
MOJCMOUTIJ- William Morgan, of Mahurne, Efq; 

SHIRE. Col. John Nicholas, of Llanmellan, Efqj 

Monmwth T. Nath. Waterhoufe, Efq; 
NORFOLK. Sir Horatio Townfhend, Bart-, 

Sir Wiiliam D'Oyly, Km. 



Norwich C. William Barnham, Efq; 

John Hobart, Efq; 
Lynn-Regis T. Thomas Toll, Alderman. 

Capt. Griffith Lloyd. 
Yarmouth T. Charles George Cook, Efqs 

William Burton, Efq; 
ThttfordB. William Stene, M. D. 

Robert Steward, Efq; 
GflJik-Rifmg B. John Fielder, Efq; 

Guybon Goddard, of King's- Lynn, Efq; Re- 
corder of this Borough. 
NORTHAMPTON- Richard Knightley, of Fawefley, Efq; 

SHIRE. Philip Holman, Efq; 

Peterborough C. Francis St. John, Efq; 
Col. Alexander Beake. 

Northampton T. Francis Hervey, of Wefton-Favel, Elq; 
James Langham, of Cottefbrook, Efq; 
Brackley B. Thomas Crew, of Stene, Efq; 

William Lifle, of the Middle-Temple, Efq; 
JHigham-FfrrersB.Jzmts Nutley, Efq; 
NORTHUMBER- William Fenwick, of Wellington, Efq; 

LAND. Ralph Delavall, Efq; 

Newcaftle upon Mark Shaftoe, of this Town, Efq; 

Tyne T. Thomas Lilburn, Efq; 

Morpeth B. Robert Delavall, Efq; 

Robert Mitford, Efq; 

Berwick upon John Rufti worth, of Lincoln's-Inn, Efq; 
Tweed T. George Payler, Efq; one of the Commiffion- 

ers of the Navy. 
NOTTINGHAM- Edward Nevil, Efq; 

SHIRE. Thomas Briftow, 

Nottingham T. John Whaley, Efq; 

John Parker, Efq; Alderman. 
Eaft Retford B. Clifford Clifton, Efq; 

William Cartwight, Efq; 

OXFORDSHIRE. Henry Carey, Vifcount Fauikiand, in Scot- 

Robert Jenkinfon, Efq; 
Oxford Univerfoy. Matthew Hale, Serjeant at Lavr. 

John Mills, LL.D. 

Oxford C. Richard Croke, Efq; Recorder. 

Major Unton Croke. 

254 *&& Parliamentary HISTORY 

WGodftoc'k B. Sir Jerome Sankey, Knt. 

Miles Fleetwood, Efq; 
'Banlury B. Nathaniel Fiennes, jun. Efq; Son of the Lord 

Comtniifioner Fiennes. 
RUTLANDSHIRE. William Shield, Efq; 

Edward Horfeman, Efq; 
SHROPSHIRE. Thomas Mackworth, of Betton, Efq; 

Philip Young, of Keintcn, Efq; 
Shrew/bury T. Wiiliam Jones, Efq; Recorder. 

Humphrey Mackworth, Efq; Town-Clerk. 
Bridgenortb B. Edmund Warynge, Efq; 

John Humphrys, Efq; 
Ludlow B. Job Charlton, of Lincolns Inn, Efq; 

Samuel Baldwin, of the Inner Temple, Efqj 
Great Wenlock B. Thomas Whitmore, of Luditon, Efq; 

Sir Francis Lawley, Knt. 
BlJbops-Caftle T. Samuel More, Efq; 

Will:: -.-: Oakeley, Efq; 
SOMERSETSHIRE. John Buckland, Efq; 

Robert Hunt, of Compton Paunce/oot, Efqj 
friflol C. Robert Aldvvorth, Efq; 

Jofeph Jackfon, Efq; 
fatly C. James A(h, Efq; Recorder of the City. 

John Harrington, Efq; 

Welh C. Sir Lifkbone Long, K : . Recorder of London ; 

the Second SPEAKER of this Parliament. 

Thomas White, Efq; 
^aunton B. Sir William Wyndham, Bart. 

Col. Thomas Gorges. 
Bridgeruater B. Sir Thomas Wroth, Knt, 

John Wroth, Efq; 
Mynnead B. C.;l. Alexander Popham, of Honiflreet. 

Richard Hutchinfon, Eiq; made his Elec- 
tion for Rocbe/ier. 
Hche/ter B. Richard Jones, Efq; 

John Barker, Efq> 
Milborn^Port B. William Carent, Efq; 

R.obert Hmt, of Compton -Pauncefoot, Efq; 
made his Election for the County of So- 

SouTHAMPTONr Richard Norton, of Southwick, Efq; 
SHIRE. Robert Wallop, of Fair- Wallop, Jfq; 


Of E N G L A N D. 

Winchefler C. John Hilddly, of Hinton, Efq; 

Nicholas Love, ot Wolvefey in the Soake, Efq; 
Southampton T. Thomas Knollys, Efq; 

Roger Gallop, Efq; 
Portfmoutb T. Francis Willoughby, Efq; 

John Child, Efq; 
Yarmouth B. John Sadler, Efq; 

Richard Lucy, Efq; made his Election for 

the County of Warwick. 
Petcnfifld B. Sir Henry Norton, Bart. 

Jofiah Child, Efq; 
Newport B. Thomas Boreman, of Broke, Efq; 

Robert Dillington, of Motesfont, Efq; 
Stockbridgc B. Francis Rivet, of King's Somborne, Efq; 

Richard Whitehead, jun. Efq; 
Newton B. William Laurence, Efq; 

John Maynard, Serjeant at Law. 
Chrifl-Churcb B. John Bulkeley, of Over-Burgate, Efq; 

Henry Tulfe, of Hinton, Efq; 
Wbitchurcb B. Sir Henry Vane, Knt. 

Robert Reynolds, Efq; 
Lymington B. John Button, jun. Efq; 

Richard Whitehead, jun. Efq; 
Andover B. Col. Gabriel Beck. 

Robert Gough, of Dean, Efq; 
STAFFORDSHIRE. Sir Thomas Whitgrave, Knt. 

Col. Thomas Crompton. 
Litchfald C. Capt. Daniel Watfon. 

Thomas Mynors, Efq; 
Stafford T. Martin Noell, of London, Scrivener. 

William Jeflbp, Efq; Clerk of the Council. 
Newcajlle under Major General Tobias Bridge 

Line. Edward Keeling, Efqj 

Tarn-worth. John Swinfen, Efq; , 

Capt. Thomas Fox. 
SUFFOLK. Sir Henry Felton, of Playford, Bart. 

Sir Thomas Barnardifton, of Keddington, 

.Ipfwicb T. Nath. Bacon, Efq; 1 Matters of the Re- 

Francis Bacon, Efq; } quefts to his Highnefs. 
f)unwich B. Robert Brewfter, of Wrentham, Efq; 

John Barrington, of Weftrainitcr, Kfq; 


256 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Qrford B. Thomas Edgar, Efq; 

Jeremy Copping, Efq; 
Aldborough B. Laurence Oxburgh, Efq; 

John Bence, Merchant. 
Sudbury B. Samuel Haflel, Efq; 

Col. John Fothergiil. 
St.Edmond/bury'B.Col. John Clarke. 


South-work B. 
Bhchingley B. 

Guildford B. 
Gattsn B. 
Hafelmere B. 

Chicbejier C. 
Horjham B. 
Midhurft B. 
Lewes B. 

Sborebam B. 

Bramber B. 

Thomas Chaplin, Efq; 

Edward Dendy, Efq; 

Jofeph Blifiet, Efq; 

Arthur Onflow, Efq; 

Francis Drake, Efq; 

George Thompfon, Efq; 

Andrew Brewer, Efq; 

John Goodwin, Efq; 

Edmund Hofkins, Efq; 

John Hek Efq; 7 f fe ^ h 

Edward Thurland; Efq; } 

Carew Raleigh, Efq; 

Robert Parkhurft, Efq; 

Thomas Sturges, Efq; 

Edward Biihe, Efq; 

John Hooke, of Bramfhot, Southampton- 

fliire, Efq; not duly elected. In his Place, 
John Weftbrook, Efq; 
Henry Fitz- James, of Weftminfter, Efq; 
Col. Herbert Morley, of Glyne. 
John Fagge, of Wifton, Efq; 
Henry Pelham, Efq; Recorder. 
William Cawley, jun. Efq; 
\Villiam Freeman, Efq; 
Henry Chowne, Efq; 
William Yalden, jun. Efq; 
Benjamin Wefton, Efq; 
Col. Herbert Morley, made his Election for 

the County of Suffix. 
Richard Boughton, Efq; 
Edward Blake, Efq; 
John Whaley, Efq; made his Election for 

John Fagge. of Wifton, Efq; made his Elec- 

tion for the County of Suffex. 
Jokn Byne, of Washington, fq; 



Sleynlng B. Sir John Trevor, Knt. 

Anthony Shirley, of Prcfton, Efqj 
Ea/l-GrinJIead B. Sir Robert Goodwin, Knt. 

George Courthorpe, of Tyfehurft, Ef(j; 
Arundel B. Henry Onflow, of Slinfojd, f<ij 

Richard Marriot, Efq; 
WARWICK- Richard Lucy, Efq; 

SHIRE. Col Jof. Hawkefworth. 

Coventry C. Major Robert Beakc. 

Col. William Purefoy. 
Warwick B. Foulk Lucy, Efq; 

Thomas Archer, Efq; 
WESTMORE- Thomas Burton, Efq; 

LAND. Thomas Wharton, Efq; 

Jppleby T. Adam Baines, Efq; 

Nathaniel Redding, Efq; 
WILTSHIRE. Sir Walter St. John, Bart. 

Sir Anthony Afliley Cooper, of Wimborne 

St. Giles, Bart. 
New SarumC. Henry Eyre, Efq; Recarder. 

Humphrey Ditton, Efq; Alderman. 
Wilton B. Hon. John Herbert, Brother to the Earl of 


Richard Grubham Howe, Efq; 
Dounton B. Thomas Fitz-James, of Hurflcy, Southamp- 

tonfhire, Efq; 

William Coles, of Woodfalls, Efq; 
Hindon B. Major General Edmund Ludlow. 

Edward Tooker, of New Sarum, Efq; 
Heijlbury B. John Afhe, Efq; 

Samuel Afhe, Efq; 
Wejlbury B. Robert Villiers, alias Danvers, of Baffetbury, 

Bucks, Efq; 

William Eyre, of Wefton Ef<j; 
Calne B. Edward Baynton, Efq; 

William Ducket, Efq; 
Devizes B. Chaloner Chute, jun. Efq; 

Capt- Edward Scotton. 
Chippeaham B. Sir Edward Hungerford, of Farleigh-Caftle, 

Somerretmire, Knight of the Bath. 
James Stedman, of LincolnVInn, Efq; 
VOL. XXI. R Malmf- 

Malmfbury B. 

Cricklade B. 
Bedivin B. 
Wwton-BaJJet B. 

Marlborougb B, 


Worcejler C. 
Droitwicb B. 

Evejbam B. 

Eewdley B. 

York C. 

King/Ion upon 

Hull T. 

S(arbrougb B. 
Richmond B. 

The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Sir Henry Lee s of Ditchley, in Oxfordfhire, 

Thomas Eliggons, of Grewel, Southamptori"- 

fhire, Efq; 

Edward Pool, of Kcmbill, Efq; 
John Hawkins, of Afhton-Keynes, Efq; 
Henry Hungerford, Efq; 
Thomas Manley, Efq; 
James Davy, of the Middle-Temple, Efq; 
Richaru Sherwyn, Efq; 
Richard Hill, of Stratford, Efq; 
Major William Ludlow, of Clarendon-Park. 
Hen. St. John, of Lydiard Tregoze, Efq; 
Robert Stevens, of the Middle-Temple, Efq; 

Recorder of this Borough. 
Thomas Grove, of Bury-Court, Efq; 
James Hayes, Efq; Recorder. 
Nicholas Lechmere, Efq; Attorney of the 

Duchy of Lancafter. 
Thomas Foley, Efq; 
William Collins, Efq; 
Thomas Streete, Efq; 
John Wylde, Efq; late Lord Chief Baron of 

the Public Exchequer. 
Edward Salway, of Stanford, Efq; 
Theophilus Andrews, Efq; Alderman. 
Robert Atkins, Efq; Recorder. 
Edward Pytts, of Kier-Park, Efq; 
Thomas Lord Fairfax, Baron of Cameron, 

in Scotland. 

Thomas Harrifon, Efq; 
Sir Thomas Dickenfon, Knt. Alderman. 
Chriftopher Topham, Efq; 
John Ramfden, Efq; 
Andrew Marvel, Efq; 
SHngfby Bethel, Efq; 
Robert Walters, Efq; 
Thomas Chaloner, Efq; 
Edward Salmon, of Havering, in Eflex, Efq; 
Sir Chrifcopher Wyvil, Bart. 
John Bathurft, M. D. 


Of E N G L A N D. 259 

Heydon 6. Thomas Strickland, Efq; made his Eledion 

for B ever ley. 

Matthew Allured, Efq; 
BcrougUridge B. Robert Stapylton, of My ton, Efq; 

Laurence Parfons, Elq; 
MaltonK. Philip Howard, Efq; ' ) 

George Marwood, Efq; ( Double 

Luke Robinfon, of Pickering, Efq; \ Return b 

Major-General Robert Lilburn. J 
Ripon B. Edward Jennings, Efq; 

Jonathan Jennings, Efq; 
Thirjk B. Col. Thomas Talbot. 

Major-General Goodrick, of Ribftan. 

Aldborough B. John Lord Lambert, made his Election for 

Francis Goodrick, Efq; 
Allerton B. Major George Smithfon, of Stanwick. 

James Danby, of Swinton, Efq; 
Severity B. Thomas Strickland, Efq; 

John Anlaby, of Etton, Efq; 
Pontefraft B. John Lord Lambert. 

John Hewley, Efq; 


Ha/lings Samuel Gott, Efq; 

Nicholas Delves, Efq; 
Romney. Sir Robert Honey wood, Knt. 

Lambert Godfrey, Efq; 
Hythe. Sir Robert Hales, Knt. and Bar;. 

William Kenrick, Efq; 
Dover. Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Kelfey. 

John Dixwell, Efq; 
Sandwich. Richard Meredith, Efq; 

James Thurbarnc, Efq; 
R 2 


b The Queftion before the Hotifc was this : Wher.'icr Ken Ma'.ten alone, or Old 
Malton and New Malton together, ought to eleft Burgefles. When a Record of 
26 Edward I, and an Order of the Houle of D'-cnnber n, 1640, and divers other 
Records and Evidences being examined, it was refolved that Old Malton had a joint 
Right with Ntto Malton to eledt and fend Members to Parliamcat for Jdahon ; and 
confequcntly Mr. Howard and Mr. Marivwd were duly eledlti), Col. Lilburn and 
Mr. Rsbinfon being chofen by New Malttn only. 

Commim Journalt, Mta^cbj, 1658. 

260 TT^e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Winchelfea. John Bufbridge, Efq; 

Robert Fowle, Efq; 
Rye. William Hay, of Glynbourn, Efq; 

Mark Thomas, Efq; 
Seaford* Nicholas Meredith, Efq; 

James Thurbarne, Efq; 


ANGLESEY. Col. George Twifleton. 

Beaumauris B. Griffith Bodville, Efq; 

BRECON. Edmund Jones, Efq; his Highnefs's Attorney- 
General for South-Wales. 

JBrecon T. Samuel WJghtwick, Efq; 

CARDIGAN. Col. James Philips. 

Cardigan T. Col. Roland Dawkin?. 

CARMARTHEN. Thomas Hughes, Efq; 

Carmarthen T. David Morgan, Efq; 

CARNARVON. William Glynn, Efq; 

Carnarvon T. Robert Williams, of Conway, Efq; 

DENBIGH. Sir John Carter, of Kinmell. 

Denbigh T. John Manley, of Brynchurne, Efq; 

FLINT. John Trevor, Efq; 

GLAMORGAN. Evan Seys, of Boverton, Serjeant at Law. 

Cardiff" T. John Price, of Newtown, Efq; 

Swanzey. William Foxwift, Efq; 

MERIONETH. Lewis Owen, Efq; 

MONTGOMERY. Edward Vaughan, of Lloydiarth, Efq; 

Montgomery T. Charles Lloyd, of Garth, Efq; 

PEMBROKE. Sir E.rafmus Philips, of Pi&on-Caftle, Bart. 

Pembroke T. Sampfon Lort, Efq; 

Arthur Owen, of Newmoate, Efq; 

Haverford-WeJl. John Upton, Efq; 

RADNOR. Henry Williams, Efq; 

Radnor T. Robert Weaver, Efq; 



Aberdeen^ Archibald Marquis of Argyle. 
Fife and Kinrofe, Sir Alexander Gibfon, Knt. 
Perth, Sir Edward Rhodes, one of his Highnefs's Council in 


Of E N G L A N D. 261 

Inverness, Col. Thomas Fitch. 

Linlithgaw, SLirliug^ ami Clackmannan , Col. Adrian Scropc, one 

of his Highnefs's Council. 
Dumbarton, Argyle, and Bute, William Stene, M. D. made 

his Election for Thetford, in Norfolk. 
Lanerk, Col. George Lockhart, his Highnefs's Advocate. 
Mid-Lothian, Samuel Difbrowe, Efq; Chancellor and Keeper 

of the Great Seal of Scotland. 
Selkirk and Peebles, Archibald Murray, Efq; 
Merce, John Swinton, of Swinton, Eiq; one of his Highnefs's 


Roxborougb, Sir Andrew Ker, Knt. 
Wigton, Sir James MacDowel, of Garthland, Knt. 
Ea/l-Lothian, John Earl of Tweedale. 


Edinburgh, John Thompfon, Efq; Auditor-General of the Re- 
venues of Scotland. 

Bamjf, Cullen, and Aberdeen, Dr. Thomas Clarges, of Weft- 

Linlitbgow, >iieen > s Ferry, Perth, Culrofs, and Stirling, Tho- 
mas Waller, of Grey's -Inn, Efq; 

St. dndrews, Dyfart, Kirkaldy, Coupar, Anftrutker-EaJler, &c. 
Col. Nathaniel Whetham, one of his Highnefs's 

Laneri, Glafgow, Rutberglen, Rotbfay, Renfrew, Aire, Irvin, 
and Dumbarton, Capt. John Lockhart. 

Dumfries, Sanquhar, Lcchmaben, Annan, Wigton, Kirkcudbright, 
Whitehorn, and Galloway, Major Jeremy Tolhurft, 
Burgefs of Dumfries. 

Peebles, Selkirk, "Jedburgh, Louder, North-Berwick, Dunbar, 
and Haddington, Dr. Thomas Clarges, of Wejlminjler* 

Forfar, Dundee, Aberbrothock, Montrefe, and Brechin, Laurence 
Oxburgh, Efq; 



Dublin, Sir Theophilus Jones, Knt. Major of Horfc^ 
Meath and Loiuth, Major Anthony Morgan. 
Major William Afhton, 

R 3 Kit- 

2-62 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Kildair and Wicklow, Dudley Loftus, LL. D. 

Col. Henry Markham. 
Catberlough, Wexford, Kilkenny, and Queen's County, Major 

Daniel Redman. 

Lieutenant- Colonel John Brett. 
WeJl-Meatb, Longford, and King's County, Francis Lord Aungier, 

Sir Henry Peirce. 
Downe, Antrim, and Armagh, Sir John Skeffington. 

Major George Rawden. 
Deny, Donegal, and Tyrone, Col. John Gorges. 

Major Alexander Staples. 

Cavan, Fermannagh, and Monoghan, Col. Thomas Coote. 
Kerry, Limerick, and Clare, Col. Sir Henry Ingoldfby, Bart. 

Sir Hardrefs Waller,. Knt. 
Cork, Sir Maurice Fenton. 

lipperary and IVaterford, Sir Jerome Sankey, Knt. made his 
Election for Woodjhck, Oxfordfmre. 

Thomas Stanley, Efq; 
Sl'igo, Rofcommon, and Letrim, Robert Parke, Efq; 

Thomas Waller, Efq; 

Galway and Mayo, Sir Charles Coote, Bart. Lord Prefident of 

Col Thomas Sadler, Governor of Galway. 


Dublin, Arthur Annefley Efq; 

Carickfergus and Belfaft, Lieutenant -Colonel John Duckenfield, 

Derry and Colerane, Ralph King, of Londonderry, Efq; 

Limerick and Kilmallock, Capt. George Ingoldfby. 

Cork and Yougbal, Col. Francis Fowke, Governor of Drogheda. 

Randon and Kingfale, Vincent Gookyn, Efq; Surveyor-General.. 

Waterford and Clonmell, Capt. William Halfey. 

But, before the Parliament met, a Day of folemn Failing and 
Humiliation was appointed by the Lord Protector, to be obferved 
throughout the Three Nations, to feek the Lord for his Blefling 
upon the Proceedings qf both Houfes, and the other Affairs of 

On the 2yth of January, according to Appointment, the 
Ke\v Lord Prote&or came to Weftminfter with the fame State 


Of E N G L A N D. 263 

and Solemnity that his Father had done. The inter- r 
Commons met in their ufual Place; and the New 1658. 
Lords, who had alfo been fummoned by Writ to V*""V"* 
attend according to the Humble Petition and Ad- J anuar y- 
vice, to.ok their Places in the Houfe of Lords, not- 
withftanding the Commons, in the laft Parliament, The Parliament 
had refufed to acknowledge their Lordfhips' Autho--^ *?l & **' 
rity, which had been one principal Means of their 
own hafty Difiblution. 

During the late Recefs, the Earls of Warwick^ " f e of 
and Mulgrave, who had been fummoned to the laftj *" 

Parliament, died ; the other Peers, who had recei- 
ved Writs of Summons from Oliver, (the Lords 
Eure and Fauconbcrg only -excepted) had paid no 
Regard to his Call, and now treated that of his Son 
v/ith equal Neglect, as did alfo the Lord Chief 
Juitice 6V. John, Sir Gilbert Gerrard, Mr. John 
Crew, Mr. Alexander PQpham, and Mr. William 
Pierepoint, Sir Arthur Hafilrisge, being elected for 
the Town of Leice/ler, continued to fit in the 
Houfe of Commons, as he had done in the laft Par- 
liament. Some of the New Peers were at their re- 
fpeclive Commands at home and abroad, fo that not 
above 44 of the whole Houfe ever made their Ap- 
pearance at all, and moft of thofe that attended 
were either the Protector's near Relations, or his 
immediate Dependents : And there are no Records 
left us of their Proceedings, except what the Jour- 
nals of the Commons fupply. 

The firft Thing we find entered in thofe Autho- 
rities, is a Commiffion from his Highnefs the Lofd 
Protector of the Commonwealth of England^ Scot- 
land, and Ireland, &c. under the Broad Seal, and 
dated at IVejlminfler, January 26, directed to the 
Rt. Hon. John Tburtoe, Efq; Principal Secretary of 
State, and many other Perfons, authorizing them 
to adminifter the Oath appointed by the Humble 
Additional Explanatory Petition and Advice to every 
Member, before they took their Seats. After 
all the Members that appeared were fworn, and 
fcated in the Houfe, Sir Walter Erie rofe up, and 


264 e fbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regmwn. put them in Mind that their firft Work was to chufe 

1658. a Speaker ; and that there was, amongft them, a 

^* *~ - 1 worthy Gentleman of the Long Robe, whom he 

January. con ceived was very fitly qualified for that Service. 

He therefore propofed Chaloner Chute, Efq; who 

was fully approved of by a general Call to the 


The Commons ^ r * C^ute^ flanding up in his Place, excufed 
chufe Chaloner himfelf by reafon of Weaknefs of Body, and great 
Chute, E(q; for Indifpofition of Health, which rendered him unable 
their Speaker. to djfcharge the Duties incumbent upon the Office 
of Speaker ; but efpecially his Inexperience of the 
Orders and Proceedings of the Houfe; and this Par- 
liament being an AfTembly in which, in all Proba- 
bility, fo much would depend, he befought the 
Members to think of fome other Perforj, more wor- 
thy, and of better Health and Ability, to fupply 
that Place : But, being generally called on by the 
Houfe, he was, by SirfFeluf Erie and Mr. Charles. 
Rich, Brother to the Earl of Warwick^ brought 
qnd placed in the Chair ; where being fet, and the 
Mace brought in by the Serjeant and laid on the 
Table, the Speaker again reprefented to the Houfe 
his Inability for that Office ; yet acknowledging, with 
great Thankfulnefs, the Regard {hewn him by the 
Houfe, he prayed, That as it was their Favour which 
call'd him, and their Command only that had brought 
him to that Place, if he (hould err therein, through 
Inadvertency or want of Experience, as he might 
be apt to do, the fame Favour and Affection in 
them would pardon fuch Error. After this a Bill a 
left unfinifhed by the preceding Parliament, was, 
according to Cuftom, read ; the Serjeant at Arms 
and the Clerks appointed; and then the Houfe ad- 

. fourned to the next Day, but the Speaker was not 
Not preiented toJ . r> n r L- A i i 

the Proteftor, as prefented to the Proteaor for his Approbation ; his 
ufual. Father, as before obferved, paving never aflumed 

that Circumftance of Royalty. 

There is no Mention at all in the Journals of any 
Speech made to both Houfes by the Protector at this 

Time 3, 

Of ENGLAND. 265 

*Time ; but we are told, by a Member of this Par- Inter- repmai. 

liament c , that his Highnefs fent the Ufher of the, 

Black Rod to fummon the Commons to attend him V T"" V ~'**^ 

in the Other Houfe, for he had fomewhat to fpeak 

to them there: That, at this Call, not above 12 

or 15 Members went out of the Houfe, though 

there were fome more that joined them on the 

Way, and appeared before him : And that he 

made, beyond Expectation, a very handfome Speech 

to them, exceeding that which followed by his 

Keeper of the Great Seal. Our Colleflions fupply 

us with both thefc, which properly follow 

in this Place. d 

My Lords and Gentlemen^ 
' T Believe there are fcarce any of you here, who-The Protestor** 

|_ expected, fome Months fince, to have feen this Speech at opea- 
gieat Afiembly, at this Time, in this Place, in p 
Peace ; confulering the great and unexpected Change 
which it hath pleafed the All-difpofing Hand of God 
to make iu the midft of us : I can allure you, that 
if Things had been according to our own Fears, and 
the Hopes of our Enemies, it had not been thus with 
us : And therefore it will become both you and me, 
in the firft Place, (as to reverence and adore the 
great God, Poflefibr of Heaven and Earth, in whofe 
Hands our Brqath is, and whofe are all our Ways, 
bccaufe of his Judgments) fo to acknowledge him 
in his Goodnefo to thefeLand?, in that he hath not 
added Sorrow to Sorrow, and made the Period of 
his late HighnetVs Life, and that of the Nation's 
Peace, to have been in one Day, 


c Ii\ a Pamphlet, called A tmt and impartial Narrative of the 
r:iji material Dtbaus andPaffagti in (be late Parliament, together -with 
the Rift and DiJ/olution of it, publifhcd for the SatisfafJion of tbofe 
that dtfire to know toio they ffcat their Time. By a Member of that 
Parh'amtft, wkit't none of the prefent Parliament. London, printtd 
far Thomas Btevvfler, and are to be fold at bit Shop, at the Sign 
of the Three Bibles in Paul'* Cturcb-TarJ, 16150 

When this Piece fii it appeared in public, it had not the Name of tlm 
Author, but Mr. Bitkcll aftcrwauis owned it, and reprinted it at the 
End of a Book, intituled, The Jnterefl of the Prints and States cf 
Europe, ice. By Slingfby Bethel), Efy\ 8vo, Landen, 1694. 

<1 Fiorn the original Edition, printed by Henry Hill\ and John Firil, 
Printers to the Lord Protector. Published by his HighntlVa 

266 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Joter-regtmm. ' Peace was one of the Bleffings of my Father's 

1658. Government j a Mercy after fo long a Civil War, 

v - y~~t and in the midft of fo great Divifion which that 

January. War bred, is not ufually afforded, by God, unto a 

People in fo great a Meafure. 

' The Caufe of God, and thefe Nations, which 
he was engaged in, met in all the Parts of it, as you 
well know, with many Enemies and great Oppofi- 
tion ; the Archers, privily and openly, forely grie- 
ved him, and fhot at him, yet his Bow abode in 
Strength, and the Arms of his Hands were made 
ftrong by the Hands of the mighty God of Jacob. 

' As to himfelf; he died full of Days, fpent in 
great and fore Travail ; yet his Eyes were not wax- 
ed dim, neither was his natural Strength abated ; as 
it was faid of Mofes* He was ferviceable even to ths 

' As to thefe Nations ; he left them in great Ho- 
nour abroad, and in full Peace at home : All Eng- 
land^ Scotland, and Ireland dwelling fafely, every 
Man under his Vine, and under his Fig-Tree, from 
Dan even to Beerjheba. 

' He is gone to Reft, and we are entered into his 
Labours ; and if the Lord hath ftill a Bleffing for 
thefe Lands, (as I truft he hath) as our Peace hath 
been lengthened out to this Day, fo fhall we go on 
to reap the Fruit, and gather the Harveft of what 
his late Highnefs hath fown, and laid the Founda- 
tion of. 

' For my own Part, being, by the Providence of 
God and the Difpofition of the Law, my Father's 
Succefibr, and bearing that Place in the Govern- 
ment that I do, I thought it for the Public Good to 
call a Parliament of the Three Nations, now uni- 
ted, and conjoin'd together into one Commonwealth, 
under one Government. 

* It is agreeable not only to my Truft, but to my 
Principles, to govern thefe Nations by the Advice 
of my two Houfes of Parliament : I find it aflerted 
in the Humble Petition and Advice, (which is the 
Corner-ftone of this Building, and that which I fhall 
adhere to) That Parliaments art the great Council of 


Of E N G L A N D. 267 

tbe Chief Aliigijl rate y in whofe Advice Loth he and Inter-regnuAi. 

theft Nirtions may be mojl faje and happy. I can af- 

Jure you I have that EUeem of them ; and as I 

have made it the firit Ad of my Government to call 

you together, fo I (hall further let you fee the Value 

I have of you, by the Anfwers that I fhall return 

to the Advice that fhall be given me by you, for the 

Good of thefc Nations. 

* You are corne up from your fet f eral Countries, 
as the Heads of your Tribes, and with Hearts (I 
perfuadc mylelf) to confuk together for their Good; 
I can (ay I meet you with the fame Defires, having 
nothing in my Dcfign, but the Maintenance of the 
Peace, Laws, Liberties, both Civil and Chriilian, 
of thefe Nations-; which I fhall always make the 
Meafure and Rule of my Government, and be rea- 
dy to fpcnd my Life for. 

' We have fummoned you up at this Time to let 
you know the State of our Affairs, and to have your 
Advice in them : And I believe a Parliament was 
never fummoned upon a more important Occafion. 

* It is true, as I have told you, we are, thro' the 
Goodnefs of God, at this Time in Peace ; but it is 
not thus with us- becaufe we have no Enemies : No, 
there are enough both within us and without us, 
who would foon put an End to our Peace, were it 
in their Power, or fhould it at any Time come in- 
to their Power. 

c It will be becoming your Wifdom to ccmfider 
of the fecuring of our Peace againft thofe, who, we 
all know, are, and ever will be, our implacable 
Enemies ; what the Means of doing this are, I 
fhall refer unto you. 

* This I can afiure you, That the Armies of 
England^ Scotland, and Ireland^ arc true and faith- 
ful to the Peace and gqod Intereft of thefe Nations; 
and it will be found fo, and that they are a confid- 
ent Body, and iifeful for any good Ends; and if 
they were not the beft Army in the World, you 
would have heard of many Inconveniences, by rca- 
icm of the great Arrear of Pay which is now due un- 


. 268 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

m. to them, whereby fome of them are- reduced to 
great Neceffities : But you {hall have a particular 
Account of their Arrears, and I doubt not but Con- 
f 1( j era tjon will be had thereupon, in fome fpeedy 
and effectual Way. And this being Matter of Mo- 
ney, I recommend it particularly to the Houfe of 

* You have, you know, a War with Spain, car- 
ried on by the Advice of Parliament ; he is an old 
Enemy, and a potent one, and therefore it will be 
jieceflary, both for the Honour and Safety of thefe 
Nations, that that War be vigoroufly profecuted. 

4 Furthermore, the Conftitution of Affairs in all 
our neighbour Countries, and round about us, (as 
well Friends as Enemies) is very confiderable ; 
and calls upon us to be upon our Guard both at Land 
and Sea, and to be in a Pofture able to maintain 
and conferve our own State and Intereft. 

' Great and powerful Fleets are preparing to be 
fet forth into thefe Seas, and confiderable Armies of 
feveral Nations and Kings are now difputing for the 
Maftery of the Sound., with the adjacent Iflands and 
Countries ; among which is the Emperor of Ger- 
many,, with other Popifli States. I need not tell you 
of what Confequencfe thefe Things are to this State. 

' We have already interpofed in thefe Affairs, in 
fuch Manner as we found it neceflary for the Intereft 
of England ; and Matters are yet in fuch a Condi- 
tion in thofe Parts, that the State may, with the 
Afliftance of God, provide that their Differences 
may not prejudice us. 

' The other Things that are to be faid I (hall re- 
fer to my Lord-Keeper Fiennes ; and clofe up what 
I have to fay, with only adding two or three Parti- 
culars to what I have already faid. 

* And,y?r/?, I recommend to your Care the People 
of God in thefe Nations, with their Concernments : 
The more they are divided among themfelves, the 
greater Prudence Ihould be ufed to cement them. 

4 Secondly, The good and neceffary Work of Re-^ 
formation, both in Mar/nejs and in the Ajdminiftra- 


Of E N G L A N D. 269 

tion of Juftice, that Profanenefs may be difcounte- Inter-regmua, 
nanccd and fuppreffed, and that Righteoufnefs and l6 s 8 - 
Juftice may be executed in the Land. l^~/ *J 

* Thirdly, I recommend unto you the Proteftant 
Caufe abroad, which feems at this Time to be in 
feme Danger, having great and powerful Enemies, 
and very few Friends ; and I hope and believe that 
the old Engllfo Zeal to that Caufe is ftill amongft 

* Lajlly, My Lords, and you Gentlemen of the 
Houfe of Commons, That you will, in all your De- 
bates, maintain and confcrveLove and Unity among 
yourfelves, that therein you may be fhe Pattern of 
the Nation, who have fent you up in Peace, and 
with their Prayers, that the Spirit of Wifdom atul 
Peace may be among you : And this (hall alfo be my 
Prayer for you ; and to this let us all add our utmoli 
Endeavours for the making this an happy Parlia- 

The Lord Commiflioner Fiennes's Speech, on this 
Occafion, was exprefled in thefe Terms : c 

My Lsrds and Gentlemen, 

* A ^H E Wife Man having propofed this Que-^nj t i, at O f 

fUon, IVhat can the Man do that cometb af~ CommjiSoner 

ter thtKing? tfe anfwereth himfelf thus, Even fjfe 

/;;;/ / j , r\ r\ 

which hath been already done. And to the like Que- 

ftion at this Time, * What can he fay that fpeaketh 

* after his Highnefs?' The like Anfwer may not 
be unfitly returned, ' Even that which hath been 
' already fpoken.' Let me therefore crave your Pa- 
tience, while I eccho back again unto you the fame 
Things, which even now you have heard from his 
Highnefs : Things, which cannot found too often 
in your Ears, becaufe they cannot fink too deep into 
your Hearts ; nor be too much upon your Thoughts. 

4 You fee how the moft Wife God, the Supreme 
Moderator and Governor of all Things, in the pre- 
fcnt Difpenfation of his Providence, which we be- 

c Publifhed, by 1m Hishuefs's CoraTnanA, for lltnry Twr/ 

270 c Th e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. hold before our Eyes, doth, as it were, checquer 
l6 5 8 - out his Work unto us, and leemcth to pave his Way 
^- ~v~ * amongft us in Black and White. That which re- 
jaauary. p re f ents itfelf unto us in a fad and black Colour, is 
the Death of his late Highncfs, of famous and of 
blcfled Memory : That which appeareth unto us, 
Wtth a fair and promiiing Afpecl, is the Succeffion 
of his prefent Highnefs to the Government of thefe 
Nations, by the Appointment and Declaration of his 
Father, in purfuance of the Advice of Parliament; 
and this with the general and joyful Acceptation of 
the People, teftified by fo many inoft affectionate 
Addrefies; and that from moft, if not all, Counties, 
Cities, Boroughs, and other Societies of Men, of 
all Sorts, Profefftons, and Conditions: Whereby it 
doth moft manifeftly appear, That what God fpake 
unto them in that Difpenfation, at fuch Time as 
their Hearts were full of Doubt, Fear, and Trouble, 
upon his late Highnefs 's Death, was a Word fitly 
fpoken^ like Apples of Geld in Pifiures of Silver* 
And now, that his Highnefs hath called this Parlia- 
ment of the Three Nations, he ftandeth at the Head 
jof this Great and Mod Honourable Aflembly, the 
Jleprefer.tative of the Three Nations ; and is held 
forth to the World as a Noble Piece, befet on the 
one Side, and on the other, with moft rich and pre- 
cious Stones, whereby much of Price, and much of 
Luftre, is added to it. 

4 It is not my Bufmefs to praife the Dead, much 
lefs to flatter the Living ; but the Things which I (hall 
reprefent unto you, in relation to this Alteration, 
which, of late, the Providence of God hqth wrought 
amongft us, fhall be only fuch Confiderations as 
have been remembered unto you by his Highnefs, 
and fuch asmayminifterfitMatterforyourThoughts 
to be cxercifed about, in order to the great Conful- 
tations for which, at this Time, you are called to- 

' His late Highnefs, you know, and the whole 
World knows, was a Man of War ; yet he died ia 
Peace, and left thefe Nations in Peace at home, 


Of E N G L A N . 271 

and Victorious abroad ; and they are ftill, God's inter-recmm;, 
Name be praifed for it, in Peace, and in Peace they j6 5 8 - 
are brought to your Hands ; wherein his Highnefs < -v ' 
and the Nations have placed great Confidence, and J am 
have great Hopes and Expeditions that they fhall 
be fafe, and preferved in Peace : A Thing fo well 
pleafing to God, who is the God of Peace, and fo 
acceptable to thefe Nations, who have fufficiently 
teftified their Love to Peace, and their Longing af- 
ter Settlement. But that is not all j his late High- 
nefs not only left thefe Three Nations in Peace, 
with, in, and betwixt themfelves, but alfo in Uni- 
ty: And as it was his and the late Parliament's wor- 
thy Work and Care to unite thefe Three Nations 
into one Commonwealth, that they might be no 
longer Thorns in the Eyes, and Goads in the Sides 
of each other, as fometimes they have been (and 
as Wales formerly was, and as other Provinces in 
our neighbour Nations were, unto them, till they 
found Means to incorporate them into one Body and 
Government) ; fo his Highnefs held it incumbent 
upon him to bring them united to and in this Par- 
liament, according to the Practice of the late Parlia- 
ments whilft they fat, and the exprefs Declaration 
of their Intention, That all Parliaments, for the 
future, fhould be Parliaments of the Three Nations ; 
and that there fliould be fome Members to ferve in 
them from and for the Three Nations ; which 
Unity in the Supreme Legiflative Power doth not 
only ferve, at prefent, to prevent Mifchief and Di- 
ftraction, but may aifo, by the Bleffing of God, for 
the future, procure a full and perfect Coalition -, 
whereby the Breaches and Sufferings of many for- 
mer Ages will be avoided, their Delires and Endea- 
vours attained, and the Fears of many fucceedinj 
Generations fecured; and fo, at length, a ftrong 
treble Cord twifted together, which cannot be eafily 
brokeji ; I fay, which cannot be eafily broken while 
it remains twifted together: But, if untwifted, it 
may not only be foon and eafily broken itfelf ; but, 
afterward, each Part wHl ferve and help to break 
Ue other. 

272 ^e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-reenum. ' In the next Place, that which I (hall offer to 

1658. y our Thoughts, upon this Subject, is, That his 

*-- v-> late Highnels had it much in his to build the 

^aouary, j^oufe of God, with the Courts thereof, and made 

great Preparations for it. By the Houfe of God, I 

mean the Church of God \ by the Courts thereof, 

the true and pure \Votihip of God, and Juftice and 

Judgment amongft Men : This makes the outward, 

that the inward, Court of God'.s Houfe ; and to all 

thefe his late Highnefs had made very confiderabte 


' As, firft, David? that fwect Singer of Ifrael^ was 
net more fkilfull to he^et Confort in Diicord, and 
in tuning the feveral and different Strings of his Harp 
to a melodious Harmony, than his late Highnefs was 
4extrous and wonderfully fuccefsful in keeping Love 
between diflenting Brethren, and preferving a Chri- 
ftian Unity in a Chriftian and warrantable Variety ; 
which Thing is a great Preparation towards the 
building of that Spiritual Houfe, whereof we fpoke. 

' Another g;reat Preparative was, the Care he con- 
ilantly took, that godly and able Preachers and Mi- 
jiifters {hould be fent forth into all Parts ; and before 
they were fent out, that they fnould pafs the Tef]: 
and Examination of prudent, learned, and pious Ap- 

' A third Preparative was, The Care heconftantiy 
took of the Univerfities and Schools of good Learn- 
ing, that thofe Fountains might always be kept 
clear; and that from thence there might continu- 
ally iilue a pure River of Water of Life, as clear as 
Chryftal, proceeding from the Throne of God and 
of the Lamb. 

' A fourth Preparative was, The putting of fuch 
Perfons in Places of Truft and Power, who would 
be a Countenance to godly Men and Godlinefs, and 
difcountenance Atheifm and Profanenefs. 

* And, laftly, As to the outward Court of God's 
Houfe, the Admimftration of Judgment and Juftice 
amongft Men, what were his Defires and Endea- 
vours, and what his Care, from Time to Time, to 


Of ENGLAND. 273 

fill the Benches with able and learned Judges, we 
all know. 

' All thefe Preparations, and many more, did his 
Highnefs make for this Houfe ; and all the Mate- 
rials thereof arc fo fitted and fquared before-hand, by 
the Humble Petition and Advice, and other good 
Laws made by the late Parliament, that, by the 
HeJp of God, there will be no Need of any new 
Hammering, nor that there fhall be heard the Noife 
of any Hammer, or Axe, much lefs of Spear or 
Sword, or any Tool of Iron, for what is to be fur- 
ther done in the building of this Houfe. 

' Such, indeed, that look upon the Petition and 
Advice with a partial and prejudicate Eye ; of, as 
it may be diflorted on the one Side or the other in 
the Execution thereof, may think there hath not 
been a right Meafure taken of many Things, and 
that there is great Need of running them over 
again : But whofoever {hall well weigh the fame, and 
look into it with a fingle Eye, will find, that both 
our Spiritual and CivifLiberties have been fquared, 
ftated, and defined therein, with a great deal of Care 
and Exactnefs ; and that, according to the true 
Nature of a Definition, it is neither too narrow, 
nor too broad ; neither too long, nor too fhort : 
That it hath not taken in any thing that fhould have 
been left out, nor left out any thing that is eilential. 

' I fay this, as to the main, That no truly Godly 
Men need to fear Perfecution, nor any wilful Sin- 
ners, of any Sort, either in Faith or Practice, hope 
for Impunity : That no Freemen need fear to be 
made Slaves, nor that any Men's lawlefs Liberty, 
under Pretence of making all free, fhould, indeed, 
make all Men Slaves : But the I/egiflative and Ex- 
ecutive Powers are fo ftated therein, in relation to 
one another, and to their own Parts within them- 
felves, that neither may hinder, but each Part help, 
the other ; and that none in either might have more 
or lefs Power than is neceffary for the Good of the 
whole : And yet is there ftill behind a great and a 
glorious Work, in the Location and Compofure of 

VOL. XXI. thefc 

2 74 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. thefe Parts, though never fo well fitted. The Ex- 
1658^ ecution of the Law is the Life, the Completion, 

U- " P V"'J the Perfection thereof. 

Januaiy. c rp,^ Application of Things to Perfons, and of 

Per'fons to Things ; and the right jointing and ce- 
menting of one Part to the other, by a Spirit of 
Love within, and Eftablifhment of due and neccf- 
. fary Order without, will make this Houfe to rife" 
up into a ftrong,. a perfect, and a beautiful Structure 
and Fabric amongit us ; to which much of Care, 
and many Proyifions, will be necefFary. What 
then remains, but that his Highn'efs, and both 
Houfes of Parliament, fhould fet about this noble 
Wqrk, till they have brought, it to Perfection. 
That as it is frem in your Memories, and as you 
even now heard from that Reverend Perion f , who 
was the M.outh of God unto you, Mercy and Truth 
may meet together, and Pence and Rigbieoiijnefs kifr 
each other; that Chriftian Liberty may be'pie- 
ierved, without Unchriftian Licentioufnefs ; that 
Miniftry and Magiftracy niay be maintained and 
refined ; and Learning and the Schools thereof fo 
ordered, that they may continually fupply the 
fame, and not be, as Abbies and Monaftetics Ibrne- 
times were, either Nurferies of Vice and Idlenefs, 
or of. Faction and Contention ; that Godlinefs' may 
be fet on the Throne, and Profanenefs thrown 
out on the Dunghill ; that Law and Juftice may 
be executed with Equity and Mercy ; that neither 
Craft nor Cruelty may take Advantage of the 
Rigour of the Law, or of the Hands of God, to 
turn Judgment into Wormwood, and Juftice into 
Gall : That Judgment and Juftice may run down 
with a clear and fwift Stream ; and if any Rubbifh, 
Mud, or Weeds, through Length of Time, be got 
into the Channel, it may be cleared by fuch careful 
Hands, as, in fcouring the Channel, will take Heed 
not to dig down the Banks, left thereby an Inunda- 
tion of Arbitrary Power and Jurifdiclion ihall be 
let in upon the Nations. 


f Dr. Goodivin, who took thefe Words for hi; Text to hii Sermon 
preached before the Parliament. 

Of ENGLAND. 275 

e In the laft Place ; that which I fhal) offer to inter-regmu 
your Confidcration, is, That, if this Government, 6 5 8 - 
when it firft fprang up in the Hands of his late * v*" 
Highnefs, out of thofe dreadful Confufions which J anuar y 
had covered the Face of thefe Three Nations, was 
readily embraced by them as a choice and hopeful 
Plant, tho' as yet but a tender one, and fuch as 
had but newly taken to the Soil, with how much 
more Reafon may we now expect, that it ihould 
be enabled to encounter the foreft Storms and Tem- 
pefts that may arife ? Being fbpported partly by its 
own proper Firmnefs, through the Good will and 
Liking of the People, out of the Experience they 
have had of the Benefit they have received from it, 
and the Peace and Tranquility they have enjoyed 
under the Shadow thereof ; and partly by the Ao 
ceffion of Parliamentary Authority, both paft and 
to come, which it cannot but much expect and 
rely upon, from Time to Time, and at all Times, 
confidering the great Obligations that their Wif- 
dom and good Affection to the Welfare of thefe 
Nations, and the Law, by their Oaths, and other- 
wife, hath laid upon them in this Behalf: So that 
it being fo well rooted downwards, and fo well 
grown upwards, though poifibly the Boughs and 
Branches thereof may be a little fliaken fometimes, 
and moved one while this Way, and another while 
that Way ; yet there will be no Danger of theTree's 
fallino;, by God's Grace, unlefs we have fo far pro- 
voked his Juftice by our Ingratitude in general, and 
in particular for the Mercy we have and may ftill 
further enjoy, if it be not our own Faults, under this 
Government, that he fhall fuffer a Spirit of Divifion 
to run through the principal Parts thereof, that they 
fall one from another ; and fe, at length, fall one 
upon another; and fo, at laft, fall down all together, 
and then be trodden Under-foot, and that on all 
Hands, and on every Side; and with them the Peace 
of thefe Nations which they enjoy at home, and the 
Honour and Renown which they have gain'd abroad, 
than which they had never more than at this Day, 
both far and near. But why fpeak I of the Honour 
S ?. of 

276 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Interregnum, of Men; when as the Honour of God, and the Safety 
1658. ant j Profperity of his Churches and People, both here 
^~v~**~* and throughout all Chriftendom, doth fix much de- 
pend upon the Peace and Confiftency of thefe Nations 
at this Time, as in Truth they do, as much, if not 
more, than on all the Nations in the World befides. 
' This is a great Word which I have faid, but it 
is a true one; and if the prefent State and Pofture of 
Affairs throughout the whole Chriftian World be 
well weighed and confidered, it will be found that 
this is no fwelling Vaunt, but a well-meafured 
Truth : And, becaufe it is fo, no doubt the grand 
Enemy of our Peace, becaufe he is the grand Enemy 
of God and his Church, will be very bufy at this 
Time with all his Inftruments, and will caft many 
Mifts before our Eyes. He is a Spirit of Darknefs, 
of Error, and Miftakes, that he may become a Spirit 
of Mifunderflanding and Divifion; and he is a Spirit 
of Divifion, becaufe he delights in War and Blood- 
Ihed, the natural Confequences thereof, for he was 
a Murderer from the Beginning: But we are not ig- 
norant of his Arts and Wiles ; and whatever fair 
and beautiful Shapes he appears in at the firft, yet, if 
we examine him to the Bottom, from Top to Toe, 
we fhall at length difcover him by his divided and 
dividing Foot 3 and thence take Warning to avoid 
; him. 

* We have alfo a wholefome and divine Council 
to preferve us from falling into his Snare; that is, to 
hold the Unity of the Spirit in the Bond of Peace. 
What is that Bond of Peace ? In a moral Senfe, it 
is that treble Knot of true Love and good Under- 
Handing between his Highnefs and the two Houfes 
of Parliament. In a politic Confideration, it is the 
Conftitution of our Government, whereby we have 
another treble Cord, befides that of the Three Nati- 
ons united into one Commonwealth, viz. The Con- 
ftitution of their Supreme Legiflative Power, con- 
fifting of a Single Perfon and Two Houfes of Parlia- 
ment ; which Cord, while it is kept well twifted to- 
gether, will -be a great Strength to itfelf, to the Na- 
tions, and to the People of God, in thefe and all our 


Of E N G L A N D. 277 

neighbouring Nations round about us : But if once it Inter-regnui 
begin to unravel, and the two Ends fall one from .Jf*!!^ 
another, and from the Middle, all will run to Ruin : j auuai> 
Therefore be very careful to hold fail the Bond, and 
beware of all iuch as (hall be picking at the Knot, 
under what Colour or Pretence foever ; yea, though 
they promife never fo much, and undertake to bind 
it up as faft, and in a better Fafliion than it was 
before. This tying and untying of the Bond, and 
continual feeking after new-fafhioned Knots, hath 
put thefe Nations to much Trouble, and into more 

* It is good to hold what we have, till we arc fure 
to meet with that which is better ; and, of all fa- 
fhioned Knots, the Nations will be worft fatisfied 
with a Bow-Knot, a Hiding, a Slip- Knot, which 
will be always faft and loofe ; which every Touch, 
at either End, will dillblve, and leave the Nations 
always at Uncertainty, always in Unfettlement: But 
the Knot which takes in both Ends, the Top and 
the Bottom, and joins them faft together, and to the 
Middle, with a treble Knot; and wherein each Part 
helps to faftcn the other, and the drawing of either 
End draws all nearer and clofer together ; this will 
make a faft Knot ; a Knot, by God's Bleffing, like 
to hold, and to continue. And, furely, were there 
no other Confideration but this, (give me Leave to 
repeat it, though I have faid it once before) this alone 
were tufficient to make us keep clofe together, at 
this Time, becaufe we cannot fall in Pieces as Things 
now ftand abroad, but the whole Proteftant Inte- 
reft, throughout the whole World, is like to fall 
afunder alfo with us. 

' For if we well confider how the Princes and 
States in Germany, both the Upper and the Lower, 
and in the Northern Parts of Europe, begin to ftate 
their Intereft otherwife, and to take a different Mea- 
fure of their Confederacies and Alliances than for- 
merly they have done, we ftiall find, upon the Mat- 
ter, but one ftngle Bar, that is confiderable, to check 
the growing Power of the Aujlrian Family in thofe 
Parts j vvhereunto it cannot long make Head, with- 
S 3 out 

278 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ou t Support and Help from others ; and from whence 
^ J.^J^j only any that is considerable can be expected, \% not 
January. hard to judge. 

* I {hall not need to mind you of that which more 
nearly concemeth you, for it fo nearly concerns you 
that you cannot but be fenfible of it : I mean the 
prefent Condition of Affairs, in relation to the Sound 
and Baltic Sea, and the great Forces, both by Sea 
and Land, that look that Way : And how far, and 
how foon, this may bring to the Stake all the Ma- 
terials wherewith your Walls muft be upheld, (I fay, 
your beft Walls, and the beft in the World, though 
Wooden ones) I leave to your Confideration ; and 
how critical this very Spring may prove to the faving 
or lofing of your Stake. Only this I (hall fay, fhould 
your Wings be once clipp'd in that Kind, when you 
fhall get up again to the Pitch where now you are, 
none but he only, who only (and that too in an ex- 
traordinary Way) can help you up again, he only 
can tell. 

' On the other Side ; for the other Branch of the 
Houfe of Auftria, which fometimes hath been, and 
may foon be again, the Terror and Jealoufy of the 
whole World, you know what Balance it only hath, 
and upon what ticklim Terms it now ftands ; and 
what Friends he hath made, and what he further 
hopes to make, of old Enemies ; and what Advan- 
tages he hath, and ftill further hopes to make of 
them; not only to your Prejudice, and the endan- 
gering of your Ruin, but of thole themfelves alfo, in 
the end, whofe helping Hands, by Inticements of 
prefent Advantages, he endeavours to draw to his 
Affiftance, in the pulling down of their own Out- 
works and beft Supports. It is true he hath fuf- 
fered fome Breaches, and received fome Wounds pf 
late ; but how foon, by the help of that vaft Trea- 
fure which he draws continually from the Indies^ 
if he may bring it ftill quietly home, he may repair 
thofe Breaches, and heal up thofe Wounds again, 
who doth not fee ? 

* Some Things are fitter for your Thoughts than 
your Ears; therefore this I (hall only fay in general, 


Of E N G L A N D. 279 

That the Opportunities which you -have had, and 
yet, in Part, have, to put your Intereft, and that of 
your bcft Friends, in feme Meafure, in Safety, nruy 
loon be loft, if they be not already upon the Wing, 
and then it may never be in your Power to recover 
them again : Therefore his Highnefs maketh no 
Quefiiou, but that you will take thefe Things into 
your fpeedy and lerioui, Conflderation; and that you 
will think timely of the Means of Defence and Of- 
fence iw order thereunto. 

* The late Parliament, having engaged 'in tbis 
War, very honourably made fome conllderablePro- 
vifions to carry on the fame ; 1 /ay, confiderable, 
with refpcci to our little World., out of which they 
were to be ruifod j though not proportionable to that 
great World, and thofe vaft Territories and Damu- 
nions, whereof our Enemy. is pofleiled, anil where - 
upon they vaunt themiclves that the Sun doth never 
fet. But our Comfort alfo, on the other Side, io, 
That he that fs our Sun doth never fet ) and he that 
is our Shield will never fail us. 

' You will receive a particular Account, frqm 
thole under whofe Survey and Care thofe Things, 
are, of the State of the Public Revenue, and of the 
Farces both by Sea and Land; your inward and 
outward Walls, under God, and as good as any in 
the World : But as all Things which are good- arc 
aifo coftly, fo can it not be expected but that the 
Charge of them fhould be great. 

' His Highnefs hath aflured you, That the Army 
(I fpcak of the Forces both by Sea and Land in the 
Three Nations) is a good and faithful Army, and 
will be ready to engage in every good Thing ami 
A&ion, whereof no Man either ought, or need/JxT 
make Qucftion. His Highnefs hath further told you, 
That they are a patient Army ; and, when you feu. 
the Account of their Arrears, that will \- c Mt of. 
Queftion; and, without all Qucftion, God hath ufed 
them as fmgular Inftrumcnts of his Honour, and of 
the. Honour of thefe Nations : And as 'England^ by 
God's Mercy, is now enlightned in the Knowledge;' 
of Truth, it would well near venture a Starving 


280 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnam. (though, God, be praifed, that is not its Cafe) than 
it would ftarve fuch an Army in fuch a Caufe ; 
wherein the Honour of God, and of the Nation, fhall 
be concern'd. This, I think, I may adventure to 
fay, in general, That our Preparations are not greater 
than our Neighbours, tho' our Concern is every way 
as much, or more, than theirs ; neither are our Debts 
greater than theirs, though we have had more Oc- 
cafion of Expence, or fuJl as much every way : And 
if our Income had anfwered the Foot of Account, 
which the laft Parliament went upon in their in- 
tended Supplies, we had not increafed much, if at 
all, the Debt of the Commonwealth ; neither had 
we exceeded our Bounds, or not fo much, by God's 
Blefling on our Defigns, as we have enlarged its 
Bounds and Territories ; and that alfo fo advan- 
tageoufly, as not only the Danger of hoftile Inva- 
iion and Trade-deftroying Piracy is fet at a further 
Diftance from us, but alfo much Honour abroad, 
together with Safety and Advantage at home, has 
thereby accrued unto thefe Nations. 

' Before I conclude, I muft again reiterate that 
which runs fo much in my Mind, becaufe it lies fo 
much upon my Heart ; that upon the IfTue of your 
Councils, and the Peace and Confiftency of thefe 
Nations at this Time, doth very much, if not 
wholly, depend the Life and Breath of all the 
Hopes, of all the Expectations, of the Churches of 
Cbrift throughout the World. Since then there is 
fo great a Truft repofed in you, fo great a Price put 
into your Hands, lay your Hands upon your Hearts, 
3nd lift your Hearts up to Heaven, where your 
Help, where our Hope lies. 

' His Highnefs hath fully exprefled his high 
Efteem of Parliaments, and his Judgment of them, 
that they are the moft adequate and commenfurate 
Councils to Matters of fo great and fo high Import- 
ance \ and he doth as firmly refolve, that they (hall 
enjoy all thofe great Freedoms and Privileges which 
have been granted unto them, in order to thofe great 
Ends ; and his Hope and Prayer to Almighty God, 
is. That they may be made ufe of by you to thofe. 

Of E N G L A N D. 281 

great and blefled Ends, that all the Three Nations, later- regn 
yea, that all the People of God, every where, may 
rife up, ill together, and blefs you ; and that you " 
may be blefled, and your Names be a Blefling to 
this and all fucceeding Generations. 

* This is all that I have in Charge from his High- 
nefs to fay unto you ; faving what particularly re- 
lates to the Members of the Houfe of Commons, 
That they fhould repair to their Houfe to chufe 
their Speaker.' 

The next Day, January 28, began with appoint- Another Seek, 
ing a Day for a folemn Humiliation and Seeking of' n ef G 
God, for his fpecia! Afliftance and Blefling upon the t>0 " lted * 
Endeavours of that Houfe. Dr. Reynolds^ Mr. 
Manton^ Dr. Owen, and Mr. Calarny, were ordered 
to aflift in carrying on the Woik of Prayer and 

A large Committee for Privileges and Elections 
was appointed, with the ufual Refolutions of the 
Houfe for their Conduct. Except that, in all Cafes 
where there are double Returns for one Place, no 
Perfon or Perfons fo returned fhall fit in the Houfe, 
untill it be firft determined concerning the faid Re- 
turn, or Election. 

Jan. 31. On this Day there was a very ftri&A Call of the 
Call of the Houfe, and all Defaulters marked in a Houfe - 
Book for that Purpofe. Some Members, chofe for 
two or more Places, made their Eleclion for which 
they would ferve; which is all that is entered for 
this Day, 

February i. A Bill, intituled, An Aft of Recogni- 
tion of his Highnejs's Right and Title to be Proteftor 
and Chief Magijlrate of the Commonwealth of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Dominions and 
Territories thereunto bclinging, was this Day read 
the firft Time, and ordeied to be read a fecond 
Time on the yth. 

This Bill, being thought of the utmoft Confe- 
ciucnce, met with great Oppofition at this Time ; 


282 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. it will be neceflary, therefore, before we proceed 

1658. \yith the "Journals, to inquire into the Hiftorians of 

Fb"*ar t^efe Times, to find what they have left us about 

rvary * it ; for upon pafiing, or rejecting, this Bill, turned 

all the Hinges of Richard's Government. 

The laft quoted Author, who was a moft noted 
Republican, is extremely circumftantial and exact, 
as appears by Comparifon with the Commons Jour- 
nals, about the Debates on this Bill ; and tells us, 
' That on the ift of Februry a Bill was brought in by 
Mr. Secretary Tkurloe^ under Pretence only of ac- 
knowledging the pretended Prote&or, but under fuch 
Terms as had no lefs in them than the Admittance 
of the Chief Magiftrate, and the Perfons then fitting 
in the Other Houfe, unto the full Power, Privileges, 
and Prerogative of the antient Kings and antient 
Houfe of Lprds, which the Court Party defigncd 
to have carried undifcovered, and fo have left the 
Nation either to have fought the late Quarrel over 
again, or elfe to be content with a bad Change of 
Perfons, where there was none of Things. 

' The Bill was that Day, without much Diffi- 
culty, read the firft Time j which encouraged 
thofe of the Long Robe, related to the Single Per- 
fon, to prefs for the reading of it again the fame 
Day ; to the end that, it being the next Day read 
the third Time, as they defigned it, it might have 
patted into an A; but, in Oppofition to that, fome 
who were more careful of the Liberties of the 
People than thofe of the Long Robe ordinarily are, 
moved, that, according tp Rule in Cafes of fuch 
Weight, it might be referred to a Grand Committee 
of the whole Houfe ; and when that would not be 
granted, that the fecond Reading of it might at leaft 
be put off for fome Days, and Liberty given to the 
Members to take Copies, that, considering of the 
Bufmefs, they might be the more fitting for the De- 
bate j which was at length yielded unto, and the 
7th of February appointed for the fecond Reading.' 

Feb. 4. This being the Day of Humiliation, it 
was kept by both Houfcs. The Preachers had the 


Of ENGLAND. 283 

Thanks of the Houfe of Commons ordered them for Jnter-reenum. 
their great I'aiiij-taking in carrying on the Work of l6 > 8 ' 
the Day, and west- deiircd to piint their Sermons. *T7y^"'* J 
The Mon-:y collated for Charity, at this Faft, was i 

ordered to he diuSibvr:cd anr-r^, th.- Toor of the two 
Pariih^s of Margaret's r/fj}mlvjlcr y and Martin's 
in the Fields. 

Some Elections being next adjufled, the Houfe, 
according to Order, proceeded on the Act of Re- TheRccognition 
cognition; and, firft, refolved, That the Serjeant 13111 debated ' 
at Arms do go with his Mace into WejlminJ^cr-Hall^ 
and fummon all thc'Membeis to give their Attend- 
ance, forthwith, in the Houfe : When the Bill, iW 
tituled, An Afl of Recognition of his Higlmcfis 'Title 
to be Protestor and Chief Ma gijlr ate 'of the Common- 
wealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the 
Dominions and Territories thtreunto belonging^ be thia 
Day read the fecond Time. Then it was ordered, 
That the Debate upon this Bill be adjourned till 
To-morrow Morning at Nine of the Clock j to be 
then proceeded in, and nothing elfe to intervene. 

The five fucceeding Days were wholly taken up 
in debating this grand Point of Government, with- 
out coming to any Conclufion about it : And on 
Monday the I4th the Bill was not yet fo far carried 
through, as to come to a Commitment. We fhall, 
therefore, give the whole of this Day's Proceedings 
in the very Words of the 'Journal; and then confult 
the Hiftorians and Memorialifts of thefc Times, for 
a further and clearer Explanation of it. 

Monday, February 14, 1658. 

4 The Houfe, according to the Order made on 
Saturday^ took into Confederation a previous Vote ? 
upon the Matter of the Debate of the Houfe, before 
the Commitment of the Bill, intituled, An ,#? pf 

* The Qucflion being propounded, That it be 
Part of this Bill, to recognize and declare his High- 


284 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. nefs RICHARD Lord Protector, to be the un- 
1 ** _f dou ^ te ^ kord Pi" ote & or and Chief Magiftrate of the 
F "bruarv Commonwealth of England^ Scotland^ and Ireland^ 
and the Dominions and Territories thereunto be- 
longing : The Queftion was put, That the Word 
recognize fliould ftand in the Queftion, which was 
carried in the Affirmative by 191 againft 168. Then 
a Motion being made, That the Word undoubted 
Ihould ftand in the Queftion, it pafled in the Negative 
without a Divifion. The Queftion then being pro- 
pounded, That it be Part of this Bill to recognize and 
declare his Highnefs Richard Lord Protector, to be 
Lord Protector and Chief Magiftrate of the Com- 
monwealth of England^ Scotland, and Ireland^ and 
the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging; 
it was agreed to without Oppofi tion ; and then it was 
farther refolved,That, before this Bill be committed, 
this Houfe do declare fuch additional Claufes to be 
Part of the Bill, as may bound the Power of the Chief 
Magiftrate, and fully fecure the Rights and Privi- 
leges of Parliament, and the Liberties and Rights 
of the People ; and that neither this, nor any other 
previous Vote, that is or (hall be pafs'd, in order to 
this Bill, ftiall be of Force, or binding to the 
People, untill the whole Bill be pafs'd.' 

This great Conteft about Government lay be- 
tween the Republican Party and the Court Party, as 
they were now called ; who, like Men of the fame 
Appellation of a later Date, were always ready to 
fupport fuchMeafures as contributed to their own pri- 
vate Ends ; and Richard's known Weaknefs gave them 
great Hopes of much Emolument under his Reign. 

Mr. Ludlow^ one of the moft zealous Republi- 
cans that was now alive of the old Stamp, tells us, 
* That he was elected a Member of this Aflembly, 
or Parliament ; but was very cautious of fitting in 
it, becaufe he would not take the Oath prefcribed at 
the Beginning of the Seflion. However, that he 
and fome others, having got that Matter over-ruled 
in the Houfe, they did fit, and were the principal 
Opponents to the Court Party in this Affair.' 


Of E N G L A N D. 285 

The fame Memoriallft goes on and acquaints us, Inter-return. 
* That it was Mr. Thurhe* Secretary to the late and 
prefent Protestor, and a Member of that Aflembly, 
who prefented the Bill, or Declaration, ready drawn ; 
wherein was contained an Acknowledgment of the 
faid Richard Cromwell to be Proteclor, and the Pe- 
tition and Advice to be the Rule of Government for 
thefe Nations : That this Action was erteemed to 
be a great Injury to this Aflembly by all impartial 
Menj but he had fufficient Strength in the Houfe to 
carry him thro* whatfoever he thought fit to under- 
take, and therefore he was not only defended in what 
he had done, but was refolved that the Bill fliould be 
received and debated.' But hear what our Author 
further fpeaks in his own Words : * 

' Hereupon it was moved that the Inflrument 
might be produced ; wherein, according to the Pe- 
tition and Advice, the Succeflbr ought to be nomi- 
nated, and the Great Seal affix'd j but they, having 
no fuch Thing to (hew, over- ruled that Motion, 
Not being able to obtain this, and being extreme!-, 
defirous to place the Militia in the Parliament, and 
to make void any Pretence to a Negative Voice ia 
a Single Pcrfon, as well as to do fome other Things 
for the People's Safety and Welfare, the Court 
Party refufed to confent to any thing of that Naturp 
for the prefent, craftily infmuating and making large 
Promifes, that fuch Things as were neceflary (hould 
be done hereafter at a more convenient Seafon. Jn 
the next Place it was defired, that faice it appeared 
the prefent Power had no legal Foundation, and 
that it would be moft fafe for the Protector to derive 
his Authority from a right Source, the Words jrj 
the Declaration of recognizing him might be alter'si 
for agnizing him ; that fo his Right might appear 
to be founded upon the Confent of the People reprr - 
fented in this Aflembly: But this Proportion, tin 
inforced with many weighty Reafons, was rejected, 
as the former had been, tho' it was thought xronve- 
Jiient to divide the Houfe upon it. 

< Upoa 
* Mryiairt, Vol. II. p. 624, tt f'j. 

286 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' Upon this Succefs the Court, prefuming to carry 
1658. all before them, grew unmeafurably infolent, and 
* -v ' all that could be done was only to lengthen out their 
February. Debates, and to hang on the" Wheels of the Cha- 
riot, that they might net be able to drive fo furi- 
oufly. By this Means Time was gained to infufe 

food Principles into divers younu; Gentlemen, who 
efore had never been in any public Affembly, in 
hopes that though, for the preiert, their previous 
.Engagements (hould carry them againft us, yet, 
upon mature Deliberation, they might difcover 
where their true Intereit lay. Neither were our 
Endeavours without Succefs ; for having frequently 
held the Houfe nine or ten Days in .Debate before 
they could come to a Queftion, many Gentlemen 
who came to IVeJlminfter^ prepoftefied in Favour of 
the Court, confeiTed that the Reafoni. of the Com- 
monwealth Party were fo cogent, that they were 
jiot able to refift them. And becauft ail Parties had 
confederated againft us, we, in order to Icilen their 
Numbers, impeached divers of them for having 
been of the King's Party; by which Means we pro- 
cured fome of them to be expelled, and frighted 
away fome others, who knew themfelves to be in 
the fame Condition. The Court, to requite us, 
brought Mr. Marvin Touchet, a Papiit, and Brother 
to the Lord of Cajtlehavnn^ to accuie Mr. Pillars^ 
who had voted with us, of ferving in the King's 
Army ; and though it appeared that he was forced 
fo to do by thofe who hud the Government of him, 
he being then but fixteen Years of Age, and that 
he came into the Parliament's Quarters as foon as 
he had an Opportunity ; yet all that could be faid 
proving not fufficient to excufe him, he was like- 
^yife voted out from the Houfe.' d 

Mr. Wlnthcke is very mort, now, in his Account 
of every Matter that occurs to the End of his Me- 
mortals. He had been complimented by Richard^ 
in giving him the Cuftody of the Great Seal, along 


d Along with Mr. Pillar t were expelled Edtntmd Jones, Efq; for 
tjie County of fert(cn, and Join G/aji'viile, Serjeant at Law, for 
St, Germans, Ctm, Journ. 

Of ENGLAND. 287 

with Li/le and Fienncs ; and the greateft Part of the Inter-regnuna. 
Bufmefs lying upon him, as he tells us, allowed him *- 
frriall Leifure to attend to other Matters. His Re- 
mark on thefe Affairs being only this, February 8, 
The Houfe of Commons debated the Bill of Recog- 
nition of his Highnefs to be Lord Protector, and 
fome were very crofs in that Bufmefs, which caufed 
Doubts of the good IfTue of this Parliament :' But 
ns the Narrative of this Parliament, before quoted, 
is more open and clear than can be expected from 
a Perfon concerned in every evil Machination and 
Change of Government fince the Diflblution of Mo- 
narchy to this Time, we fhall give this alfo in its 
own Words : 

* Upon the yth of February being the Day ap- 
pointed, the Bill for recognizing the Protestor was 
read a fecond Time, and a great Debate enfuecf. 
The Petition and Advice was pleaded, by the 
Court Party, as the Foundation of big Title, but 
by thofe that ftood for the Commonv.Tulth it wais 
denied to be a Law ; nnd that riot only from th. 
Inconfiftency, Lamenefs, and InfuiKcicricy of it, but 
alfo from the corrupt Mann'er of if Pr ^curement , 
that Aflembly that made it being 'no Parliament, but 
a Faction, in that the Members were never fuf- 
fered to meet, but fo many of them kept out, even 
by him who called them, as he judged would hin- 
der the Execution of his Will ; befides, that at the 
Creation of that Monfter, there were, of 460 cftofen, 
but 104 in the Houfe ; whereof 51 'Were afjninft it, 
and it was carried mecrly by the Strength of Scots arii 
Irijh Members, who had no Right to fit, but \\\ 
Ufurpers in the making Laws for England, ft teas 
further (hewn, that if Ceefar Burgia, Pope Alexan- 
der VI. and Machiavely had all laid theirHeads to- 
gether, they could not have framed a Thing in 
deftrutive to the Liberties 6f the People, and for 
abfolute Tyranny, giving away all that our Ancef- 
tors had fought for ever lince the Conqueft, than the 
Petition and Advice ; as the Negative Vote, the 
Power of diflblving Parliaments, the Purfe of the 
People, and in tha$ ail the Security they had for 


288 *Tke Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnunj. their Rights and Liberties ; for give the Single Per- 
5 fon your Purle, and you give him the Militia; and 
February ^ ne nave l ^ at a ^ Soundings of him by Laws fig- 
nify no more than binding of a Lion with Paper 
Chains. But the Courtiers being refolved of no- 
thing lefs than a Turki/h Power, would fuffer no 
Strength of Reafon to prevail with them, to the 
making of the Petition and Advice unauthentic, but 
would by Force have it allowed for a good Law; 
V/hich provoked the demanding the Purfuance of that 
Law to be proved, and that the Pretender's* Defigna- 
tion was according as it is there directed ; but tho* 
this was prefied by divers Perfons of cieat Abilities, 
never any Anfwer was given unto it ; thofe of that 
Party knowing that, by the Strength oi their Mem- 
bers, they could over-rule the Strength of Reafon : 
It was, from fuch Silence in the Point of Defigna- 
tion, argued, that if Providence had prevented the 
Ufurper from keeping to the Rules of the Petition 
and Advice, and that it was thereby fallen to the 
Ground, all Government was reverted to its Original, 
the People ; and ought by them, affembled in Par- 
liament, to be derived whenever it fhould be fought ; 
which would readily have been done to the Gentle- 
man in Pofleffion, if he and his Party would, upon 
thofe Terms, have accepted of it. 

' This Debate, no Man fpeaking twice to the 
Matter, held eight Days, in which Time fuperla- 
tive Excellency, and good Affedtions to the Public, 
appeared in feveral Gentlemen ; yet the beft End 
they could bring this Debate unto, was to conclude 
with the two following Votes, as previous to the 
Commitment of the Bill : 

Feb. 14. Refolved, as before, That it be Part 
of this Bill to recognize and declare his Highnefs 
Richard Lord Protestor, to be Lord Protector and 
Chief Magiftrate of the Commonwealth of England ' f 
Scotland^ and Ireland^ and the Dominions and Ter- 
ritories thereunto belonging.' 


e This is the fi.-ft Time that we have met with this Titlt for King 
Charles II, t/hish proves it t* be older tbac mft may thjipk, 

Of E N G L A N D. 289 

Refolved, * That, before this Bill be committed, inter-regnum. 
this Houfe do declare fuch additional CJaufes to be l6 5 8 - 
Part of this Bill, as may bound the Power of the v -"-V"" J 
Chief Magiftrate, and fully fecure the Rights and 
Privileges of the Parliament, and the Liberties and 
Rights of the People ; and that neither this nor any 
other previous Vote that is, or (hall be, parted, in 
order to this Bill, is, or {hall be, of Force, or bind- 
ing, unto the People, untill the whole Bill be pafs'd.' 

* This laft previous Vote parted the Houfe with- 
out one Negative more than the Secretary; but 
when the Courtiers knew the Senfe of JWitehall 
upon it, from that Time forward they owned them- 
felves fuch flavim Executioners of a Pretender's Will 
and Luft, that they never appeared in the leaft for 
the making good one Word of it. 

* During this Debate, feveral Complaints were 
made, reflecting upon the Court's Defigns, as that 
the Affixes (without Precedent, upon no greater Oc- 
caiion) were put off, to the common Wrong of the 
whole Nation ; defiring, therefore, that, to the end 
that the People might receive no Prejudice by the 
Sitting of Parliament, nor have Caufe to be out 
of Love with Parliaments, the Protector might be 
moved to command the carrying on of the Affixes ; 
but the Courtiers being refolved not to lofe fo con- 
fiderable a Part of their Strength as the Lawyers, 
they would have the whole Nation to fufifer in the 
Want cf Juftice, rather than they would Want one 
of their Members. 

* That Whitehall had wrote eighty Letters for the 
making Members of Parliament, moft of which had 
their Effea : That Mr. Howard, a Papift, and Bro- 
ther to the Earl of Antndel^ boafted that, at the In- 
ftance of the Protector and Secretaiy, he had fent 24 
Members to Parliament : That feveral Tables were 
kept at Whitehall^ at the vaft Charge of the Public, 
on purpofe to corrupt and deboift Members by great 
Entertainments ; all which was acknowledged to be 
againft the Orders of the Houfe, and particularly for 
any Members, not menial Servants, to go to Wl. 
ff//during the Sittine of thcParliame: 


290 The Parliamentary HISTCXRY 

Inter-regnum. To proceed with the "Journals. 

i The Houfe continued to debate the additional 
Claufes to the Recognition Bill for fome Days more, 
without coming to a Commitment of it. In the In- 
terim, this Day, Feb. 17, the Houfe had all the 
public Accounts of the National Receipts and Debts 
laid before them from the feveral Offices, and ordered 
thefe Accounts and Papers to be audited by a Com- 
mittee of twelve Members. 

We have yet met with no Mention of the Other 
Houfe, in the 'Journals of the Commons, till this 
Day, Feb. 18, when a Queftion was propofed in 
that Houfe, That they fhould proceed to determine 
the Power of the Negative Voice, in the Chief 
Magiftrate, in the paffing of Laws, before the Con- 
ftitution of the Parliament, as to two Houfes, be 
firft refolved on. On this Queftion the Houfe 
divided, when the Numbers were found to be 86 
Yeas, and 217 Noes; whereupon it was refolved, 
That the Houfe do take into Confideration the 
Conftitution of the Parliament as to two Houfes, 
the firft Bufinefs the next Morning, and nothing 
elfe to intervene. 

Accordingly this Day, Feb. 19, the Houfe went 
upon that Affair ; and, after much Debate, they 
came to two Refolutions : i. That it fhall be Part 
of this Bill to declare the Parliament to confift of 
two Houfes. 2. That the Bounds and Power of 
another Houfe, in relation to the former Vote, (hall 
be taken into Confideration, the firft Bufinefs, on 
the 22d Inftant. 

Feb. 21. According to an Order of this Houfe, 
Mr. Secretary Thurloe made a Narrative, and gave 
the Houfe an Account of the State of the War, and 
of the Affairs of the Kings of Sweden and Denmark, 
in relation to the Baltic Sea and to the Command 
of the Sound; and how far, and in what Manner, 
as well his late Highnefs the Lord Protector, de- 
ceafed, and alfo his now Highnefs the Lord Pro- 

Of E N G L A N D. 291 

tedtor, had feverally intercfted thcmfelvcs in their 
refpeclive Differences by way of Mediation. He 
farther gave the Houfe an Account of the Shipping 
and Forces of the States General of the United Pro- Februar y- 
vinces, now in the Sound \ and what further Prepa- 
rations, as is informed, they are now making: And 
that his now Highnefs, and his Council, had di- 
rected fuch Shipping and Forces to be prepared here, 
as, he apprehends, may be for the Security of this 
Commonwealth, in thefe Times of fo great Action.' 

The next Day, Feb. 22, the Houfe went into a 
Debate, according to Order, of the Bounds and 
Power of another Houfe, and continued in it all that 
Day, without coming to any other Refolution, than 
to order the Debate to be adjourned to the 24th. 

Feb. 23. A Petition having been prefented to the 
Houfe, two Days before, from George Duke of 
Buckingham^ then Prifoner in Windfor-Callle^ pray- 
ing an Enlargement; and, this Day, the Houfe be- 
ing informed that, in purfuance of the Order of this 
Houfe of Monday laft, the Duke of Buckingham 
attended, to make his Engagement to this Houfe ; 
he was called in, and was brought to the Bar by 
the Serjeant at Arms, (landing by him without the 
Bar; and by his Keeper, a Servant to the Governor 
of IVindfcr-Caftle, coming with him into the Houfe. 

4 Mr. Speaker acquainted the Duke, That a Peti- 
tion having been delivered from him to this Houfe on 
Monday laft, by aPerfon of Honour, one of the Mem- 
bers thereof, and nearly related to him j the Houfe 
had taken into a due Confideration the Duke's De- 
meritSy which had been very great to this Common- 
wealth ; but had over balanced them with the high 
Merit of his Relations ; and, of their Goodnefs, 
had ordered, That, upon his own Engagement upoi: 
his Honour, and of the Lord Fairfax in 2O,ooo/. 
that he mould not abet any the Enemies of this 
Commonwealth, either at home or abroad , he 
(hould have his Enlargement j which Engagement 
they now expected from him. 

T > - The 

292 The Parti amc?itary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. 4 The Duke, ftanding at the Bar, faid, He ac- 
counted it his great Happinefs to come before this 
Aflembly ; and that, in purfuance, and according 
to the Order of this Houfe, he did now here engage 
himfelf to this Houfe, upon his Honour, to demean 
himfelf peaceably and quietly, and not to join with, 
or abet, or have any Correfpondence with, any the 
Enemies of this Commonwealth, either at home or 
abroad, for the future: And, further, gave the 
Houfe his moft humble Thanks for their high Fa- 
vour towards him ; and profeffed, he fhould be 
ready to lay down his Life and Fortune for their 

' After the Duke's Engagement, made as before, 
he was commanded to withdraw j and withdrew 

Refolved, &c. That George Duke of Bucking- 
ham^ upon this his Engagement upon his Honour, 
made to this Houfe this Day at the Bar, be forth- 
with freed and difcharged from the Imprifonment 
and Reftraint he is now under.' 

The Debate on Secretary Tbur/oe's Report, on 
the State of foreign Affairs, was entered into, and 
this Refolution made upon it, * That a very confi- 
derable Navy be forthwith provided and put to Sea, 
for the Safety of this Commonwealth, and the Pre- 
fervation of the Trade and Commerce thereof.' 
The further Debate of this adjourned to the next 

The next Day, Feb. 24, it was again entered 
into, but referred to the Afternoon of the fame Day; 
when, after aDivifion of 177 againft 119, Whether 
Candles or no Candles I the main Queftion was 
put, after another Divifion of 176 againft 98, and 
carried, That it be referred to his Highnefs the 
Lord Protector to put the Vote of this Houfe, con- 
cerning the preparing and putting to Sea a confider- 
able Navy, for the Safety of this Commonwealth, 
and the Prefervation of the Trade and Commerce 
thereof, in Execution ; faying the Jntereft of this 


Of E N G L A N D. 293 

Houfe in the Militia, and in making Peace and Interregnum. 
War. Ordered, alfo, 4 That Mr. Secretary Thurloe 
be defired to carry this Vote to his Highnefs.' 

The two lafl Days of this Month were again 
employed in debating the Power and Bounds of the 
Other Houfe, without coming to any Refolution, hut 
to adjourn it to the Day following; and there being 
nothing elfe to be met with in the Journals, (except 
we mention that the Houfe releafed two Prifoners, 
Mr. Robert Overton and Mr.Jo/mPortfman y com- 
mitted by the late Prote&or, one to the Ifland of 
"Jerfey, and the other to the Tower, and voted their 
Imprifonments illegal and unjuft) we fliall conclude 
the Affairs of this Month. 

March i. The Bufmefs relating to the Other 
Houfe was again entered into; and, after fomc 
Time fpent therein, a Queftion was propounded, 
Whether it (hould be the Matter of Debate on the 
next Morning, that this Houfe will tranfat with 
the Perfons now fitting in the Other Houfe, as an 
Houfe of Parliament? the Houfe divided, and it 
was carried in the Affirmative, by 177 againft 113. 

The Houfe continued in this Debate every Day 
they fat, to the 8th Inftant j when a further Que- 
ftion was propofed, by way of Addition to the other, 
viz. ' And that it is not hereby intended to exclude 
fuch Peers as have been faithful to the -Parliament, 
from their Privilege of being duly fummoned to be 
Members of that Houfe;' another Divifionhappen'd 
on this, and was carried, affirmatively, by 195 
againft 188 j the greateft Number, and the neareit 
Divifion, we have yet met with in this Parliament.. 

Immediately after Prayers the next Day, March 9, 
Mr. Speaker, being in the Chair, and very much 
indifpofed in his Health, acquainted the Houfe, 
That he came to the Chair with a great Defire to 
ferve the Houfe ; but their Sittings had been fo 
extraordinary, and their Bufmefs fuch, and fo 
T 3 requiring 

294 tt ff Parliamentary HISTORY 

Interregnum, requiring it, that he was utterly difabled to ferve 
1658. them, as he would, for the prefent : That it was a 

C^'--v p ~ *J great Grief of Mind to him to retard the Public 
Ma;c . Bufinefs, though but for one Half Hour, or more, 
as it had been this Morning : That he found him- 
felf grow weaker and weaker, and therefore humbly 
prayed he might be totally difcharged ; or otherwife 
that he might have fo much Refpite, at lead, granted 
to him, as that, by the Bleffing of God, he might 
recover fome better Meafure of Health, and be 
enabled to return again to their Service : Where- 
upon, by the Leave of the Houfe, he left the 
Chair, and went home to his own Houfe ; and the 
, Serjeant attended him, with the Mace, out of the 

Houfe, to his Coach ; and afterwards brought the 
Mace back, and placed it below, under the Table, 
The Members of the Houfe, fitting in their 
Places, confidering of appointing another of their 
Members to take the Chair, and fupply the Speaker's 
Place during his Abfence, by reafon of his Indifpo- 
fition of Health ; and Sir LiJIebone Long, Knt. 
Recorder of London, being firft named, by the 
general Confent of the Houfe was called, and 
brought to the Chair by Sir Walter St. John and 
Mr. Francis Gerard-, and being there placed, and 
let in the Chair, and the Mace placed on the Table 
by the Serjeant, as is ufual, it was ordered, * That, 
in refpect of Mr. Speaker's prefent Indifpofition of 
Body, and at his earneft Requeft, Sir Lijlelone Long 
be defired to fupply the Speaker's Place during his 
Abfence, occafioned by his prefent Indifpofition of 
Health, and no longer.' 

In the Interval of the other Debate, another Caufe 
came on to be tried, concerning the Sitting of the 
Members, return'd for Scotland, in the Houfe. It was 
begun on this Day, March 10, and continued to the 
2 1 ft, without coming to any conclufive Refolution, 
or any Divifion, except one or two about Candles or 
no Candles ; but, on the Day laft mentioned, a Que - 
(lion was propofed, That the Members, return'd to 
ferve for Scotland, fhould continue to fit as Members 


Of E N G L A N D. 295 

during the prefent Parliament; and the Queftion Inter-rcgnum. 
being put, That this Queftion be now put, the ^^ 

Houle divided, and it was carried in the Affirmative, Mitch 
2ii againft 120 ; fo, the main Queftion being put, 
the Houfe divided again ; but the Yeas, going forth, 

i r 11 VT The Scots Mciti- 

appeared fo numerous, that the Noes gave it up, bcrs vote( j to fa 
and the Scots were allowed to fit and vote duringia the Houfe, 
this prefent Parliament. 

But, whilft this Affair was debating in the Houfe, 
two Things happened befide worth Notice ; the 
tirft was, That their Speaker, Mr. Chute, continu- 
ing ftill fo indifpofed that he was unable to ferve, 
the Houfe fent a Deputation a of their Members to 
viflt him ; which, Mr. IVhitlocke fays, was a very 

eat Honour to him. The Anfwer return'd was, 
hat Mr. Chute was ftill fo infirm, that he could 
not attend the Serving of the Houfe ; and Sir Lijle- 
bone Long b , who was chofen to execute the Office 
for him, being actually dead, the Houfe was obliged 
to go to another Election, when Thomai Bampfield, 
Efq; was unanimoufly agreed upon to fucceed him; 
and Chaliner Chute^ Efq; dying alfo foon after, the 
other continued Speaker to the End of this Parlia- 

We have before (lightly mentioned the Releafe- 
ment of Mr. Robert Overton^ committed Prifoner 
to the Ifland of Jerfey, by Warrant from the late 
Lord Protector : But the Houfe did not only vote 
his Difcharge, but ordered him to be brought up 
from thence to their Bar, and the Deputy Governor 
with him. Accordingly, on the i6th Inftant, they 
both appeared before the Houfe ; when the Speaker 
afked him by what Authority he detained Major- 
General Ovcrton his Prifoner ? He anfwered, It was 
by Warrant from his late Highnefs. Being com- 
manded to produce the Warrant, he did fo, and it 
was delivered to the Speaker. Then the Major- 
General being afked if he had any thing to fay con- 
cerning his Imprifonment, anfwered, ' That he did 


a The Lord Fairfax, Slr.Jnttorj Ajhlcy Cooftr, Dr. Batburft, 
and Mr. Wea-vtr. 

i> Mr. fVbithcke call* this Man a very fober difcreet Gentleman^ 
and a good Lawyer, 

296 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. acknowledge it the great Mercy of God, that, after 
l6 59 t four Years Imprifonment, he was now brought to 

* "M~*7 this Bar : That, as he had been in a fuffering Con- 
dition for four Years, fo he defired to be paflive ftill : 
And that, when any Charge (hall be brought in 
againft him, he hopes he fball give fuch Anfwer to 
it as fhall fatisfy, and clear him from any former 
Miftakes and Mifapprehenfions concerning him : 
That he hoped he had not done any thing contrary 
to what he had at firft engaged and fought for : 
That he defires not to live or die, but by the diftri- 
butive Juftice of this Houfe : And tho' he knows 
nothing by himfelf, and that he hopes he hath done 
nothing worthy of Death, or of Bonds, yet he will 
not juftify himfelf ; but moft humbly leaves himfelf, 
his Caufe, and his Condition, to this Houfe.' And 
then, by the Command of the Houfe, the Deputy- 
Governor and Major- General Overton withdrew > 
the Houfe ordering him to be difcharged without 
paying any Fees. 

We chofe to give this whole Affair, at Length,, 
from the Authority of the Journals, to fhew the 
arbitrary Proceedings of the late upftart Tyrant, 
over thofe that he but barely fufpe&ed to have any ill 
Defign againft him. 

March 23. The Houfe was now emplqyed, for 
two or three Days, in hearing Reports from their 
Committee, and regulating of Elections. The next 
Thing they went upon was to try the Merits of the 
As arc the/7//^./r/^>, in regard to the Ria;ht to fit in the Houfe: 
But this was ended the very Day it was begun ; for, 
after fome Debate, the Queftion being called for, 
it was carried for their Sitting, 156 againft 106. 

This Day, March 28, the Houfe refumed the 
Debate on the Queftion of tran fading with the Per- 
fons now fitting in the Other Houfe, and the Addi- 
tions to that Queftion. This Debate lafted the 
whole Day, and two Divifions of the Houfe were 
made before the main Queftion was put ; one was, 
That, after the Word Parliament, thefe Words, 


Of ENGLAND. 297 

tvhen they /hall be approved by this Houfe > might be Inter-regnumf 
added; which was carried negatively, 183 to 146. . j_ 5 ^ ^ 
Another Queftion was to alter the Word approved ^M c h. 
to bounden ; but this went alib in the Negative, with- 
out a Divifion. Then the Houfe being informed 
that divers of the Members, who had attended 
the Debate on the main Queftion, were in the 
Speaker's Chamber, the Serjeant was commanded 
to call them down ; and a Queftion was put, To 
adjourn the Debate for an Hour; which, on another 
Divifion, 169 againft 89, was rejected. After this 
one more Queftion was put, which was, That, 
after the Word Parliament in the main Queftion, 
during this prefent Parliament ftiould be added, it 
went in the Affirmative. Then the main Queftion The Bill for 
being at laft put, the Houfe divided upon it; when tranfafting Ba- 
it was carried for the Queftion, 198 to 125 : So itj. n ft " ith th 
was refolved, ^Y. < That this Houfe will tranfaa" 
with the Perfons now fitting in the Other Houfe, 
as an Houfe of Parliament, during this prefent Par- 
liament j and that it is not hereby intended to 
exclude fuch Peers, as have been faithful to the 
Parliament, from their Privilege of being duly 
fummoned to be Members of that Houfe.' 

But before we difmifs this Affair, in which the 
true Republican Party were the greateft Sticklers 
againft recognizing the Other Houfe, we think it 
not amifs to give our Readers a Speech, faid to be 
ipoken on the fame Occafion. We do not warrant 
the Authenticknefs of it, for we think it too bold 
for the Time; but that it is as old, is clear from all 
Appearances. We fhall therefore give it a Place 
here, without any further Ceremony. c 

Mr. Speaker, 
' rTlHIS Day's Debate is but too clear a Proof A Speech againft 

1 that we Rnzlijhmen are right Wanders, va- t 
riable and mutable like the Air we live in : For, Sir, 
if that were not our Temper, we (hould not be now 


c The Title of this Pamphlet, is, A feafonable Speech, made by a 
worthy Member of P&rliament in the Houfe of Ctmmstit, nr.cermng 
the Other Hovf;, March 1659. 

298 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

tnter-regnum. difputing, whether, after all thofe Hazards we have 
n, that Blood we have fpilt, that Treafnre we have 
exhaufted, we mould not now fit down juft where 
we did begin > and, of our own Accords, fubmit our- 
felves to that Slavery, which we have not only ven- 
tured our Eftates and Lives, but, I wifh I could not 
fay, our Souls and Confciences, to throw off. What 
others, Sir, think of this Levity, I cannot tell ; I 
mean thofe that fleer their Confciences by Occafions, 
and cannot lofe the Honour they never had : But, 
truly, Sir, for my own Part, I dare as little not declare 
it to be my Opinion, as others, more prudential, dare 
avow it to be theirs, that we are this Day making 
good all the Reproaches of our Enemies, owning of 
ourfelves Oppreflbrs, Murderers, Regicides, Sub- 
verters of that which now we do not only acknow- 
ledge to have been a lawful Government; but, by 
recalling it, confefs it now to be the beft : Which, 
Sir, if it be true, and that we now begin to fee aright, 
I heartily wifh our Eyes had been fooner open ; and, 
for Three Nations Sake, that we had purchafed our 
Conviction at a cheaper Rate. We might, Sir, in 
1642, have been what we thus contend to be in 
1659; anc ^ our Confciences have had much lefs to 
anfwer for to God, and our Reputations to the 

' But, Mr. Speaker, I wifh, with all my Soul, I 
did ftate our Cafe to you amifs ; and that it were 
the Queftion only, Whether we would voluntarily 
relapfe into the Difeafe we were formerly poffefied 
with, and, of our own Accords, take up our old 
Yoke, that we, with Wearing and Cuftom, had 
made habitual and eafy > and which, it may be, it 
was more our Wantonnefs than our PrefTure, that 
made us throw off. But this, Sir, is not now the 
Queftion ; that which we deliberate, is not, Whe- 
ther we will fay we do not care to be free, we like 
our old Matters, and will now be content to have 
our Ears bored at the Door-Pofts of their Houfe, 
and fo ferve them for ever : But, Sir, as if we were 
contending for Shame as well as Servitude, we are 


Of ENGLAND. 299 

carrying our Ears to be bored at the Doors of ano- Inter-rgnum. 
ther Houfc ; u Houfc, Sir, without Name, and there- l6 5j? 
tore it is but congruous it fliould coniift of Members *""?* T 
without Family j a Houfe that inverts the Order of 
Slavery, and fubjects it to our Servants ; and yet, 
in Contradiction to Scripture, we do not only not 
think that Subjection intolerable, but are now plead- 
ing for it. In a Word, Sir, it is a Houfe of fo in- 
congruous and odious a Compofition and Mixture, 
that certainly the grand Architect would never have 
fo framed it, had it not been his Dciign as well to 
fhew the World the Contempt he had of us, as to 
demonftrate the Power he had over us. 

* Sir, that it may appear that I intend not to be 
fo prudent, as far as my Part is concerned, as to 
make a voluntary Refignation of my Liberty and 
Honour to this excellent Part of his late Highnefs's 
Laft Will and Teftament, I (hall crave, Sir, the 
Leave to declare, in a few Particulars, my Opi- 
nion of this Other Houfe ; wherein I cannot but 
promife myfelf to be favourably heard by fome, but 
patiently heard by all : For thofe Englishmen that 
are againft this Houfe will certainly, with Content, 
hear the Reafons why others are fo too ; thofe 
Courtiers, that arc for it, give me Evidence enough 
to think that there is nothing in Nature which 
they cannot willingly endure. 

4 Firft, Sir, As to the Author and Framcr of this 
Houfc of Peers : Let me put you in Mind, it was 
he, that, with reiterated Oaths, had often fworn to 
be true and faithful to the Government without it ; 
and not only fworn fo himfelf, but had been the 
chief Inftrument both to draw and compel others to 
fwear fo too. So, Sir, that the Foundation of this 
noble Fabric was laid in Perjury, and was begun 
with the Violation and Contempt, as well of the 
Laws of God as of the Nation. He, Sir, that cal- 
led Monarchy Anticbrtftian in another, and, indeed, 
made it fo in himfelf: He that voted a Houfe of 
Lords dangerous and unneceflary, and too truly 
made it fo in his Partifans : He that, with Fraud 
and Force, deprived you of your Liberty when he 


3 oo The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Uiter-regnum. was living, and entailed Slavery upon you at his 
l6 S9- Death ; 'tis he, Sir, that hath left you thefe worthy 

*~j~^~ > Overfeers of that his Laft Will and Teftamait ; 
who, however they have behaved themfelves in 
other Trufts, we may be confident they will en- 
deavour faithfully to difcharge themfelves in this. In 
a Word, Sir, had this Other Houfe no other Fault 
but its Inftitution and Author, I mould think that 
original Sin enough for its Condemnation : For I am 
of "their Opinion that think that, for the Good of 
Example, all A&s and Monuments of Tyrants are 
to be expunged and erafed, that, if poflible, their 
Memory might be no longer liv'd than their Car- 
caffes. And the Truth is, their good Laws are of 
the Number of their Snares, and but bafe Brokage 
for our Liberty. 

' But, Sir, to impute to this Other Houfe no other 
Faults but its own, you may pleafe, in the firft 
Place, to confider of the Power which his Highnefs 
hath left it, according to that Humble Petition and 
Advice, which he was pleafed to give Order to the 
Parliament to prefent unto him. For, Sir, as the 
Romans had Kings, fo had his Highnefs Parliaments 
amongft his Inftruments of Slavery : And I hope, 
Sir, it will be no Offence for me to pray that his 
Son may not have them fo too. But, Sir, they 
have a Negative Voice, and all other Circumftances 
of that Arbitrary Power, which made the former 
Houfe intolerable ; only the Dignity and Quality of 
the Perfons themfelves is wanting, that our Slavery 
may be accompanied with Ignominy and Affront. 
And now, Mr. Speaker, have we not glorioufly 
vindicated the Nation's Liberty ? Have we not 
worthily employed our Blood and Treafure to abo- 
lifli that Power that was fet over us by the Law, to 
have the fame impofed upon us without a Law ? 
And after all that Sound and Noife we have made 
in the World, of the People's Legiflative Power, 
and of the Supremacy and Omnipotency of their 
Reprefentatives ; we now fee there is no more 
Power left them, but what is put in the Balance, 
suid equalled by the Power of a, few Retainers of 


Of E N G L A N D. 301 

Tyranny, who are fo far from being of the People's 
Choice, that the moft Part of them are only known 
to the Nation by the VilJanies and Mifchiefs they 
have committed in it. March. 

' In the next Place, Sir, you may pleafe to con- 
fider, that the Perfons inverted with this Power are 
all of them nominated and defigned by the Lord 
Protestor; for to fay by him and his Council hath, 
in Effect, no more Diftinclion, than if one fhould 
fay, by Oliver and Cromwell. By this Means the 
Protector himfelf, by his own and his Peers Nega- 
tive, becomes, in Effect, two of the three Eftates ; 
and, by Confequence, is poffefied of two Parts of 
the Legiflative Power. I think this can be a Doubt 
to no Man, that will but take the Pains to read 
over that fair Catalogue of thofe Noble Lords : For 
certainly no Man that reads their Names, can pofli- 
bly fancy for what other Virtues or good Qualities 
luch a Compofition fhould be made Choice of, but 
only the Certainty of their Compliance with what- 
foever Ihould be enjoyned them by their Creator : 
Pardon, Sir, that Name, for 'tis properly applica- 
ble where Things are made of nothing. Now, Sir, 
if, in the former Government, Increafe of Nobility 
was a Grievance, becaufe the new Nobility, having 
frefh Obligation to the Crown, were the eafier lead 
to Compliance with it : And if one of the main 
Reafons for Exclufion of the Bifhops out of the 
Houfe of Lords, was becaufe that they, being of the 
King's making, were, in Effect, fo many certain 
Votes for whatever the King had a Mind to carry 
in that Houfe : How much more affured will that 
Inconvenience now be, when the Protector, that 
wants nothing of the King, but, in every Senfe, the 
Title, (hall not only make and nominate a Parf. 
but, of himfelf, conftitute the whole Houfe ? In a 
Word, Sir, if our Liberty was endangered by the 
former Houfe, we may give it up for loft in the; 
Other Houfe. And 'tis, in all Refpedts, as advan- 
tageous and fecure for the Liberty of the Nation, 
which we come hither to redeem, to allow this 
Power and Notion to his Highnefs's Officers, or 


302 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. Council, nay, his very Chaplains, as to his other 
* 6 59- Creatures and Partifans in his Other Houfe. 

v ~ir Nr ""~ ; ' Now, having confiderecl, Sir, their Author* 
' rc ' Power, and ConlHtution, give me Leave to make 
fome few Obfervations, though but in general, of 
the Perfons themfelves that are defigned to be our 
Lords and Mailers, and let us ice what either the 
extraordinary Quality or Qualifications are of thefe 
egregious Legiflators, which may juftify their Choice, 
and prevail with the People to admit them, at leaft, 
into equal Authority with the whole Reprefentative 
Body of themfelves. But what I {hall fpeak, Sirj 
of their Quality, or any thing elfe concerning them, 
I would be thought to fpeak with Diftinclion, and 
to intend only of the Major Part ; for I acknow- 
ledge, Mr. Speaker, the Mixture of this Other 
Hou r e to be like the Compofitions of Apothecaries, 
who are ufed to mix fomething of Relifh, fome- 
thing grateful to the Tafte, to qualify their bitter 
Drugs, which elfe, perchance, would be immedi- 
ately fpit out, and never fwallowed. So, Sir, his 
Highnefs, of deplorable Memory to this Nation, 
to countenance as well the "Want of Quality as 
Honefty in the reft, hath nominated fome, againft 
whom there lies no other Reproach, but only that 
Nomination ; but not, Sir, out of any Refpe<5t to 
their Qualities, or Regard to their Virtues, but with 
regard to the No-quality, to the No-virtues of the 
reft : Which, truly, Mr. Speaker, if he had not 
done, we could eafily have given a more exprefs 
Name to his Other Houfe, than he hath been plea- 
led to do : For we know a Houfe defigned only for 
Beggars and Malefactors, is a Houfe of Correction, 
and termed fo by your Law. 

' But, Mr. Speaker, fetting thofe few Perfons 
tfide, who I hope think the Nomination a Difgrace, 
and the ever coming to fit there a much greater ; 
can we, without Indignation, think on the reft ? 
He that is firft in their Roll, a condemned Coward ; 
one that, out of Fear and Bafenefs, did once what 
he could to betray your Liberties, and does now the 
fame for Gain. The fecond, a Perfon gf as little 


Of E N G L A N D. 303 

Scnfe as Honefty, preferred for no other Reafon but Inter-reg num. 
his No-worth, his No-confcience ; except that his 
cheating his Father of all he had was thought a Vir- 
tue by him, who, by fad Experience we rind, hath 
done as much for his Mother, his Country. The 
third, a Cavalier, a Prefbyterian, an Independent; for 
a Republic, for a Prote&or, for every thing, for no- 
thing, but only that one thing, Money. 'Twerc 
endlefs to run through them all, to tell you, Sir, of 
their Lordfhips of feventeen Pound Land a Year of 
Inheritance ; of their Farmer Lordfhips, Draymen 
Lordfhips, Cobler Lordfhips, without one Foot of 
Land, but what the Blood oiEnglifimtn hath been 
the Price of. Thefe, Sir, are to be our Rulers, 
thefe the Judges of our Lives and Fortunes j to thefe 
we are to ftand bare, whilft their pageant Stage. 
Lordfhips deign to give us a Conference upon their 
Breeches. Mr. Speaker, we have already had too 
much Experience, how unfupportable Servants are, 
when they become our Mafters. All Kind of Slave- 
ry is Mifery in the Account of all generous Minds \ 
but that which comes accompanied with Scorn and 
Contempt, ftirs every Man's Indignation, and is 
endured by none, whom Nature does not intend fo^ 
Slaves, as well as Fortune. 

' I fay not this, Mr. Speaker, to revile any Man 
with his Meannefs ; for I never thought either the 
Malignity or Indulgence of Fortune, to- be (with 
wife or juft Men) the Grounds either of their ill or 
their eood Opinion. Mr. Speaker, I blame not in 
thefe Men the Faults of their Fortune, any other- 
wife but as they make them their own : I object to 
you their Poverty, becaufe it is accompanied with 
Ambition ; I remind you of their Quality, becaufe 
they themfelves forget it. So that it is not the Men 
I am angry with, but with their Lordfhips ; not 
with Mr. Barkjlead^ or Mr. Coaler ', (Tides I could 
well allow him) but with, The Right Honourable, 
our fmgular good Lord and Goaler. 'Tis this In- 
congruity, Mr. Speaker, lam difpleafed with. 

' So, Sir, that tho' we eafily grant Poverty and 
Neceflity to be no Faults, yet we muft allow them 


304 The Parliamentary HISTORV 

to be great Impediments in the Way of Honour, 
and fuch as nothing but extraordinary Virtue and 
Merit can well remove. The Scripture reckons it 
among "Jeroboam's great Faults, that be made Priefls 
of the meaneft of the People : And fure it was none 
of the Virtues of our "Jeroboam (who hath fet up 
his Calves too, and would have our Tribes come 
up and worfhip them) that he obferved the fame 
Method in making of Lords. 

* One of the few Requefts the Portitguefe made 
to Philip the Second of Spain, when he got that 
Kingdom (as his late Highnefs did this) by an Ar- 
my, was, That he would not make Nobility con- 
temptible, by advancing fuch to that Degree, whofe 
Quality or Virtue could be no way thought to de- 
ferve it. Nor have we formerly been lefs appre- 
henfive of fuch Inconveniences ourfelves : It was, 
in Richard the Firft's Time, one of the Bilhop of 
.Yv's Accufations, That Caflies and Forts of Truft 
he did, obfcuris 6' ignotis Hominibns trader e> put 
into the Hands of obfcure and unknown Men. But 
we, Mr. Speaker, to fuch a Kind of Men are deli- 
vering up the Power of our Laws, and, in that, the 
Power of all. 

< In the iyth of Edward IV. there parted an Adi: 
of Parliament, for the degrading of John Nevil 9 
Marquis Montague, and Duke qf Bedford: The 
Reafon exprefs'd in the Act, * Becaufe he had not a 
' Revenue fufficient for the maintaining of that 
' Dignity.' To which is added, ' That when Men 
' of mean Birth are called to high Eftate, and have 

* no Livelihood to fupport it, it induceth Bribery, 
' Extortions, and all Kinds of Injuftices that are fol- 
' lowed by Gain.' And in the Parliament of 2 Ca- 
rol, the Peers, in a Petition againft Scots and Irijh 
Titles, told the King, ' That 'tis a -Novelty with- 

* out Prefident, that Men fhould poffefs Honours 
' where they pofTefs nothing elfe; and that they 
c fhould have a Vote in Parliament, where they 
' have not a Foot of Land.' But if it had been added, 
Sir, Or have no Land but what is the Purchafe of 
their Villanies, ^ajnft how many of our new Peers 


Of E N G L A N D, 305 

had this been an important Objection ? To con- Inter-regnum. 
elude, Sir, it hath been a very juft and reafonable l6 59- 
Care, amongft all Nations, not to render that de- *~ "T^^T** 
fpifcd and contemptible to the People, which is dc- 
figncd for their Reverence and their Awe; which, 
Sir, bare and empty Title, without Quality or Vir- 
tue, never procured any Man, any more than the 
Image in the Fable made the Afs adored that car- 
ried it. 

' After their Quality, give me Leave, Sir, to 
fpeak a Word or two of their Qualifications ; which 
certainly ought, in Reafon, to carry fome Propor- 
tion with the Employments they defign themfelves. 
The Houfe of Lords, Sir, are our Kings Here- 
ditary great Councils ; they are the higheft Court of 
Judicature ; they have their Part in judging and de- 
termining of the Reafons of making new Laws, and 
of abrogating old : From amongft them we take our 
great Officers of State j they are commonly cur 
Generals at Land, and our Admirals at Sea. In 
Conclufion, Sir, they are both of the Eflence and 
Constitution of our old Government; and have, be- 
fides, the greateft and nobleft Share in the Admini- 
ftration. Now certainly, Sir, to judge according 
to the Dictates of Reafon, one would imagine fome 
i'mall Faculties and Endowments to be neceflary for 
the difcharging of fuch a Calling; and -thofe fuch 
as are not ufually acquired in Shops and Warehoufes, 
nor found by following the Plough. Now, what 
other Academies moft of their Lordftiips have been 
bred in, but their Shops ; what other Arts they 
have been verfed in, but thofe which more require 
ood Arms and good Shoulders than good Heads, 
1 think, Mr. Speaker, we are yet to be informed. 
Sir, we commit not the Education of our Children 
to ignorant and illiterate Mafters ; nay, we trulfc 
not our very Horfes to unfkilful Grooms. I be- 
feech you, Sir, let us think it belongs to us to have 
fome Care into.whofe Hands we commit the Ma- 
nagement of the Commonwealth ; and if we cannot 
have Perfons of Birth and Fortune to be our li , 
to whofe Quality \vc would willincrl'.', I 


306 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

befeech you, Sir, for our Credit and Safety's Sake, 
l6 59- let us feek Men, at leaft, of Parts and Education, 
"r" v 7""'* to whofe Abilities we may have feme Reaion to 
give Way. If, Sir, a Patient dies under a Phy- 
fician's Hand, the Law efteems that not a Fe- 
lony, but a Misfortune in the Phyfician ; but if 
one that is no Phyfician undertakes the Manage- 
ment of a Cure, and the Party mifcarries, the Law 
makes the Empiric a Felon ; and fure, in all Men's 
Opinion, the Patient a Fool. To conclude, Sir, 
for great Men to govern, it is ordinary ; for able 
Men, it is natural ; Knaves many Times come to 
it by Force and Neceflity, and Fools fometimes by 
Chance ; but univerfal Choice and Election of Fools 
and Knaves for Government, was never yet made by 
any who were not themfelves like thofe they chofe. 

But methinks, Mr. Speaker, I fee, ready to rife 
after me, fome Gentleman that (hall tell you the 
great Services that their New Lordfhips have done 
the Commonwealth ; that fhall extol their Valour, 
their Godlinefs, their Fidelity to the Caufe : The 
Scripture too, no doubt, as it is to all Purpofes, 
fhall be brought in to argue for them j and we (hall 
hear of the Wifdom of the poor Man that faved tie 
City, of the not many wife, not many mighty : Attri- 
butes I can no way deny to be due to their Lord- 
fhips. Mr*. Speaker, I fhall be as forward as any 
Man to declare their Services, and acknowldge 
them ; tho' I might tell you, that the fame Honour 
is not purchafed by the Blood of an Enemy, and of 
a Citizen ; that for Victories in Civil Wars, till 
our Armies marched through the City, I have not 
read that the Conquerors have been fo void of 
Shame as to triumph. Ctsfar? not much more in- 
dulgent to his Country than our late Protector, did 
not fo much as write public Letters of his Victory 
at Pbarfalia^ much lefs had Days of Thankfgiving 
to his Gods, and Anniverfary Feafts for having 
been a profperous Rebel, and given Juftice and his 
Country the worft. 

* But, Sir, I leave this Argument, and, to be as 
good as my Word, corne to put you in Mind of 


Of E N C L A N D. 307 

fome of their Services, and the Obligation you owe Inter- regnum. 
them for the fame. To fpeak nothing, Sir, of one j6 59- 
of my Lords Commiffioners Valour at Bri^cl, nor of ^'TT^T^ 
another Noble Lord's brave Adventure at the Bear- 
Gardcn ; I muft tell you, Sir, that moft of them 
have had the Courage to do Things, which, I may 
boldly fay, few other Chriftians durft have fo ad- 
ventured their Souls to have attempted : They have 
not only fubdued their Enemies, but their Mailers 
that railed and maintained them ; they have not 
only conquered Scotland and Ireland, but rebellious 
England too; and there fupprefs'd a malignant Party 
of Magiftrates and Laws. And that nothing fhould 
be wanting to make them indeed com pi eat Conque- 
rors, (without the Help of Philofophy) they have 
even conquered themfelves. All Shame they have 
fubdued, as perfectly as all Jultice ; the Oaths they 
have taken, they have as eafily digefted as their 
old General could himfelf ; public Covenants and 
Engagements they have trampled Under-foot: In 
Conclufion, fo intire a Victory they have over 
themfelves, that their Confciences are as much their 
Servants as, Mr. Speaker, we are. But, Sir, give 
me Leave to conclude with that which is more 
admirable than all this, and {hews the Confidence 
they have of themfelves and us : After having many 
Times trampled on the Authority of the Houfe of 
Commons, and no lefs than five Times diilblved 
them, they hope, for thofe good Services to the 
Houfe of Commons, to be made by the Houfe of 
Commons a Houfe of Lords. 

' I have been over long, Sir, for which I crave 
your Pardon ; therefore in a Word I conclude. I 
bcfecch you let us think it our Duty to have a Care 
of two Things : Flrjl, That Villanies be not encou- 
raged with the Rewards of Virtue : Secondly, That 
the Authority and Majefty of the Government of 
this Nation be not defiled, and expofcd to Con- 
tempt, by committing fo confiderablc a Part of it to 
Pcrfons of as mean Quality as Parts. 

4 The Tbebans did not admit Merchants into Go- 
vernment, till they had left their Traffic ten Years : 
U ? ' SIM 

308 *The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Sure it would have been long before Coblers and 
1659. Draymen would have been allowed. If, Sir, the 

* -v~ ' Wifdom of this Houfe {hall find it necefiary to be- 
March. gin where we left, and {hall think we have been 
hitherto like the Prodigal, and that now when our 
Neceflities perfuade us, /. e. that we are almoft 
brought to herd it with Swine, now 'tis high Time 
to think of a Return : Let us, without more ado, 
without this motley Mixture, even take our Rulers 
as at the firft, fo that we can be but reafonably fe- 
cured to avoid our Counfellors as at the Beginning. 
4 Give me Leave, Sir, to releafe your Patience 
with a fliort Story. Livy tells us, there was a State in 
Italy in an Ariftocracy, where the Nobility ftretch'd 
their Prerogative too high, and prefumed a little 
too much on the People's Liberty and Patience ; 
whereupon the Discontents were fo general and fo 
great, that they apparently tended to a DiiTolution 
of Government, and the turning of all Things into 
Anarchy and Confufion. At the fame Time, be- 
fides thefe Diftempers at home, there was a potent 
Enemy ready to fall upon them from abroad, that 
had been an Over- match for them at their beft 
Union ; but now, in thefe Diforders, was like to find 
them a very ready and very eafy Prey : A wife Man, 
Sir, in the City, that did not at all approve of the 
Infolency of the Nobility, and as little liked popu- 
lar Tumults, bethought himfelf of this Stratagem, 
to couzen his Country into Safety : Upon a Pre- 
tence of Counfel, he procured the Nobility to meet 
all together; which when they had done, he found 
a Way to lock all the Doors upon them, goes away 
himfelf, and takes the Keys with him : Then im- 
mediately he fummons the People ; tells them, that, 
by a Contrivance of his, he had taken all the Nobi- 
lity in a Trap ; that now was the Time for them to 
be revenged upon them for all their fnfolencies ; that 
therefore they mould immediately go along with 
him and difpatch them. Sir, the Officers of our 
Army, after a Faft, could not be more ready for the 
Villany, than this People were : And accordingly 
they made as much Hafte to the Slaughter as their 


Of E N G L A N D. 309 

Lord Protector could defire them. But, Sir, this interregnum. 
wife Man I told you of, was their Lord Protestor 1659. 
indeed : As foon as he had brought the People where V* %" J 
the Parliament was fitting, and when they but ex- March, 
peeled the Word to fall to the Butchery, and take 
their Heads, * Gentlemen, fays he, tho' I would 
' not care how foon this Work of Reformation were 

* over, yet, in this Ship of the Commonwealth, we 
' muft not throw the Steers -men over board, till we 

* have provided others for the Helm : Let us confi- 
' der before we take thefe Men away, in what other 
' Hands we may more fccurely truft our Liberty, 

* and the Management of the Commonwealth.' 
And fo he advifed them, before the putting down of 
the former, to bethink themfelvcs of conftituting an 
Other Houfe. He begins and nominates one, a 
Man highly cried up in the popular Fadion, a con- 
fiding Man, one of much Zeal, little Senfe, and no 
Quality j you may fuppofe him, Sir, a zealous 
Cobler. The People, in Conclufion, murmured 
at this, and were loth their Fellow- Mutineer, for 
no other Virtue but Mutinying, fhould come to be 
advanced to be their Matter ; and, by their Looks 
and Murmur, fufficiently exprefled the Diftafte they 
took at fuch a Motion. Then he nominates ano- 
ther, as mean a Mechanic as the former j you may 
imagine him, Sir, a buftling rude Drayman, or the 
like : He was no fooner named, but fome burft out 
a-Jaughing, others grew angry and railed at him, 
and all detefted and icorn'd him. Upon this a third 
was named for a Lordfhip, one of the fame Batch, 
and every way fit to fit with the other two. The 
People then fell into a confufed Laugh and Noife, 
and inquired, If fuch were Lords, who, by all the 
Gods, would be content to be the Commons ? 

* Sir, Let me be bold, by the good Leave of the 
Other Houfe and yours, to afk the fame Queftion : 
But, Sir, to conclude this Story, and with it 1 hope 
the Other Houfe ; when this wife Man I told you of 
perceived they were now fenfible of the Inconveni- 
ence and Mifchicf they were running into, and fa\v 
that the pulling down their Rulers would prove, in 
U 3 the 

310 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

the End, but the letting up of their Servants ; he 
thought them then prepared to hear Reafon, and 
told them, You fee, faith he, that, as bad as this 
' Government is, we cannot, for any thing I fee, 
' agree upon a better : What then, if after this 

* Fright we have put our Nobility in, and the De- 

* monftration we have given them of our Power, we 
' try them once more, whether they will mend, and, 
' for the future, behave themfelves with more Mo- 

* deration ?' That People, Mr. Speaker, were fq 
wife as to comply with that wife Proportion, and 
to think it eafier to mend their old Rulers, than to 
make new : And I wifh, Mr. Speaker, we may be 
fo wife as to think fo too.' 

Having fifted the Journals to March 28, 1659, 
for all they mention material to our Defign, we (hall 
look back a little, and endeavour to explain them 
further from the Hiftories of the Times. 

Mr. Ludlow acquaints us, ' That the next Thing 
that they, of the Republican Party, endeavoured to 
do, after being worfted in the Affair of Recognition, 
was to get rid of the Scots and Irijh Members, whq 
had introduced themfelves into the Houfe. Thefe 
Men, no doubt, were Time-Servers, and never pro- 
pofed to come out of their own to ferve this Coun- 
try for nothing; fo, confequently, were due Voters 
^nd Penfioners to the Court.* Our Author fays, 

* The Way they propofed to have them removed, was 
to put the Queftion, firft, Whether thofe Members, 
chofen by Scotland ought, by the Law of the Land, 
to fit as Members of this Parliament. The Reafons 
ufed to juftify the Wording of the Queftion in this 
Manner, were, i. That there was no Colour, by 
the antient Law of the Land, for their fitting ac 
Members of the Parliament of England, having 
always been a diftincl: Kingdom from it. 2. That 
there had been no Diftribution of Powers to eledt, 
as was required by the Humble Petition and Advice. 
The Court would by no Means permit the Queftion 
to be put in the Manner before-mentioned ; but 
moved that it might be thus propofed in the follow- 

Of E N G L A N D. 311 

ing Words : Whether the Houfe thought fit that Inter-regmua, 

thofe returned for Scotland fhould fit as Members 

of this Parliament : By this Means turning a Que- 

ftion of Right into a Queftion of Conveniency. 

However, bccaufe our Queftion was firft propofed, 

we infifted that it might alfo befirft put; and likewife 

moved, that thofe fent from Scotland and Ireland^ 

being the Pcrfons concerned in the Queftion, might 

be ordered to withdraw, and not be permitted to fit 

Judges of their own Cafe: And this we thought we 

might with more Reafon demand, becaufe their 

own Party had already waved the Legality of their 

Election, by the Form of Words they had ufed in 

the Queftion they propofed : But the pretended 

Members for Scotland and Ireland, except only 

Mr. Swinton, who modeftly withdrew, as they had 

debated their own Cafe with much Confidence; fo, 

by the Support of the Court, they refolved to decide 

it in their own Favour. 

' When we faw ourfelves thus overpowered by 
Violence and Number, we had the Queftion put for 
leaving out the Words, by the Law of the Land-, 
which being carried in the Affirmative, and there- 
fore to be entered in the 'Journal, we let fall Words 
in the Houfe to infmuate that they were not a legal 
Parliament, having no Countenance from the Au- 
thority by which they acted : And as to their pru- 
dential Way of admitting the Scots and Irijh on the 
Account of Conveniency, we faid it would weaken 
all that (hould be done by this Aflembly, whofe 
Actions would be weighed and duly confidcred by 
thofe that fhould come into Power when they were 
gone : That the Laws of this Aflembly, though it 
were granted that they were a legal Parliament, 
would not bind the People of Scotland, who are not 
governed by the common Law of England, and 
therefore that it was unreafonable that thofe chofen 
by that Nation {hould have any Part in making 
Laws for the People of England; and that it was 
intolerable that they, who had fought againft a 
Commonwealth, (hould be confulted with in the 
framing of our Conftitution, and fo vote us out of 


312 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jntcr-regmim. that with their Tongues, which they could neverfight 
l6 59- us out of with their Swords. But all our Arguments 

*~2^"" J were anfwered by calling for the Queftion, which 
they carried by a great Number of Votes, as they 
did alfo that for admitting thofe returned for Ireland. 
' The Court having overcome thefe Difficulties, 
doubted not to obtain the Eftabliftiment of their 
Houfe of Lords, which they called the Other Houfe, 
and therefore moved for recognizing them alfo. 
The Commonwealth's-Men propofed that the Af- 
fembly would firft take into their Conlideration the 
Powers wherewith the Other Houle ihould be 
veiled, before they proceeded to the Recognition of 
them, left our qualifying them with the Title of 
an Houfe, and our Approbation of the Perfons that 
were to fill it, might be a Means to procure them 
more Power than otherwife we fhould think fit to 
give them : But the Court Party alledged, That the 
Other Houfe being already conftitutcd, it was no 
jnore in the Power of the Commons to alter their 
ftablifhment, than in the Power of the New Houfe 
to make any Change in that of the Commons: 
Then we endeavoured to fhew them the Unreafon- 
ablenefs of impofing fuch a Houfe upon the Nation, 
telling them, that, in antient Times, thofe that came 
to Parliament fat there by virtue of the Lands they 
poflefled ; and that he who had twenty Fees, each 
of twenty Pounds yearly Rent, might demand his 
Place in the Houfe as an Earl ; and that whofoever 
was poffeffed of thirteen Fees, whereof one third 
Part was Military, had a Right to fit in the fame 
Houfe as a Baron : That this Method continued 
till the greater Barons, finding themfelves over- 
voted, withdrew into a diflindt Houfe. But King 
Henrylll. having got a Victory againft the Barons, 
deprived them of their antient Ufages, and permitted 
none of them to come to Parliament without a Writ 
of Summons from him. We {hewed them that the 
Houfe of Lords antiently confifted of Perfons on 
whom the Commons had their Dependence ; and 
being, for the moft Part, Retainers to them, were 
ploathed in their Liveries : But the Balance being 


Of E N G L A N D, 313 

now altered, and the greateft Part of the Lands of Interregnum, 
England devolved upon the Commons, they, inftead * ' 
of wearing the Lords blue Coats, did now give M^^H, 
Wages to moil of thofe who pretended to be Mem- 
bers of the Other Houfe. But, notwithftanding all 
that could be faid, the Confederacy for them was 
ftrong enough to carry all before them, the Cava- 
lierifh Party, who were very numerous, joining with 
them, in Expectation that it might prove a good 
Step towards the Return of the former Peerage : So 
the Queftion was put, Whether this Houfe fliould 
tranfa& with ths Other Houfe, and carried in the 

The Author of the Narrative of this Parliament 
is yet more explicit than Ludlow, in all the Affairs 
which we have already mentioned from the Jour~ 
nah : We (hall therefore copy him throughout ; 
obferving, That both thcfe laft quoted Writers are 
no farther to be trufted, than as they tally with 
thofe undoubted Authorities, the Journals. 

The Narrative begins with telling us, ' That 
afterwards the Secretary gave an Account of foreign 
Affairs, as is already mentioned, on the 2 lit of Fe- 
bruary t acquainting the Houfe, that a Million of Mo- 
ney was needful for defraying the Naval Expences 
for this Summer; which brought on the Debate con- 
cerning the Navy, in behalf of the Public : That 
as the Navy is Part of the Militia, and the Militia 
the Right of the People aflembled in Parliament; and 
that, without the Militia, the Parliament could not 
make good their Promifes to the People, in bound- 
ing the Power of the Chief Magiftrate, and fecuring 
their Rights and Liberties, that the Houfe would 
appoint certain Commiflioncrs for Management of 
the Naval Forces. The Debate for fetting out a 
very confiderable Fleet to Sea, for Defence of the 
Commonwealth and Commerce held not long, the 
Thing being readily and unanimously agreed on : But 
who (hould manage the Fleet, was a Debate of 
feveral Days ; and at laft carried with a ftrong 
Hand by the Court Party, againft all Reafon and 
Policy, that the Protector fliould have the Difpofal 




314 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

of it ; only the Commonwealth's-Men got into the 
Vote, That the making Peace and War fliould be 
referved unto the Parliament. 

' The Houfe was called upon to make good their 
Vote of bounding the Power of the Chief Magiftrate, 
and fecuring the Rights, Privileges, and Liberties of 
the Parliament and People; and that, as they had 
filled the Hearts of all Men with Joy, in Expecta- 
tion of having their Rights afcertained, they would 
not render themfelves Jugglers, in promifing what 
they never intended to perform ; but to take the 
feveral Parts of the previous Vote into Confidera- 
tion ; and as bounding the Chief Magiftrate is firft 
in Order, fo to begin with it. Yet fuch was the 
Difingenuity of the Court Party, being made up of 
Houfhold Servants, Officers of Profit, Suiters for 
Offices, Lawyers, (the corrupt Part of whofe Trade 
cannot be maintain'd but by a corrupt Government) 
Scots and Irijb Members, chofen by the Pretender's 
Intereft, that no Arguments of Honour or Honefty 
could engage them to be faithful to their Country ; 
fuch as were moft open confeffing plainly, that they 
were fo far from bounding the Chief Magiftrate, 
that they defired to give him as much, nay more 
Power than any King or Prince of England ever 
had, feeming to caft Dirt upon the famous Long 
Parliament, (whofe Succeffes and great Atchieve- 
ments will, by Pofterity, be had in Admiration) for 
aflerting the Rights of the People againft the King's 
own Perfon, not flicking to charge them with Mur- 
der for that War ; and that without Reproof, but 
rather Countenance from them. But others, more 
prudent, waved bounding of the Chief Magiftrate, 
under Pretence of firft fettling the Conftitution of 
the Government j and fo falling upon the Debate 
of that, after fome Days fpent in it, at laft voted, 
That it fhould be Part of the Bill for Recognition, 
to declare the Parliament to confift of two Houfes. 
After this the Houfe was again put in Mind of their 
Duties to the People, and urged to fall upon bound- 
ing the Power of the Chief Magiftrate ; which, 
as it was firft in Order, ought to have been firft 

Of ENGLAND. 315 

in Debate. But the Courtiers commanding all by Tnter-regnum. 
Strength of their Members, waved the Chief Ma- j6 59- 
giftrate, and fell upon conftituting the Other Houfe, * ^ -^ 
in which fome Days were fpent in Difputes betwixt March 
the new and old Royalifts, the Commonwealth's- 
Men remaining filent, to fee what the Strength of the 
other's Brains would produce. The firft was for 
the new Creation of Lords, with the Mixture of the 
old, upon fuch Limitations as they might not over- 
top the new : The other for the old, with a Mix- 
ture of the new, and for the full Privileges of the 
antient Houfes of Peers : But after it appeared that 
they could make nothing of the Debate, not daring 
to truft one another, the Commonwealth's-Men 
fell in, and (hewed that, where the Caufe is taken 
away, the EfFedl muft ceafe : That as the Houfe of 
Lords had antiently a natural Right to a fuperior 
Jurifdiction, in that their Property was five Parts of 
iix of the whole Nation ; fo is it now more natural 
for the Commons to have that Superiority, their 
Proportion of Property being ninety-nine Parts, or 
more, of a hundred : And therefore moved, That, 
if they would have another Houfe, it might be fo 
bounded as might fuit with the People's Intereft : 
Whereupon they proceeded to the Debate of the 
Bounds and Powers of the Members fitting in the 
Other Houfe of Parliament, in which fome Days 
were fpent, they being but for Life ; for that it is 
againft the Common Law for any one to be a Judge 
for him and his Heirs for ever. Then for their be- 
ing firft allowed and approved of by the Parliament: 
Then upon their having Negatives only in fome 
Matters : Yet ended none ; but, at laft, difingenu- 
oufly laid all afidc ; and, inftead of bounding and 
approving them, a bare Queftion was brought on 
Foot, Whether the Members fitting in the Other 
Houfe, as then conftituted, fhould be tranfaclei 
with or no j thereby to let them at once into the 
full Privileges of the antient Lords : And, to make 
it pafs the fmoothlicr, a^ plaufiblc Claufe, to fave the 
Rights of the antient Peers, was added by the 
Courtiers which \vas done only to gain the Cava- 

316 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. Hers in that Vote, and not with any Intent to let in the 
1659. Lords j they confeffing, occafionally, that the Rights 

*- J ,7*T ^ of the antient Peers could be nothing, fo long as 
the A6t for taking of them away was in being, and 
unrepealed. Againft acting with the Members fit- 
ting in the Other Houfe, as then conftituted, was 
alledged the Inconfiftency of it with the Rights and 
Liberties of the People, which they had fworn to 
maintain: As,/r/?, in that they were moft Depend- 
ents upon the Single Perfon, by way of Salaries, 
and fo likely to be his Mercenaries. Secondly^ For 
that the Militia, both by Sea and Land, was in the 
Hands of the Perfons then fitting in that Houfe. 
Thirdly^ That all the Chief Judges were Members ; 
as, the three Keepers of the Seal, two Chief Juftices, 
Mafter of the Rolls ; and that it might be well 
thought that the Lord Chief Baron would be ac- 
counted as worthy to be one as the reft : And 
then the People, in all Cafes of Appeals, could do no 
more than appeal from the Judges in fPeftminfter- 
Hall to the fame Perfons fitting in Parliament : 
And that the chief Judicature being in that Houfe, 
and having the Militia to maintain it, that Houfe 
might wrong the Commons as they pleafed, and 
they remain without Remedy. Fourthly , That all 
the Privy Council, the Chief Judges, and General 
Officers, both by Sea and Land, being Members, 
the Lawyers and Officers of Profit (of whom the 
Body of the Houfe of Commons would be made up) 
would be the Creatures and Mercenaries of one or 
other of them of the Other Houfe, and fo make the 
Houfe of Commons to be nothing but the Execu- 
tioners of their Lords and Mafters Wills. But, 
notwithftanding thefe and many more excellent 
Arguments, incomparably prefled by Perfons of 
great Virtue and Abilities, the fervile and merce- 
nary Court Party would not be prevailed with to 
bound and approve the Members fitting in the 
Other Houfe, before they put it to the Vote for 
tranfating with them ; which made the Common- 
\vealth's-Men immediately, as the Queftion was 
coming on, to except againft the Constitution of the 


Of E N G L A N D. 317 

Houfe, as having fixty Pcrfons in it fent from Scot- inter- 
land and Ireland, who had no Right nor Title to fit j l6 S9 
which they did, as being afraid to venture the Que- U T~^ 
ition for the tranfa&ing with the Other Houfe, with- rt 

out firft bounding and approving therewith. With 
this new-ftarted Exception, which held afterwards 
fourteen Days Debate, the Houfe rofe.' 

The Debate concerning the Scots and Irijh 
Members came on, and run feveral Ways. This 
Narrative Writer gives it in this Manner : ' The 
Courtiers, after they found the Want of Law, flew 
to Prudence j arguing, that, for obliging the Scots 
and IriJJj Nations, their Members ought to be ad- 
mitted : To which was anfwered, That nothing 
could be more provoking to thofe two Nations, than 
fraudulently to give them the Name of having Mem- 
bers in Parliament; when, in Truth, by the late 
Elections, they had few or none, mod of them be- 
ing chofen at Whitehall^ whereof fome had harufy 
been ever nearer Scotland than Grafs-Inn. But, 
befides this Anfwer to the Courtiers Arguments of 
Prudence, the Commonwealth's-Men argued againfl: 
their fitting, as having no legal Right or Title to 
fit, and that, without keeping "to legal Rules, Foun- 
dations could not be maintained ; for, otherwife, 
they that fent 60 now might fend 300 next Time, 
and fo make Parliaments of what Number and Tem- 
per they pleafed ; and therefore defired that the 
Members of both Nations might withdraw, and 
be afterwards brought in upon legal and equal Feet. 
But Whitehall being refolved not to part with any 
of their Strength, (tho% after they had done their 
Work, they intended to have caft them off) would 
have nothing to do with Law or Right: And there- 
fore, whereas the Queftion {hould have been, Whe- 
ther the Scots and Irijh Members had any legal 
Right to fit, the Words legal Right were thrown 
out, and the bare Queftion put, Whether the 
and Irijh Members {hould fit ? And, by the Help 
of the Scots and Irifl) who were fuffered, contrary 
to the Law of Nations, to vote in their own Cafe, 
it was carried, That they {hould fit in ParJi:: 


3 1 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Diter-regnum. In which Vote the Parliament may be faid to have 
betrayed their Truft, in taking in Strangers, with- 
out Law, to make Laws for the Engli/h Nation; 
and in not punifhing the Keepers of the Seal, who 
prefumptuoufly took upon them, without and againft 
Law, to fend 60 Strangers as Members to Parlia- 

' After this the main Queftion, for tranfacling 
with the Other Houfe, before bounded or appro- 
ved, which had been interrupted by the Debate 
about the Scots and Iriflj Members, came on again. 
It was endeavoured to get the Words bounding and 
approving the Members into the Queftion; but they 
were thrown out by a Vote, and the bare Queftion 
put, Whether they fhould be tranfacled with or no, 
as then conftituted ; only the Commonwealth's- 
Men got the Words during this prefent Parliament 
into the Queftion : And then, by the Help of the 
Scots and hifn Votes, by whofe Number all Que- 
itions were carried in Favour of the Court, it was 
refolved to tranfact with the Perfons then fitting in 
the Other Houfe of Parliament, during this prefent 

Thus having cleared up thefe Matters, as well as 
the "Journals and the Hiftorians of thefe Times will 
allow, we fhall go on with the former ; which tells 
us, That on this Day, March 31, was read, a fe- 
cond Time, A Bill for taking a^vay all Laws, Sta- 
tutes^ and Ordinances, concerning the Excife and 
new Impoft, after Tears, and concerning 

Cujloms, Tonnage, and Poundage, after 
Months, after the Death of his Higbnefs the now 
Lord Protettor. 

This Bill was debated in the Houfe for fomeDays, 
without any Commitments ; in the mean Time a 
Declaration for a public Faft was ordered to be 
drawn, by a Committee appointed for that Purpofej 
and this Day, April 2, it was brought and read in 
the Houfe, Paragraph by Paragraph ; which, with 
fpme Additions and Alterations, was corifented to. 


Of E N G L A N D. 319 

The Narrative before quoted tells us, * That this 
aft thro' the Three Nations was voted, and a De- 
duration for the fame, from the Commons and the 
Protector only, was ordered to be brought in : But ' ' 

the Court Party, to the end to engage the tranfa&ing 
with the Other Houfe, brought in the Declaration, 
in the Form of a Bill, to be made an A&; which 
caufed the Expence of fome Days, in debating in 
what Manner and Form to fend it to the Other Houfe, 
for that the firft Tranfaction would be the Rule for 
the future : It was, in order thereunto, voted, That 
ihe Commons would not fliew the Other Houfe any 
other Refpect than they fhould {hew to them. 
Secondly, That they would fend Members of their 
own to the Other Houfe, and that they would receive 
no Meflages from them but by Members of their 
own Number. This was all the Votes of public 
Concernment that was carried in the whole Time 
of the Parliament, which was either honourable or 
advantageous for the Commons; and yet the Cour- 
tiers, after they had confulted with Whitehall, were 
refolved to have unvoted and made it null and void. 
It was under Debate what Ceremony the Meflengcr 
fhould ufe at his Approach into their Houfe, and 
what Title to give them ; Mr. Speaker, My Lord 
CvmmiJJioner, and My Lords and Gentlemen, were 
all feverally fpoken of, but none agreed on ; and 
the Courtiers Hafte being fuch as they could not 
ftay, the MeiTenger that carried the AcT: for the Fait 
down to the Other Houfe, was advifed to give them 
no Title at all; which Directions he followed, and 
fo left the Bill with them, which was never return 'd. 
During this Debate, fome Exceptions being taken, 
at Mr. Speaker's Carriage, as unequal, he was 
accufed of having had Conference at Whitehall 
with the Pretender ; which was contrary to the 
Orders of the Houfe : This Charge put the Houfe 
into a great Heat, fome taking Part with him, a4 
fome againft him ; and as the Courtiers were not 
only moft in Number but beft at brawling, fo they 
made the greateft Neifc, umill they l>fervel Matte* 

320 *The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. of Truth in the Thing ; and then, as the Party 
l6 59 charging was fatisfied with giving the Reproof, fo 

*""'T V 'T""' the Courtiers were willing to have it die. 

* Some Deficiency was obferved by the Court in 
the Acts for forcing the Payment of the Exciie, and 
therefore a Bill was brought in by one of that Party, 
under a fpecious Pretence of fettling it but for a cer- 
tainNumber of Years, as thePaiiiamentfhould agree 
on, whereas it was fettled for ever. This Bill, after 
long Debate, was, by Means of Coinmonwealth's- 
Men, laid afide, and a Declaration brought in by 
them to enjoin the Payment of the Excife during the 
Sitting of the Parliament ; owning clearly their De- 
fjgn to be, That, if the Laws were not good, the 
afcertaining the Excife no longer than during the 
Parliament, would put a Neceffity upon the Chief 
Magiftrate to let the Parliament fit untill they had 
done fome Good for the poor People of England; 
and, if they were good, the Declaration did not 
prejudice them : But as the Commonwealth's Men 
laid afide the Courtiers Bill, fo they laid afide this 
the Commonwealth's-Men's Declaration.' 

After the Declaration for a Faft was finifhed and 
agreed to, much Debate, we find, was had, what 
Title to put to it. A Queftion was propofed, that 
the Title of this Declaration be, A Declaration 
of the Lord Protector and both Houjes of Parlia- 
ment for a Day of Jolernn F aft ing and Humiliation, 
to be obferved in all Places within the Common- 
wealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, upon the 
eighteenth Day of May, 1659. Another Queftioti 
was put, Whether thefe Words, Both Houfes of, 
ihould ftand in the Title after the Word and, and 
before the Word Parliament? The Houfe di- 
vided ; when the Yeas were found to be 135, and 
the Noes 96. But when this Title was engroffed on 
the Back of the Declaration, and was read a third 
Time,y^/>r/75, twoProvifo's,by way of Salvo's, were 
offered to be added to it. The one was, ' Provided 
always, and this Houfe doth declare, That it is not 

Of E N G L A N D. 321 

Intended by this Declaration, that the Houfe of Inter-rtgnum. 
Commons {hall be hereby precluded or debarred to 
add, hereafter, fuch Bounds and Limitations either 
to the Single Perfon, or the Other Houfe, as may be 
requifite for the Public Safety and Welfare of thefe 
Nations.' The other Provifo was, Provided al- 
ways, and it is hereby declared, That the paffing 
of this prefent Declaration {hall not be intended, 
nor conftrued, to exclude the Houfe of Commons, 
in Parliament aflembled, to fet fuch Bounds to the 
Powers and Authorities of the Chief Magiftrate, as 
ihall confift with the juft Rights and Liberties of 
the People, according to the former Vote of this 

Thefc two Provifo's, we are told by the Journals, 
were only read by the Gentlemen that tendered 
them, {landing up in their Places, and were after- 
wards brought up to the Table and delivered : For 
when the Queftion was put, That the firft {hould 
be read there, it was carried in the Negative, on a 
Divifion, 123 againft 73. The other Provifo was 
not fuffer'd fo much as to be put to the Queftion for 
reading it ; but, inftead thereof, the main Queftion 
was called for, put, and carried by a Majority of 
94 againft 34, ' That this Houfe doth agree to the 
Declaration ; and that the Concurrence of the 
Other Houfe be defircd to it.' The whole, then, 
of this extraordinary Work of Piety runs thus : 

both Houfes of Parliament, fer a Day of folemn 
fajllng and Humiliation, to be obferved in all 
Places within toe Commonwealth of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, upon the i8tb Day of 
May, 1659. 

WE look upon it as a Duty incumbent upon A Declaration 
us, who are fet upon the Watch- To wcr/ or a P ublicFail - 
to declare what we fee ; and ferioufly weighing 
the Condition of thefe Three Nations, by God's 
Ways towards us, and our Ways towards him, and 
the prefent Pofture of Affairs among us, we Cir 
not but have fad Thoughts and Apnrehenfions cf 

322 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

4 the Tokens of God's juft Difpleafure againft us. 

4 As for the Ways of the Lord wherein he hath 
4 walked towards us, they have been Ways of Mul- 
4 titudes of Mercies in Viciflitudes of Dangers : For, 
4 in the faddeft Difpenfations of his Providence to- 
4 wards us, he hath, in the midft of Judgment, re- 
4 membered Mercy ; and hath feemcd to fay as of 
4 old to Ephraim and Ifrael, How /hall I give thee 
4 up, England ! How /hall I deliver you, Scotland 
4 and Ireland ! How foall 1 make you as Admah ! 
4 How Jhall 1 fet you as Zeboim ! My Heart is 
4 turned within me, my Repentings are kindled to- 
4 gether; yet we cannot fay his^Wrath is turned 
4 away, but his Hand is ftretched out ftill ; for tho' 
4 we have been emptied from Veflel to Veflel, yet 
4 we can find no Reft or Settlement ; we fee not our 
4 Signs, nor any that can tell us how long : This is 
4 a Lamentation ; and if our Ways towards God in 
4 all this be confidered, it muft be for a Lamenta- 
4 tion. 

4 For inftead of humbling ourfelves under the 
4 mighty Hand of God, and meeting him in the 
4 Way of his Judgments, we turn our Backs upon 
4 him, and caft him out of Mind, vex his holy Ma- 
4 jefty with our Murmurings and Complainings of 
4 Events, repining at the Mifcarriages of Inftru- 
4 ments, envying, cenfuring, and fretting againft 
4 one another ; no Man in the mean Time laying 
c his Hand upon his own Heart, faying, Wbtit have 
< 1 done? 

4 How highly is God provoked by our great Apo- 
4 iracy and Backfliding, arifing chiefly from want of 
4 receiving the Truth in the Love thereof, whereby 
4 thefe Nations are overfpread with many Blafphe- 
c mies and damnable Herefies againft God himfelf, 
4 and his glorious Attributes ; againft the Lord Je- 
4 Jus Chrtft, his Perfon, his Offices, and his Me- 
4 rits ; againft the Holy Spirit ; againft the Word 
4 of God, the only Rule of Faith and Life, by de- 
4 nying the Authority thereof, and crying up the 
4 Light in the Hearts of finful Men, as the Rule 
4 and Guide of all their Adtions > befides many other 

4 abc- 

Of ENGLAND. 323 

' abominable Errors, which have opened a wide [nter-regi 

* Door for the letting in of the mcft horrible Con- l6 59- 
' tempt of the Ordinances and Inftitutions of Jefus * ^" 
c Cbrift* of the Minifters and Miniftry of the glo- Aprih 

* rious Gofpel ; together with the /Growth of grofs 

* Ignorance, Atheifm, and Profancncfs of all Sorts, 

* fuch as vain Swearing and Curling, Profanation 

* of the Lord's Day, Drunkennefs, Uncleannefs, 
' and other ungodly Courles, for which the Land 
c mourns. 

' And befitles all this, that which fhould be the 
' Caufe of deepeft Humiliation to us, and is of high 
4 Provocation to God, is the great Scandal given by 
' ProfefTors, and the fad Divifions amongft them', 
' whereby Religion has been fo wounded in the 
' Houfe of its Friends. 

' And that which makes thefe Abominations the 

* more national, and gives us the more Caufe to be 
' humbled for them, is, the too- much RemiiTnefs 
c and Connivance of the Civil Magiftrates, (to whom 
' belongs the Care of maintaining God's public 
' Worfhip, Honour, and Purity of Doctrine, as 
' well as of punifhing all Sins of the fecond Table) 

* in permitting the Growth of thefe Abominations, 

* by fuffering Perfons, under the Abufe of Liberty 

* of Confcience, to difturb the public Ordinances, 
' and to publilh their corrupt Principles and Pradti- 

* ces, to the feducing and infecting others. 

* And that which makes all thefe Sins to be out 

* of Meafure finful, is, that they are againft fomany 

* fignal Deliverances and Mercies, under fuch a 
' glorious Sun-fhine of the Gofpel, and contrary to 
' fo many Covenants, Vows, and Proteftations, 

* perfonal and national. ,* 

* Nor are we, in this Day of our Humiliation, to 

* forget the Judgments of God, (whereby .he gives 

* thefe Nations Tokens of his Difpleafure") that in 

* the midft of all our Changes and Unfettlements, 
. he hath ftill left us in the Dark, and hid Council 

* from the Wife ; fo that hitherto we have not at- 
tained unto that happy Settlement in Church and 

j, which hath lain fo much upon the Spirits, 
X ?, * and 

324 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Iiiter-iegnum. a nd hath been fo much in the Prayers and Defire: 
^jfeL^j c of all that fear him. 

April. ' That there hath been fo great a Mortality upon 

' Man and Beaft, in many Places of this Nation, 

* befides the Decay of Trade, and the great Dearth 
' which is amongft us, which, if the Lord be not fo 
' merciful as to fend feafonable Weather, may 
' threaten a Famine. 

Thefe Things ferioufly confidered, Is there not 
' a Caufe to fandtify a Faft, to call a folemn Afiem- 

* bly, to gather the Elders, and all the Inhabitants 

* of the Land into the Houfe of the Lord our God, 
' to cry mightily unto the Lord. 

' For which Purpofe, as alfo to implore a Blef- 
' fmg from God upon the Councils and Proceedings 
' of this prefent Parliament, his Highnefs the Lord 
' Protector, and the Parliament, do appoint, That in 

* all Places within England^ Scotland, and Ireland, 

* and the Dominions thereunto belonging, the 
' Eighteenth Day of May next be fet apart and ob- 

* ferved as a Day of folemn Fafting and Humiliation, 
' in all Churches, Chapels, and Congregations 
1 within the fame. 

' And we do will and require all Minifters and 
' Paftors of Congregations to read, or caufe to be 
' read, this Declaration, in their feveral Churches, 
' Chapels, and Congregations, on the Lord's Day 
' next before the faid Day of Public Fatting, to the 
' end the fame may be the better taken Notice of. 

' And we do alfo hereby will and require all Jufti* 

* ce of the Peace, and other Officers, to fee that thr- 
' faid Day be duly obferved : And we do prohibit alt 

* Fairs, Markets, opening of Shops, and other ordi- 
' nary Labours and Employments, and all Recrea- 
' tions, upon the faid Day.' 

The next Day after this Declaration was agreed 
to, April 6, a Debate arofe in the Commons., 
about the Manner of tranfa&ing Bufmefs with the 
Other Houfe ; when they came to a Refolutioh. 
to appoint a Committee to confider and report their 
Opinion of this Matter : But the fame Day the 


Of ENGLAND. 325 

Houfe, on the Queftion, refolved, 'That, in all interregnum. 
Meflages unto, and Conferences with, the Other 
Houfe, the like Refpcd, and no other, be obfervcd 
by the Members of this Houfe, that is obferved by 
the Perfons lining in the Other Houfe to them.' 

Mr. Ludlow, on this Head, remarks, c That 
thofe of his Party defired, that feeing the Houfe of 
Commons was undeniably more honourable in the 
Members of it than the Other, and much more in 
relation to thofe whom they reprefented, that the 
Members" of this Houfe might not go to them with 
Meflages as formerly, unlcfs the Members of the 
New Houfe would refpeciively come to us with their 
Meflages ; or that the Matters in Chancery, who 
were accuftomed to be the Lords Mefiengers, might 
be divided between the two Houfes for that Purpofe : 
But this alfo was denied, and we were told, That a 
Feather might hinder the Motion of a CJock as 
well as a Piece of Iron. The Subject of our firft 
TranfacStion with the Other Houfe was touching a 
Declaration for a Faft; which, by fome Expreflkms 
in it, of taking Shame to ourfelves for neglefting to 
fettle the Government of the Church, and having 
permitted fo many erroneous and heretical Opinions 
to be divulged, with others of a like Nature, dif- 
covered plainly in what Mint it was forged. This 
Declaration being agreed to, it was ordered to be 
carried to the Other Houfe, for their Concurrence, 
by one Mr. Grove, who was accompanied by divers 
young Gentlemen, and many of the Cavalier Party, 
all of them attending like fo many Lackies at the 
Bar of the Other Houfe, whilft the Ceremonies of 
prefenting it were performed, which were the fame 
that had been formerly ufed to the Peers on the like 
Occafion. Thofe of the Other Houfe were won- 
derfully pleafed with this Application to them, 
having waited near three Months for it, and, having 
no Bufinefs to do, had confumed great Store of Fire 
to keep them warm at the Public Charge : Yet, 
upon the Debate, they found not fo great an Unani- 
mity as in the receiving it ; for Mr. Cromwell's 
Party and the Prefbyterians fell violently upon the 
X 3 In- 


326 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Independents and fome of the Army, concerning fome Claufes 
therein inferted, as they faid, by thofe of their Party.' But 
more of this in the Sequel. 

The Public Accounts of the Kingdom having been referred, 
for Infpeclion, to a Committee, as well as the Public Revenue, 
this Day, April 7, Mr. Scawen, from the faid Committee, 
delivered in a Paper, wherein was ftated the whole, drawn up 
in the following Manner, under this Title : 

A brief View of the PUBLIC REVENUE, both certain and cafual; 
with the ordinary Expence of the Commonwealth of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, refpeftively, in the Three Nations, for 
one Tear ; together with a State of the PUBLIC DEBTS, as the 
fame doth appear to the Committee appointed by the Houfe of 
Commons, for the Infpeclion into the Accompts and Public Re- 
venue as followeth : That is to fay, 

The Income of England. 

By Afleflments of 35000 /. a Month 

By Cuftoms and Subfidies in the Ports 
of London, and the Out-Ports 

By the Cuftom of Sea Coal exported out 
of England and Scotland, in Farm to Mr. 
Noel at 22000 /. a Year; whereof, Mr. 
Noel affirms, 22i6/. 5 .r. 4^. is for the V 
Coals of Scotland, and is hereafter charged I 
in the Income of Scotland, and therefore to j 
be here deducted ; and the Remain is 

By the Excife of Goods imported into 
the Port of London and the Out-Ports 

By the Excife of inland Commodities of~j 
England and Scotland, in Farm to Mr. J 
Noel at 65000 /. a Year ; whereof, Mr. J 
Noel affirms, 1674 /. 9*. 5 d. Is for the 
inland Commodities of Scotland, and is ( 
hereafter charged as Part of the Income 
of Scotland, and is therefore here deducted j j 
and fo the Remain is J 

By the Excife of Beer and Ale in Farm 

J3y Receivers- General, arifing chiefly by ) 
and Delinquents Eftates 

- 420000 o 

391630 17 



^ 1-9783 14 


\ 196783 12 


58375 15 7 


o o 
5 9 



By Probate of Wills 

By Poftage of Letters, in Farm - 

By Fines for Alienations 

By the Hannper Office 

By the Duty of Sea Coals, in Farm 
By Wine Licences 

By Poft Fines, in Farm ~ 

By the Iflues of Jurors, in Farm 

By the Green Wax, befidcs the Wages ) 

of the Juftices of Peace ) 

By Sheriffs in the Pipe, and by Minute % 

Rents vefted in Truftees for the Sale of / 

Fee-Farm Rents, and for Lands extended j f 

for Outlawries, and Debts lett to Farm J 

By Seizures in the Pipe . 

By Sherifts, for Debts of feveral Natures 

By the Underage, in Farm . 

By the Profits of Liberties 

By the Foreft of Deane, in feveral Sorts } 

of Iron Shot delivered into the public > 

Stores of the Office of the Ordnance 3 

By the Mint _ . 

By theAulnage, a Rent of 997 /. i s. lid. -j 

is in Charge; but for 12 Years laft paft / 

it hath been ill paid, and fometimes very { 

iittle; in the Year 1657 was anfwered J 

The Tenths and Firft-Fi;uits 


/. s. d. 

7993 18 3 

14000 o o 

4883 13 4 

3876 9 2 

1838 12 6 

4131 6 10 

3000 o o 


835 18 7* 

1542 14 3 

844 5 ii 

49 8 i 3 

500 o o 

81 9 2 

1575 H 

997 i " 

Note, That we find, in a Report made by a Grand Committee 
for the Public Revenue, in the Year 1654, a yearly Income 
fet upon the Particulars following ; that is to fay, 

Upon the Foreft of Deane - 4000 o o 
The Iflands of Guernfey and Jerfey ^ 200O o O 

The Coinage of Tin 2000 o o 

But nothing anfwered for any of thofe, fave the Sum of 

X 575^ *4/ I <?* o^ of the Foreft of Deane, in Iron Shot, 

as before is exprefled. 

Note alfoy That, the laft Year, there was anfwered in the Ex- 
chequer the feVcral Sums of Money hereafter mentioned; 
that is to fav, 


328 b? Parliamentary HISTORY 

/. s. d. 

For Deans and Chapters Lands, fold 3433 * * 7 

For Fee-Farm Rents, fold _ 1134 15 4 

For Compofitions for new Buildings 30229 19 y 

For Prize-Goods . ...... . 377 

For Fines of Delinquents, at - 3565 15 9 

For Fines in Star-Chamber - o o o 

From the Commiffioners of fequeftered ? 1 60 o o 

From the Treafurers at Drury-Houfe 400 o o 

Foreftalled Debts - 603 6 8 

From the Colle&ors of the 400000 /. ? 

Subfidy \ in 19 ioi 

For the Duty of One per Cent. - 4382 911 
For Fines of Leafes 26 4 o 

For Goods forfeited for Treafon 215 o o 

For Lands feized and extended ..... 221 16 i 

For Rent of Lands - 1511 I 4 

For the Plymouth Duty - 500 o o 

For Sale of Woods ..... 58 10 o 

For the Duchy of Lancafler 649 8 o^ 

For the Torkjbire Engagement - 400 o o 

Thefe Duties are cafual, and many of them are expired, and the 
reft are declining ; and tho' fome Money may be raifed and got- 
ten in upon them, towards the Payment of the Public Debts, 
yet are not to be reckoned, or relied upon, as an annual Income. 

J 5 686 4 8 '5 5* 

The Income of Scotland. 

By AffefTments of 6000 /. a Month 72000 o o 

By Property and conftant Rent, pay- 1 

able into the Exchequer 53^4 18 

By Cafualty, and uncertain Rent, recei- ~\ 
ved by Sheriffs, and accounted for in the > 576 3 5 

Exchequer 3 

By Compofition of Signatories in the 1 , 

Exchequer 5 

By Cuftoms inward andoutward, and by ~\ 
the Excife of Goods imported, in Farm to > 1 2500 o o 
Mr. Nosl 3 


By the Cuftoms of Sea Coal, in Farm to^J 
Mr. Nod, with the Cuftoms of Sea Coal j 
in England, at the Rent of 22OOO/. a Year; 1 
and for which Mr. Noel affirms, that the I 
Sum of 22 r 6 /. 5 *. $d. is paid for the Coals )> 
of Scotland; and is therefore deducted out 
of that Rent in the Income of England be- 
fore mentioned ; and is here to be charged 
as Part of the Income of Scotland 

By the Excife of Foreign Salt, 550 /. a 
Year ; and, by the Excife of Inland Salt, 
U24/. 9*. $d. in all, 1674 /. 9*. 5^. 
which Commodities are in Farm to Mr. 
Noel, with the Excife of the Inland Com- I 
modifies of England, under the yearly Rent ! 
of 65,0007. And is therefore deducted " 
out of that Pent in the Income of England 
before mentioned, and is here to be charg'd 
as Part of the Income of Scotland 

By the Excife of Beer, Ale, and Aqua- 

By Forfeiture of Goods uncuftomed and 

By the Intcrcft of Money fet apart for 
the Judges Salaries 

Anil fo the whole annual Income of 

Scotland is 

The Income of Ireland* 

By the AfiefTments of gooo/. a Month - 
By Cuftoms and Excife, in Farm 

By Rents of Lands, Houfes, &V. 

By Rents of Impropriations, &c. - 
By Sheriffs Accompts ; the Hanaper Ac 
compt, with Fines and Amerciaments 

And fo the whole annual Income of 
Ireland is 


2216 5 4 

1674 9 5 

47444 13 4 
595 10 n 

1436$* ii n , 

lOjSooo O 

70000 o 

20679 o 

7611 o 


207790 o o 


330 %? Parliamentary HISTORY 

The Iflues of England. 

In Pay of the Army of England, at 52867 /. oj. 10^. by the 
Month, according to the Eftablifhment hereafter following ; 

that is to fay, 

J ' 

By tbe Month. By the Year. 

To the General Officers 7 

t ^ /. S. d. 

of the Army ) 

639 n 4 1 

To nine Regiments of ~i 

Horfe, each Regiment con- / 
fifting of fix Troops, and f* 

11709 12 

each Troop of 48 Soldiers J 

To the Life-Guard of 1 06 1 

Soldiers \ 

1080 16 o 

To eight Regiments and^) 

>35*743 6 o 

two Companies of Foot; 1 

each Regiment confifting of ^ 

9415 6 4 

ten Companies, and each | 

Company of 80 Soldiers J 

To the Train of Artillery 

44 12 6 

To divers Garrifons in fe- 7 
veral Places J 

6422 o 8 

In Part of the Pay of the J 



Army in Scotland, out of > 
the Afleflments J 

11400 o o 

136800 o o 

In Part of the Pay of the J 


Army in Ireland, out of the > 
Afieflments 3 

8000 o o C 96000 o o 

In Pay of the Forces of ^ 


Jamaica, confifting of 1597 > 
Soldiers, with Officers j 

4153 2 o-C 49837 4 o 

In the Pay of the Forces in F/anders, at 61517. $s. 8d. by the 

Month, according to the E)ftablimment hereafter following ; 

that is to fay, 

By tbe Month. By tbe Ytar. 

To a Regiment of Horfe, ^ 

/. S. d. 

confifting of fix Troops, and 

2269 i o^| 

each Troop of 95 Troopers ) 

To three Regiments of-j 
Foot, each Regiment con- / 
fifting of 10 Companies, and f 
each Company of 90 Soldiers J 

3357 4 o 

To two Majors ; one for ? 

9 6 8 J 


Of E N G L A N D. 331 

By ib Mintl. Ej tbt T<ar. 

/. S. d. L S. J. 

To the Train of Artillery 266 14 <T| 

For Contingencies 49 o o j 73815 8 O 

To a Minilter per Annum 2OO o O [_ 

The" whole Pay of the Ar- ) Q Q 

my and Forces for a Year \ " 8195 ' 

Betides an Allowance of Cloaths to the Non-Coflamiffion Of- 
ficers and Foot Soldiers in Flanders. 

In the Pay of the ordinary Guards and Fleets at Sea, and Build- 
ing of Ships, by way of Eftimate yearly, as followeth; tl*t 
is to fay, 

For the Charge of 7500 Men, to be em- J 

ployed in 50 Ships, for a Summer's Guard S- 2JOOOO o O 

for feven Months, at 4/. a Man per Month J 
For the Charge of 5250 Men, to be em- 1 

ployed in 35 Ships, for a Winter's Guard v 147000 O O 

for feven Months, at 4/. a Man per Month j 

For Building of Ships yearly - 4000 o O 

In the Pay of the Commiflioners of the 1 

Admiralty, and the Commiffioners of the > 7744 

Navy, and the Treafurers of the Navy 3 
In the Pay of the Standing Officers be- 1 

longing to the Yards, and of Ships in Har- > 3628 6 10 

bours j 

In the Pay of the Officers and Seamen ~) 

employed in the Looking-to of Ships in > 45613 13 9 

Docks, and otherwife unemployed J 

The whole Charge of the Navy by the ) j I7Q g6 o 7 
Year 5 

In Intcreft paid for 2680477. igt. 6d. J 
charged upon the Receipt of the Excife by S- 20585 13 7 
Acts and Ordinances of Parliament for aYear 3 

In Expence of his Highnefs's Houfliold > IOOOOO o o 

In Repair of his Highncfs's Houfes yearly 5650 O o 

In Monies advanced to the Treafurer of I 2 7 6 6 8 
his Highnefs's public Contingencies 5 -.549 


'The Parliamentary HISTORV 

In Allowances to public Minifters em- 7 
ployed abroad J 

In Gifts and Rewards 

In Payments of fundry Natures, as by a 1 
Particular 5 

In Liberaties of the Courts at the Receipt } 
of the Exchequer, and for a Defalcation > 
upon Sea Coal 3 

In Allowances, Fees, and Salaries, paid 3 
out of the Exchequer j 

In Penfions and Annuities paid out of the 7 

Exchequer j 

l ln Salaries to Judges in England and Wales^ ~\ 

and aPenfion of 5OO/. yearly paid out of the V 

Cuftoms to the Earl of Nottingham j 

In Salaries, Fees, and Charges, incident 1 
and extraordinary in managing the Excife > 
yearly ) 

In the like, for managing the Cuftoms ? 
yearly 5 

In the like, for collecting the monthly'] 
y\fleflments of 350007. a Month, the Sum 1 
of 7000 /. and for the Charges and Salaries ^ 
cf the Committee of the Army and Trea- I 
furers at Wars, 82797. 9*. id. 

In the like, for the Committee of Appeals 

In the like, for the Judges and other Of- J 
ficers employed in the Probate of Wills, C 
and incident Charges j 

In the like, paid by, and allowed to, the " 
Clerk of the Hanaper in ordinary, 751 7. / 
7$. tfd. and of extraordinary Payments, f" 
31237. 19 s. id. J 

In the like Fees and Allowances to the 1 
Receiver, &ff. of the Office of Alienations > 

In Fees to the Officers of the Mim,Hvith 7 

their Diet and incident Charges 5 

In Officers Salaries, Rent, and other 1 

Charges of the Office of Wine Licences, by > 

Eftimate 3 

In Fees and Allowances to the Auditors 1 

and Receivers of the Revenue 5 

11089 I]c 2 

2262 12 2 

11734 12 8 

582 16 3 - 

24674 7 7 


16286 13 4 

28178 3 u 

427H 3 5 

15279 9 2 

1800 o 
2584 10 

3875 6 n 

1044 17 
H54 19 


4287 10 


In Allowances in the Pipe, upon Sheriffs'] 
Accompts, by Warrant from the Commif- j 
ftoners of the Treafury, and Judgment of | 
the Court of Exchequer j that is to fay, V 
for cafual Neceflaries of feveral Natures, ' 
24987. 14*. lod. for apprehending of Fe- 
lons, 94.5 /. and, in Fees in paffing of She- 
riffs Accompts, 2098. In all 

The Sum is 



5541 14 

329320 8 6 T r 

The whole Iflues of England for a Year 1455502 7 ii 

In Pay of the Army in Scotland, at 208 ig/. 4*. 2.d. by the 
Month, according to the Eftablifhment hereafter following; 
that is to fay, 

The Iffues of Scotland, 

By the Month. By tie Year. 

To the General Officers ; 
of the Army 

To five Regiments of" 
Horfe, each Regiment con- 
fifting of fix Troops, and I 
each Troop of 48 Soldiers J 

To ii Regiments and^) 
one Company of Foot, each j 
Regiment confifting of 10 V 11900 
Companies, and each Com- j 
pany of 70 Soldiers 

To four Companies of 1 
Dragoons, each Company > 
confifting of 48 Dragoons 3 

To the Train of Artillery 

To divers Garrifons i 
feveral Places 

343 14 

6505 6 8 

2 . 4 

630 18 8 

50 19 2 

288 3 4 


3 10 

To defray Contingencies noo o o^ 
In Salaries to the Counfel and their Officers 
In contingent Charge* of the Counfel 
In Salaries to the Court of Exchequer - 
In the contingent Charges of the Exchequer 

/n Salaries to the Courts of Juftice 

fn contingent Charges of the Courts of Juftice 


I8 8 3 o 3 


4246 4 
4&5 12 



Parliamentary HISTORY 

In Salaries to the Commiflioners of the ) 
Cuitoms, and of the Excife i 4I ?7 ? 

In the contingent Charges of the faid > 
Commiflioners \ 

In Salaries to the Court of Admiralty, \ Q o 

and their Officers ' $ 

In the contingent Charges of the Admiralty 167 14. i 

In Charges of an Hofpital - 587 10 6 

In Fire and Candles to Soldiers for Guards, ) 
&c. V 5 2 97 19 4 

In Penfions, and other temporary Con- ) 
Agencies J 

The whole Iflues of Scotland for a Year 286458 18 6 ^ 

8 9'5 

In Pay of the Army in Ireland, at 237997. us. 4^. by the 
Month, according to the Eftablifhment hereafter following ; 
that is to fay, 

The liTues of Ireland. 

By the Msntb. By tbt Tear. 

To the General Offi- 1 , 
ccrsofthe Army f Oj7 ' 

To ii Regiments and 7 
!0 Companies of Foot f l 

To fix Regiments and ) 

three Troops of Horfe 
To .Regiment ofDr.- 

o o 

9293 19 4 


8 o 

4 Q 

To a Foot-Guard - 155 

To an Hofpital - 279 

To Reparations of Gar- > 
rifons J 

In the Entertainment of the Lord Lieu- 1 
tenant J 

In Allowances to the Counfel, and the l 
Clerks of the Counfel, and their Clerks and 
Attendants J 



7600 p p 



In Allowances to the Lord Chancellor, 
and the Officers of the Chancery 

In Allowances to the Lord Chief Juftice 
of the Upper Bench, and two Judges and 
Clerks of the Crown 

In Allowances to the Lord Chief Juftice 1 
of the Common Pleas, and two Judges, and > 
the Prothonotary 3 

In Allowance to the Chancellor, Chief T 
Baron, and two Barons of the Exchequer, ( 
with other Officers, and Payments by Li- f 
berats J 

In Pay and Allowances to the Juftices of 
Affize in five Circuits 

In Pay to the Lord Prefident of Connaught, 
and two Provoft-Marflials of Lemfter and 

In Pay to the Overfeers of the Hofpital oH 
Dublin^ nine Mufter-M.ifters, five Commif- j 
Varies of Stores to the Overfeers of the > 
State's Houfes; with an Allowance of the j 
Provofts and Fellows of Trinity College J 

In Pay of eight Receivers of the Revenue 

In Pay to 28 Comptrollers and Search- J 
ers of the Cuftoms 5 

In Penfions to maimed Soldiers, and 1 
Widows and Orphans of Soldiers ) 

In Allowances and Contingencies, extra- ) 
ordinary Gratuities, and other cafual Iflues $ 


/. 5. d. 

2258 o o 


1007 IO 

1991 15 p 



o o 

o o 

1807 8 4 





o o 
o o, 

o o 

The whole Iflues of Ireland for a Year 320493 8 3 

The annual Income of England is 1568648 15 5^ 

The annual lilues and Expences of J 
England *K f '4555Q2 7 'j 

The Balance is <- -* 

The annual Income of Scotland is 
The annual Iflues and Expences of 

The Balance is - 

113146 8 4! 
ii ii 
18 61 


6 7i 


'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

The annual Income of Ireland is 207790 o o 
The annual liTues and Expcnces of 1 Q 

The Balance is 112703 18 3 

The annual Income of England, Scst- 1 
land, and Ireland, is J 'S* 00 * 1 7 4* 

The annual JfTues and Expenccs of 7 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, are 2C 52454 1 3 Ir 

The Balance is 

132363 6 

541465 14 7 


The State of the Debts of the Commonwealth ; that is to fay, 

To the Navy, to November i, 1658,") 
as the fame is certified by the Commif- 
fioners of the Admiralty and of the Navy, 
by way of Eftimate J 

To the Army in England, to March 29, 1 
1659, as the fame is certified by the Com- > 223747 8 
rnittee of the Army 3 

To the Army in Scotland, to March 29, 1 
1659, as the fame is certified by the Au- > 93827. 13 
ditor of Scotland J 

More for the Citadel of Leith 

To the Army in Ireland, to Dec. 20, 
! the f 

1800 o o 

ps the fame is certified by the Council of > 299225 5 4 

More to pay up that Army to March 29, \ 
1659, by Eftimate i 

To the Forces in Jamaica, to Feb. I," 
1657, 1 03045 A iSs. lid. as by a Certi- 
ficate from the Treafurer for that Service ; 
one Third Part whereof being abated for 
Provifions, there is due 68697 ^ 5 * J J ^ i 
And for the faid Forces, from the faid ift 
of February, 1657, to March 26, 1659, 
at 4I53/. 2 s. per Month, for 15 Months, 
62296?. 18*. out of which one Third Part 
being abated for Provifions, as before, 
there is due, in ths Whole, 

71903 12 

110228 ti 3} 


To feveral Perfons, for Pro vi lions for } 
the Forces in Flanders, as by a Certificate > 
from the Commiflioners of the Treafury ) 

To feveral Perfons, for Monies charged T 
by A&s and Ordinances of Parliament, as f 
by the Accompt of the Commiffioners of f 
Excife appears * J 

To feveral Perfons, charged upon the ~l 
Exchequer, as the fame is certified by the > 
Lords Commiffioners of the Treafury 3 

The whole Debt at prefent is 

Befides which there is a growing Debt^j 
incurring for the Navy for this prefent j 
Year's Service, determining November I, 
1659, over and above the Sum of 1432927. 
19 $. 8d. ^, which is already received to- 
wards this Service j and the Sum of 
4179867. os. 7 d. allowed for the ordi- 
nary Charge of the Fleet, as in the Iflues 
of this Year appears, the Sum of 

And further, whereas the Iflues and Ex- 
pences of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
exceeded the Income of 1323637. 6s. 6d.? 
as by the Balance of the Three Nations is )> 
before declared, that Sum is a growing 
Debt on the Commonwealth, and will be 
due before the End of the Year 

The whole Debt of the Public, at pre- 
fent, and before the Year end, is, and 
will be 

That is to fay, In the prefent Debts 
before- mentioned 

In the growing Debt of the Navy for 
this prefent Year 

In the Iflues this Year, more than the 


268047 19 .6 

124184 15 6 

1747584 2 10 

393832 8 p 

132363 6 

. 2273830 4 

5 4 

393882 8 o 

132393 6 6 

Befides what may be due to the Forces in Flanders; of which 
there is no Account to be had. 

* Mr. Scaiven further reported, That, fince the ftating and 

Drawing up of this Report, the Committee had received fome 

VOL. XXI, Y Papers 

338 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Papers from Flanders, concerning the Arrears due 

^J *' to the Forces there j which the Committee conceive, 

April^ upon what they have feen of them, may amount to 

between 8 and 10,000 /. which is to be added to the 

Debt depending upon the Foot of the Accompt now 


' The Houfe taking Notice of the great Pains 
taken by the Committee who brought in this Report, 
and of their Faithfulnefs and Exadnefs in the ftating 
of this Accompt, it was refolved, &c. ' That the 
Thanks of this Houfe be given to Mr. Scawen^ and 
to the reft of the Members of this Houfe of the faid 
Committee, for their great Pains, Care, and Faith- 
fulnefs in this Service.' 

Mr. Speaker gave the Thanks of the Houfe to 
Mr. Scawen^ and to the reft of the Members of the 
Houfe that are of this Committee, they {landing up 
in their Places refpe&ively. 

Refolved, &c. That the Debate upon this Re- 
port be adjourned untill Saturday Morning next, 
and then taken up again j and that nothing elfe do 
then intervene.' 

April 8. Sir Walter Erie reported from the Com- 
mittee, to whom it was referred to confider of the 
Manner of transacting with the Other Houfe, the 
Refolutions of the faid Committee. The firft of 
which was, * That fiich Meflages as lhall be fent 
from this Houfe to the Other Houfe, fhall be carried 
by Members of this Houfe.' Hereupon a Debate 
arofe, and it being put to the Queftion, the Houfe 
divided, and it went in the Affirmative, I36againft 
1 02. The fecond Vote, now reported from the 
Committee, was in thefe Words, * That fuch Mef- 
fages as fhall be fent from the Other Houfe to this 
Houfe fhall not be received, unlefs brought by 
Members of their own Number.' This occafioned 
another Divifion on the Queftion, and was carried 
alfo in the Affirmative j but on a much nearer Di- 
vifion than any we have met with in this Parliament, 
being only by 127 againft 114, 


Of E N G L A N D. 339 

On the fame Day a Letter from his Highnefs In:r. return, 
the Lord Protestor, directed To our Tru/iy and 
Right IVell- btlovtd Thomas Bampfield, Efq-, 
Speaker of our Houfe of Commons ; to be communi- 
cated to the Houfe. Signed, at the Head, Richard K 
and dated April 8, 1659, was this Day read in the 
Houfe. The Journals Only add, That, iff the faid 
Letter, his Hishnefs reprefented to the Parliament 
the Humble Keprcfentation and Petition of the 
General Council of the Officers of the Armies of 
England, Scotland^ and Ireland, which was alfo 

It is necefTary to flop here, and explain the Na- 
ture of this Petition a little further than the Journals 
do ; fince, as Whitlocke fays, it was the Beginning 
<5f Richard's Fall. It was, as the fame Author in- 
forms us, to fet forth, * Their Want of Pay, the 
}nfolencies of the Enemy, and their Defigns, to- 
gether with fome in Power, to ruin the Army and 
the Good old Caufe, and to bring in the Enemies 
thereof; to prevent which, and to provide againft 
Free Quarter, they defired his Highnefs to advife 
with the Parliament, and to provide an effectual 

Mr. VWtlicke adds, ' That this Beginning was fct 
on foot by Richard's near Relations, Defareugbi 
who married his Aunt, and FUttwiod, who married 
his Sifter, with others of their Party, whilft the 
Parliament was difputing with the Other Houfe, 
and took no Care to provide Money, which exaf- 
perated the Army, and- laid the Foundation of all 
their Ruins.' 

Mr. Ludloiv tells us, * That thefe Divifions were 
not confined within the Walls of both Houfes, but 
broke out in the Army itfelf ; the Officers growing 
jealous of one another, and were divided into three 
Factions, neither of thefe much fupcrior in Ntmi- 
ber ; that one Party was known to be well affected 
to the Cum mon wealth, and confifted chiefly of the 
following Officers, viz. Col. AJkficU, Col. Lilb*rn, 
Col. Fi'tz, Lieut. Col. Mafon, Lieut. Col. Jffife, 
JLicut. Col. Far[ey t zfi&MajotCrfe(t, with divers Cap- 
Y 2 tains, 

340 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. tains, and other inferior Officers. A fecond Party 
1659. was known by the Title of the Waiting! or d-Houfe, 

^"""^T ^ or Army Party, who had advanced Mr. Richard 
Cromwell, in Expectation of governing all as they 
pleafed : Of thefe were Lieut. Gen. Fleetwcod, Col. 
De/borough, Col. Sydenham, Col. Clark , Col. Kelfey, 
Col. Berry, Major Haines, Treafurer Blackwell, 
and fome others. The third Party was that of Mr. 
Richard Cromwell; who, having caft off thofe that 
had taken the Pains to advance him, joined himfelf 
to Men that were more iuitable to his Inclinations ; 
fuch were Col. Ingoldjby, Col. Cough, Col. Whal- 
ley, Col. Howard, Col. Goodrich, Lieut. Col. Ktlns, 
with many others, and more particularly thofe that 
were Officers in the Scots and Irijh Forces : But 
his Cabinet Council were the Lord Broghill, Dr. 
Wilkins, and Col. Philip 'Jones? To thefe he might 
have added Mr. Commiilioner Wbitlocke ; who, as 
himfelf writes, was of this Cabinet Council, and 
always declared his Judgment honeftly, and for the 
Good of Richard^ whenever his Advice was requi- 

But as it hath been hitherto our Cuftom not to 
content ourfelves with Abridgements, but when- 
ever we could find the Originals, to give them at 
large, we fubjoin the following Petition, taken from 
a Pamphlet of thefe Times, in our Collection. 

To his Highnefs RICHARD, Lord Protestor cf the 
Commonwealth ^/England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
and the Dominions and Territories thereunto be- 

the General Council of the Oncers of 'the Armies of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

The Army's Pe-' TJAving, as Members of the Army, often fo- 

titiontothpPro-t Jrj_ lemnly declared, not without Appeals to 

or * God for our Sincerity therein, That we did en- 

' gage, in Judgment and Confcience 3 for the juft 

4 Rights 

Of E N G L A N D. 341 

c Rights and Liberties, Civil and Religious, of our Inter-regnum. 
' Countries, and not as a mercenary Army : Had .^5 ^ ^ 

* we not been very jealous of our Reputation, and A r y 
' careful to avoid Sufpicion, which our many Adver- 

e faries have endeavoured to bring upon us, as if we 
' were apt to intermeddle with Matters not relating 

* to an Army, we had, before this Time, made 
'joint and public Application to your Highnefs ; 
' therein fetting forth what immediately concerns 
' ourfelves, with reipeil to the crying Neceffities of 
' the Armies, for want of Pay ; and withall to have 
' munifefted our fervent Dellres, that our good 

* Caufe, in the Behalf of thelc Nations, might have 
' received renewed Strength and Countenance from 

* your Highnefs and this prefent Parliament. 

* But your Highnefs is our Witnefs, how peace- 
' ably, how filently, we have fuftered, as to what 
' concerns the Armies Wants ; or what might 

* otherwife become us, in the Behalf of thefc Na- 
' tions, to have laid before your Highnefs. 

* Yea, we have been filent fo long, that we fear 
' it has been a Difadvantage to our Caufe, and bred, 

* though we hope groundlefs, Jealoufies of us in 
' many of our Friends ; and untill we, and all that 

* is dear to us, and the Intereft we have fo long 

* contended for, is in Danger to be loft; to the 

* utter Ruin and Subverfion of your Highnefs, to- 
' gether with the Peace and Welfare of thefe Na- 
4 tions. But being now, under the Senfe of immi- 
' nent Dangers and Neceffities, awakened ; and alfo 
' finding that your Highnefs, by the fitting of this 
' Parliament, is in a Capacity to provide againft the 
' approaching Danger ; and upon Confultation with 
' each other, and communicating what has come 
' to our Knowledge of public Concernment, and 

* the prefent State of the Armies, having unani- 
' moufly agreed it to be our Duty to God, to your 

* Highnefs, and our Fidelity to our Country, fub- 

* miflively, and as becomes us in our Stations, to 

* make our Application to your Highnefs, we hope 

* it will not be interpreted an Interruption to any 

* other public Concernments under Confideration ; 

Y 3 and 

342 tfhe Parliamentary HISTORY 

tnter-regnum. < and do therefore, in a deep Senfe of Mifery and 
1 *' ' Judgment threatened, and Purfuance of our Duty, 
' in all Humility, reprefent, 

' That the good old Caufe againft Tyranny and 

* intolerable Oppreffion, in Matters Civil and Reli- 

* gious, whereupon we firft engaged, and unto which 
' the Lord hath, in fuch a continued Series of Provi- 
' dence, given fo fignal a Teftimony, and for the car- 

* rying on whereof there hath been fuch a plentiful 

* pouring forth of Treafures, Prayers, Tears, and 
' Blood, during the late War, (in the Difficulties and 
c Dangers whereof we alfo, the living Monuments of 
' Patience and Mercy, have had our Shares) is very 

* frequently and publickJy derided and reproached ; 

* and the implacable Adverfaries thereof promife 

* themfelves to be fo far in Pofleflion and Matters 
' thereof, that they begin to appear every where 

* vifible amongft us, and to mix themfelves in the 

* midft of thofe Places where that Caufe was wont 

* to receive its chiefeft Countenance and Shelter. 

* Many old Cavaliers, and Officers under the late 

* King, and Charles Stuart, his Son, having lately 

* transported themfelves out of Flanders and other 

* Places into this Nation, have their frequent Meet- 
ings in and near the City of London. Thofe who alfo 

* ferved under the late King, and fuch as have al- 

* ways {hewed themfelves difaffe&ed to that famous 
' Long Parliament, and ever fince to the Caufe and 
' Intereft of this Commonwealth, and leek the Ruin 

* of this prefent Government, have their frequent 

* Meetings in feveral Counties of this Nation; grow 

* very infolent, offer many Affronts and Aflaults tQ 

< fuch as have been and are faithful Servants to this 

* Commonwealth. Papers are fcattered up and 

< down, containing Lifts of eminent AiTerters of the 

* public Intereft of this Nation, fuch as were the 

* actual Triers of the late King, and by whom he 

* was brought to condign Punifhment, as if they 
*- were defigned and marked out for Deftrudion. 

* Encouragement is taken for the Profecution of fe- 

* veral well -affected Perfons, and Suits commenced 

* againft them at the Common Law, for.Matters by 

* them 

Of E N G L A N D. 343 

* them tranfadtcd as Soldiers, by Command from Inter-regnum. 

* their Superiors, in order to the Safety and Sccu- 
c rity of the Nations. The famous Ations of the 

* Parliament, his late Highnefs of bleflcd Memory, 

* and the Army in and fince the Year 1648, vilified 

* and evil fpoken of j particular Perfons frequently 

* daring to fpealc againft the Authority of Parlia- 

* ment, and to call all their Proceedings, and of 
' fuch as acted in Obedience to them, illegal and 

* unwarrantable. So that, upon the whole, we 

* evidently fee there is but even a Step betwixt the 
' Public Caufe of thefe Nations, wherein we have 
' been fo fignally blefled and owned of God and 

* good Men, and the Death thereof; and that it is 

* not likely to expire without a fure Prefage of the 
fad Funerals of the dear, and never-to-be-enough 

* valued, Peace of thefe our native Countries. 

* And that our Enemies may want nothing that 
' can ftrengthen their Hopes, it fo happens that the 

* Armies are already under great Extremities for 
' want of Pay, and notwithstanding their Condition 
' hath been reprefented, yet no effectual Remedy 
' hath been applied ; our Enemies may hope Dif- 

* content will be the more eafily raifed, if the Ar- 
' mies mould unavoidably be neceffitated upon Free 

* Quarter. Divifions in the Armies have been at- 
' tempted and well near effected, when their Wants 

* have not been like to what is now upon them : 
' The Officers Purfes being generally emptied by 

* their Loans to the Soldiers, their Credits to the 
' Victuallers extended to the utmoft ; the poor Sol- 

* dicr fometimes inforced to fell his expected Pay 

* much under the Value thereof, for ready Money 

* to buy Bread ; and the great and unufual Morta- 

* lity of Horfes in the Army (infomuch that many 
Troopers have been forced to buy twice over) 
4 having brought the Horfe of this Army under ex- 

* ceeding great Extremities : And as by thefe Means 

* the Adverfaries to the Peace, Settlement, Profperity, 
' Civil and Religious Liberty of thefe Nations, are 
' grown very confident and high in their Expedta- 

* tions and Attempts, (and, as we are perfuaded, 

* ready 

344 ^ Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter -regnum, ' ready to betake themfelves to their Arms again) fo 
16 59- ' likewife many Friends thereof are exceedingly dif- 

* We cannot but bewail our own great Failings 
' and Turnings afide, and whenever we have back- 
' fliden, we have Caufe, and defire, to take Shame 
4 to ourfelves : And do therefore, for the ftrength- 
' cning of your Highnefs and Parliament, for the re- 
' viving the Hearts of our faithful Friends, and the 
c Vindication of our own Integrity againft all Cen- 
' fures and Jealoufies, afiert, That we are now, as 
' ever, equally endeared to our good old Caufe, and 

* utter Enemies to all Tyranny, Oppreflion, and Di- 
' fturbance of the Public Peace, under what Pretences 
' foever: And, thro' the Lord's Afliftance, refolved, 
' whilft our Lives and prefent Capacities are con- 

* tinued to us, to ftand by and affift your Highnefs 

* and Parliament, in the plucking the Wicked out 
' of their Places, wherefoever they may be difco- 

* vered, either amongft ourfelves or any other Places 

* of Truft ; the Reformation of Law and Manners, 
' fo frequently declared for, and fo earneftly ex- 

* pedted, by all fober and unbiaffed Men ; opening 
' the Courfe of Juftice and Bowels of Mercy, en- 
' couraging the Ways of Holinefs, and putting a 

* Stop to- the Inundation of Malignancy and Pro- 
' fanenefs. 

' All which, as it hath been, in Duty and Faith- 
c fulnefs, by us reprefented, fo we humbly pray, 
' That your Highnefs, taking into your ferious 
' Confideration the fad Condition of the Armies, 

* and Danger of the Nations, both from the great 

* Want of Pay and the Activity of our common 

* Enemy, will be pleafed to reprefent thefe Things, 

* which we have herein laid before your Highnefs, 

* to the Parliament, with our humble Dtfire and 

* Prayer, that a fpeedy Supply be made for the Ar- 
f mies ; that their paft Arrear may be fatisfied, and 
' Care taken for their conftant future Pay, fo long 

* as it {hall be thought fit to continue them ; as alfo 

* that Satisfaction be given to the Militia Forces j 

* and that there may be fuch a public Afferting of 

' our 

Of E N G L A N D. 345 

* our good old Caufe, and Juftification and Con- /nter-regmim. 
4 firmation of all Proceedings in Profecution and 1659- 

' Maintenance thereof, and Declaration againft its ^ ~** m ~'*4 
' Enemies, as may, for the future, deter all Perfons A?rii ' 

* from (peaking or attempting any thing to the Pre- 
< judice thereof, or of the Perfons that have acted 

* "in Profecution of it, and afford prefent Security to 
' the Civil and Religious Rights and Liberties of 

* thefe Nations, and the Peace thereof; and that 

* the Liberty of good and well affe&ed People, in 

* repairing with Freedom to their Meetings for the 

* Worihip of God (of late much violated by inditing 
' and iniprifoning many of their Perfons) may be 
itiJJ aflerted and vindicated,' 

Now to proceed with the Journals : 

From the gth to the I3th of April the Commons 
were again bufy about the Public Revenue, and 
examining the Farmers of it in various Branches, 
which we omit, as not much to our Purpofe ; and 
becaule all their Inquifitions ended in doing nothing. 
Some other Bufmefs was alfo entered into, but of as 
Jittle Confequence as the other, till 

April 14. When it was refolved, * That a Mem- 
ber of this Houfe be appointed to carry the Decla- 
tion, concerning the Public Faft, to the Perfons fit- 
ting in the Other Houfe, for their Concurrence.' 

Mr. Grove was the Member agreed on for that 
Office ; but, before he went up, a Queftion was 
put, ' Whether Mr. Grove^ when he had delivered 
this Meflage to the Perfons fitting in the Other 
Houfe, (hall return to this Houfe without flaying 
for any Anfwer .'* The Houfe divided, and the 
Numbers were found to be 100 for, and 144 againft 

Mr. Grove being returned from the Other Houfe, 
gave this Account of his EmbafTy, That, in Obe- 
dience to the Commands of this Houfe, he had de- 
livered to them in the Other Houfe, the Declara- 
tion for a Public Faft, for their Concurrence there- 

346 *Tbe Parliamentary HISTORY 

Intcr-regnum. unto : That, a little Time after himfelf and other 

1659. Members of this Houfe, who accompanied him to 

v*v*J deliver his Meflage, and went with him into the 

April. Other Houfe, were withdrawn, they were called in 

again, and received this Anfwer from them of the 

Other Koufe, ' That they would fend an Anfwer 

by Meflengers of their own.' 

April 15. The Members being met in the Houfe 
this Morning, and the Mace placed below, under 
the Table, they were informed, That Mr. Chaloner 
Chute, who, at the firft Meeting of the Parliament, 
was chofen their Speaker, was dead, Mr. Cooper, 
the Minifter appointed to perform the Duty of 
Prayer with the Houfe on Mornings, was called in 
to Prayers ; and Prayer being ended, and the Mini- 
fter withdrawn, the feveral Members, fitting in 
their Places, confider'd of the Choice of a new 
Speaker : And, upon Confideration of the Expe- 
rience the Houfe had of the great Integrity and 
Ability of Mr. Thomas Bampfield, who was called 
to the Chair, to fupply the Speaker's Place during 
the Abfence and Indifpofition of Mr. Chute , the late 
Speaker, now dead, and what good Service he had 
done the Houfe, efpecially in the Prefervation of the 
antient Orders thereof, it was propounded to the 
Houfe, That Mr. Bampfield might be continued in 
their Service, and that he might be chofen Speaker 

Mr. Bampfield, Handing up in his Place, firft ac- 
knowledged to the Houfe the great Honour that was 
put upon him, in calling him to the Chair before, 
upon Mr. Speaker Chute's Sicknefs and Indifpofition ; 
and endeavoured to excufe himfelf, upon the Reafons 
of the Experience the Houfe had of his Unfitnefs for 
their Service, and defired Mr. Edward Turner, a 
Perfon of great Abilities, and Fitnefs for their Ser- 
vice, might be chofen their Speaker : But Mr. Tho- 
mas Bampfield being generally call'd on by the Houfe, 
he was brought to the Chair by Sir Walter Erie 
and Mr. Careiv Raleigh', and, being fet in the 
Chair, and the Mace placed on the Table by the 


Of ENGLAND. 347 

Serjeant, as is ufual, the Iloufc proceeded on their iMer- regnom. 
Bulinefs as formerly. ,,^f ' i 

April 1 6. A Paper, written n the Outfide there- 
of with thefe Words, For the Speaker of the Com- 
mons affembled in Parliament ; thefe art for him t 
read to the Houfe of Commons, was this Day read ; 
and, upon the Reading thereof, the fame, amongft 
other Things, referred to another Paper, intituled, 
A Declaration to the Parliament, &c. delivered the 
ttb Day of the fecond Month, called April, 1659, 
to the then Speaker of the faid Haufe. The faid 
Papers were prefented by certain Perfons, who arc 
commonly called Quakers. 

' Refolved, fcfr. That the Anfwer to be given t 
the Paper now read, and the Paper thereby referred 
to, be as followeth, viz. That this Houfe hath read 
their Paper, and doth declare their Diflike of the 
Scandals thereby call upon Magiftracy and Miniftry, 
and doth therefore oruer, That they do forthwith 
refort to their rcfpc&ive Habitations, and there ap- 
ply themfclves to their Callings, and fubmit them- 
felves to the Laws of the Nation, and the Magiftra- 
cy they live under. 

The Queftion being put, That the Serjeant at 
Arms attending this Houfe do return the aforefaid 
Anfwer to the Perfons that prefented the aforefaid 
Papers to the Houfe, it pafied with the Negative. 

The Serjeant, by the Command of the Houfe, 
was directed to call in Thomas Moore, John Crook 9 
and Edward Byllyng, three of the Perfons that 
figned the Paper mentioned to be delivered the 6th 
of this Inrtant April, to receive the faid Anfwer at 
the Bar of the Houfe ; and to take off their Hats be- 
fore they come within the Door of the Houfe : And, 
Thomas Moore being abfent, the faid John Crock and 
Edward Byllyng were brought in to the Bar, with 
their Hats oft': And Mr. Speaker, by the Command 
of the Houfe, declared to them, {landing at the Bar, 
the aforefaid Anfwer accordingly. 

* Refolved, faff. That the Clerk do take Care that 
the Anfwer given by the Houfe this Day to the Pa- 

348 7he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Tnter-regnum, pe rs prefented to the Houfe by the Perfons com- 
* '' monly called Quakers, be forthwith printed.' 

The Army now began to be formidable to the 
two Houfes at Wejlminfter^ and therefore the Com- 
mons thought proper to attack them in their Way, 
and prevent, if poffible, their being turned out of 
Doors, as their Predeceflbrs had been before them, 
by thofe Red -Coat Patriots, who carry always the 
Argumenium Baculinum along with them. 

April 1 8. This Day, being Monday, the Houfe, 
immediately after Prayers, ordered their Doors to 
be (hut in, and none of the Members fuffered to go 
out without Leave. A Queftion was then propofed 
and put, ' That, during the fitting of the Parlia- 
ment, there mail be no General Council, or Meet- 
ings, of the Officers of the Army, without the Di- 
reftion, Leave, and Authority, of his Highnefs the 
Lord Protector and both Houfes of Parliament.' On 
this Queftion the Houfe divided, and it was carried 
in the Affirmative, 163 to 87. Another Refolution 
was alfo agreed to, without any Divifion, * That 
no Perfon (hall have, or continue, any Command or 
Truft, in any of the Armies or Navies of England^ 
Scotland^ or Ireland^ or any the Dominions or Ter- 
ritories thereunto belonging, who {hall refufe to 
fubfcribe, That he will not difturb, nor interrupt, 
the free Meetings in Parliament, of any the Mem- 
bers of either Houfe of Parliament, or the Freedom 
in their Debates and Counfels.' Refolved, alfo, 
* That the Concurrence of the Other Houfe be de- 
fired to thefe Votes ; and that Mr. John Stephens do 
carry them to that Houfe.' 

The Commons next voted, That they would 
take into Confideration how the Arrears of the 
Armies and Navies might be fpeedily fatisfied the 
next Morning. They likewife ordered in a Bill, 
For indemnifying all fuch as had acted under the 
Parliament and Commonwealth. The Attorney 
and Solicitor General to prepare and bring in the 
fame. And the Houfe being then informed, That 


Of E N G L A N D. 349 

divers People, who had been in Arms againft the Inter-rpgnu 
Parliament, and other dangerous Perfons, had rcfort- 
cd of late to the City of London, and Parts adjacent, 
the Houfe referred it to a Committee, then named, 
to propofe fome effectual Way, how his Highnefs, 
the Parliament, and Nation, might be fecured 
againft any Attempts from them. To meet about 
the fame, at Six o'Clock this Evening, in the Speak- 
er's Chamber. 

The next Day, April 19, Mr. Annejley^ from 
the aforefaid Committee, delivered in a Declara- 
tion, ready drawn, to the Houfe, requiring all fuch 
dangerous Perfons to depart the Cities of London 
and Weftminfttr^ and late Lines of Communica- 
tion, to the Diftance of twenty Miles. This was 
read firft, intirely, and afterwards, in Parts j and it 
was after, with fome Amendments and Alterations, 
agreed to by the Houfe. 

Mr. Stephens reported the Anfwer from the Other 
Houfe to the Votes he carried up to them, the 
Day before, * That they would take the fame into 
Confideration, and return an Anfwer thereunto by 
Meflengers of their own.' But no Anfwer to any 
of thefe Matters, fo fent up to the Other Houfe, 
ever came from them again j for, 

April 20, and the Day after, we find nothing of 
it in the Journals ; the Commons bufying themfelves 
in fettling the Public Revenue ; except agreeing up- 
on a Title to a lat Declaration, which feems to 
have been forgot before j and, 

April 22. After appointing a Committee to at- 
tend his Highnefs to defire him to pay Mr. Cowper t 
their Minifter, Fifty Pounds, for his great Labour 
and Pains in performing the Duty of Prayer daily 
in the Houfe, fince the Meeting of this Parliament, 
the Houfe feems to be in a great Buftle. But what 
is faid of it in the Journals is only this, ' That the 
Houfe taking Notice, that fome of their Members 


350 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- reg num. went out of the Houfe, it was ordered, That thoie 
Gentlemen, who now went out, fhould be called in 

*-~ 7^7 ^ again to give their Attendance in the Houfe. Alfo, 
That none of the Members do depart without Leave 
of the Houie ; and that all Strangers be commanded, 
forthwith, to depart out of thelyobby, or outward 
Room, before the Parliament Door; and that none 
but fuch as are Members be fuffered to come in, 
and the Door of the faid outward Room be kept 
fliut. Laftly, it was refolved, That this Houfe be 
adjourned untill Monday Morning next, the 25th 
Inftant ; and was adjourned accordingly.' 

In the mean Time the following Proclamation 
Was publifhed for their Difiblution. 

By the Lord ProteSior. 

* "T T THereas we fummoned our High Court of 

* \\ Parliament to aflemble and meet together 

* at our City of Weftminjler? the 2yth of "January 
4 laft, which hath continued untill this prefent Day; 

* and whereas we did, by our Commiifton under the 
' Great Seal of England^ bearing Date at IFfftmin- 
*Jler this prefent 22d Day of April, for divers weigh- 

* ty Reafons, declare our Pleafure and Refolution to 

* diflblve the faid Parliament ; and to that End did 
' thereby conftitute and appoint our Right Trufty and 
' Well- beloved Counfellor Nathaniel Fiennes, one 
' of the Lord Keepers of our Great Seal of England^ 
' and others ourCommifiioners, in our Names, this 

* faid prefent 22d Day of April? to diflblve our faid 
' Parliament, which was by them done according 

* to the Tenor of the faid Commiflion, in the ufual 

* Place ; and by Virtue thereof our Parliament is 

* abfolutely diflolved ; neverthelefs we thought it 
< neceflary, with the Advice of our Privy Council, by 

* this our Proclamation, topublifh and make known 
the fame, to the End all Perfons whom it may 

* concern may take Notice thereof. 

Given at Whitehall the 22d / April, Anno 1659. 

Thefe confufed Hints are all the Journals afford 
us relating to the DHTolution of this Parliament ; a 

Of ENGLAND. 351 

Cataftrophe, which abfolutely put an End to Rich" 
artfs (hort-liv'd Empire, and greatly paved the Way 
for the enfuing Reiteration of the Royal Family. 
A particular Inquifition, therefore, is very neceflaryj 
in this Place, into the Memorialifts, Hiftorians, 
and old Pamphlets of thofe Times, in order to clear 
up thefe obftrufe Affairs, never yet thoroughly in- 

To begin then : The Heats and Animofitics be- 
tween the two Houfes were the principal Caufe of 
this fmall Revolution ; for had the Houfe of Com- 
mons gone upon raifmg of Money, to fatisfy thtf 
greedy Appetites of the Soldiery, inftead of quarrel- 
ling with one another, and difputing the Legality of 
the Other Houfe, the Army would never have re- 
belled againft them, and, once more, turned them 
out of Doors. IVbitlocke tells us, ' That it was Ha- 
filriggt and Nevile, and their Party, who laboured 
to overthrow the Government by a Protector and 
two Houfes of Parliament, and bring in, what they 
called, a free Commonwealth : That feveral Officers 
of the Army, particularly Dejborough, Fleetwood^ 
and Lambert, joined with them in this Work. He 
adds, That Richard advifed with him, and others 
of his Privy Council, whether it was fit to diflblve 
this Parliament or not. Moft of them were for it, 
but Whitlocke doubted the Succefs of it, and wiflied 
a little longer Permiffion to their Sitting ; efpecially 
now they had begun to confider of raifmg Money, 
whereby they would foon engage the Soldiery, and 
link them faft to their Intereft. But the Majority 
was for diflblving the Parliament, urging for it the 
prefent Dangers from the Cavaliers, who now flock'd 
to London, and, under-hand, fomented Divifions in 
the State : So that, by Commiflion under the Broad 
Seal to Fiennes and others, this Parliament was 
diflblved, and a Proclamation afterwards publiftied 
to declare it ; which caufed, he fays, much Trou- 
ble in the Minds of many honeft Men ; but the Ca- 
valiers and Republicans rejoiced at it. 

Thus fpeaks this very honeft Man Mr. Whitlocke ; 
and it is eafy t fee by it, That he dreaded any more 


3 5 2 7/k* Parliamentary Hi s T OR V 

Inter-r:snuin. Convulfions in the State, left the Government of it 
1659- fhould be at laft thrown on its old Hinges, and he 
*-""^ / "7" 1 "^ Jofe the lucrative Pofts he had fo Jong enjoyed. But, 
p pow hear what his Antagonist, in Politics, though 

equally averfe to the Royal Caufe, fays in this Mat- 

Ludlow, after giving the Names of the principal 
Readers of the three Parties, at this Time, as is al- 
ready mentioned, proceeds to tell us, * That the 
Differences between thofe Parties, being very great, 
were yet much increafed by the following Acci- 

* Col. Whalley, whom Richard had lately made 
Commifiary-General of the Horfe, meeting with 
Col. AJbfield in Weftminfter-HaU* and difcourfmg 
with him concerning the Other Houfe, about which 
their Sentiments were very different, the Com- 
mifiary-General fell into fuch a Paffion, that he 
threatened to ftrike the Colonel ; who thereupon 
daring him to do it, Wkalley chofe rather to make 
his Complaint to Mr. Richard Cromwell. Col. 
AJhf.eld being fummoned to appear, the pretended 
Protestor threatened to cafhier him as a Mutineer, 
for fpeaking in fuch a Manner to a General Officer 
of the Army. But the Colonel defiring a fair and 
equal Hearing by a Council of Officers, he was or- 
dered to attend again. At the Time appointed it 
was contrived that Col. Cough, Col. fhgaldjby, Col. 
Howard, Lieut. Col. Goodrich^ and other Creatures 
of the Court fhould be prefent to decide the Matter 
in Difpute, who unanimoufly enjoined Col. AJhfieltl 
to acknowledge his Fault, and to aflc the Com- 
milTary-Generars Pardon for the fame : But their 
Endeavours herein proved ineffectual, for the Colo- 
nel denying that he had offended the Commiflary- 
General, refufed to defire his Pardon. Another 
Thing happened about the fame Time that proved 
very difadvantageous to the Irr^reft of Mr. Richard 
Cromwell: For a certain inferior Officer having 
publickly murmured at the Advancement of fome, 
that had been Cavaliers, to Commands in the Army, 

<9f ENGLAND. 353 

he was carried to Whitehall to anfwer for the fame. Inter-rtgmim. 
Mr. Richard Cromwell, bcfides other reproachful l6 59- 
Language, afked him, in a deriding Manner, Whe- < T v T^"^ 
ther he would have him prefer none but thofe that 
Were godly ? Here, continued he, is Diclc Ingoldlby, 
who can neither pray nor preach, and yet I will truji 
him before ysu all. Thofe imprudent, as well as ir- 
religious Words, fo clearly difcovering the Frame 
and Temper of his Mind, were foon publifhed in 
the Army and City of London, to his great Preju- 
dice. And from this Time all Men among them, 
who made but the leaft Pretences to Religion and 
Sobriety, began to think themfelves unfafe whilft 
he governed, and thereupon foon formed a Refolu- 
tion to ufe their utmoft Endeavours to divide the 
Military from the Civil Power, and to place the 
Command of the Army in Lieut. Gen. FleeiwoodC 

Our Memorialift goes on with a long Account of 
his own Tranfa&ions with the Army at Wallingford- 
Houfe, not much to our Purpofe, but it tended al- 
together to form a Party, on the old Republican 
Scheme, who were working Richard's Downfall. 
Then he proceeds, and fays, ' In the mean Time 
Mr. Cromwell and his Party were exceedingly 
alarmed at thefe Proceedings ; and, not daring to 
truft to their own Authority in this Matter, they 
contrived it fo as to engage the Parliament in their 
Defence. Accordingly fomc Members of the 
Commons Houfe charged the Council with muti- 
nous Words there fpokcn againft the Government, 
and againft the Refolutions of the Parliament itfelf. 
This Accufation was fo well feconded, that the 
Houfe refolved to diffipate the Storm, and to that 
End pafled a Vote, That the Officers of the Army 
Should no more meet as a General Council. Yet 
for all this they met again at the Time appointed, 
in order to proceed in their Defign : But the Houfe 
having Notice of it, and being very defirous to 
enable Mr. Cromwell to make their Vote effectual, 
declared him to be General of their Army, authori- 
zing him to diipcrfe the Officers to their refpective 
Charges; to remove from their Commands fuch as 

VOL. XXI. Z fhould 

354 Tl> e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. fhould difobey, and to place others in the room of 
l6 59- them. They alfo voted it to be High Treafon in 

^ - "7 v r?* 1 ' the Officers to meet in Council contrary to their 
p " ' Order, and promifed to caufe the Arrears of thofe 
that fhould yield Obedience, to be forthwith paid, 
with Aflurances to take Care of them for the 
future. Mr. Richard Cromwell having Notice of 
thefe Votes, immediately went to the Place where 
the Council of Officers was aflembled ; and having 
informed them of what had patted, he told them that 
he expected their prefent Obedience. The Officers 
not being then prepared to difpute his Commands, 
withdrew themfelves j but the chief of them conti- 
nued their Meetings in a more private Manner, 
making Ufe of all Means imaginable to oblige Mr. 
Richard Cromwell to a Compliance with them j but 
he relying on the Strength of his new Friends, re- 
fufed to hearken to them ; fo that they perceived it 
to be high Time to provide for the Security of 
themfelves. Information being given at Court that 
fomething extraordinary was in Agitation, the Pro- 
tector Richard fent a Meflage to Lieutenant-General 
Fleetivood to come to him j but the MefTenger re- 
turned without an Anfwer. Then he ordered fome 
of the Guard to be fent for him ; but they defired to 
be excufed. The Lieutenant -General having No- 
lice of this Defign, retired to St. James's, where 
many Officers of the Army reforting to him, it was 
concluded between them, that the whole Army 
fhould rendezvous at St. James's. The News of 
this Refolution being brought to M.r.Cromwel/, he 
alfo appointed a Counter-Rendezvous to be at the 
fame Time at Whitehall. Accordingly Col. Gougb 
fent Orders for his Regiment to march toWlntehall '; 
but the Major had already prevailed with them to 
draw to St. James's. Three Troops of Col. Ifl- 
goldjbfs Horfe marched alfo to St. James's^ with 
part of two more ; fo that he had only one entire 
Troop of his Regiment to ftand by him. Co!. 
Whalley's Regiment of Horfe for the moft part left 
him, and went off to St. James's ; which he feeing, 
opened his Breaft, and defired them to Ihoot him. 

Of E N G L A N D. 355 

Col. Hacker's Regiment of IJorfe being drawn up lutcr-regauia. 
near Cheapfide^ Mr. Cromwell fent a MeiTage to the .f 5 _ 
Colonel, with an Order to require him forthwith to " 
march to JWritehall; but he excufed himfelf, and 
faid he had received Orders from Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral Fleetwood to keep that Poft. Many allb of 
Richard's own Guard went to St. James's^ and 
moft of thofe that ftaid with him, declared they 
would not oppofe any that fhould come to them by 
Order from Lieutenant- General Fleetwood. Thus 
here was a General without an Army, and divers 
great Officers without Soldiers; who, having boafted 
of their Intereft in the Army, and having thereby 
led the Houfe into their late rafh Proceedings, now 
being utterly difappointed in their Hopes and Ex- 
pectations, knew not what to advife, or what to do. 
About Noon Col. Dejborough went to Mr. Richard 
Cromwell* at Whitehall^ and told him that if he 
would diflblve his Parliament, the Officers would 
take Care of him ; but that, if he refufed fo to do, 
they would do it without him, and leave him to 
fhift for himfelf. Having taken a little Time to 
confider of it, and finding no other Way left to do 
better, he confented to what was demanded. This 
great Alteration was made with fo little Noife, that 
very few were alarmed at it. The next Morning 
the Houfe met, and divers Members made extrava- 
gant Motions, rather, as was fuppofed, to vent their 
own Paffions, than from any Hopes of Succcfs : For 
whatever were the Refolutions that had been made 
by the Court Junto, they could not fuddenly be 
brought to a Vote, becaufe the contrary Party was 
confiderably increafed by this Change of Affairs. 
Few of the Houfe knew of the Refolution taken to 
put a Period to them, or, if they did, were unwilling 
to take Notice of it ; fo that when the Ufhcr of the 
Black Rod, who attended the Other Houfe, came 
to let the Serjeant at Arms know that it was the 
Pleafure of the Protector that the Houfe of Com- 
mons fhould attend him at the Other Houfe, many 
f them were unwilling to admit the Serjeant into 
the Houfe to deliver the Meflagej but the Com- 
Z 2 monwealth 

356 *The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. monwealth Party demanded, and obtained, that he 
l6 S9- fhould give the Houfe an Account of what the Gen* 

.*7v~' tleman of the Black Rod had faid to him. The 
pn ' Aflembly being under this Confufion, adjourned 
themlelves till Eight o'Clock the next Morning ; but 
Care was taken to prevent their meeting again, by 
publifhing a Proclamation, declaring them to be 
difiblved, by fetting a Padlock on the Door of the 
Houfe, and by placing a Guard in the Court of 
Requefts, with Orders to refufe Admittance to all 
thofe that fhould demand it.' 

Amongft the many Pamphlets, printed and pub- 
lifhed in thefe Times, and are in our Collection, 
two of them give fuccin& and clear Accounts of 
thefe Proceedings. The one of them called A true 
and Impartial Narrative ^ is before quoted ; and we 
beg Leave to add another Quotation from the fame 

* On the 22d of April \he Black Rod came to the 
Door to have Entrance. The Serjeant, who fhould 
have done no more than acquainted the Houfe that 
fuch a Meflenger was at the Door, acquainted them 
with his Meflage, viz. That, by Order of the Pro- 
teclor, the Speaker of the Other Houfe fent to the 
Houfe of Commons to come with their Speaker to 
them in the Other Houfe j which the Houfe recei- 
ved generally with great Indignation and Scorn, 
fome faying, They were the Upper Houfe j and fo, 
without receiving the Meflenger, the Houfe ad- 
journed till Monday the 25th of April : But the 
next Day the pretended Protestor diflblved the pre- 
tended Parliament by a Proclamation.' 

The other old Pamphlet is called England's Con- 
fufion, &c. and, though not fo tedious as the former 
Account, is as circumftantial in the Matter to the 

Whilft the Houfe fpent the reft of their Time 
in confidering how to provide Money, without lay- 
ing new Burdens on the People, great Contefts 


Of ENGLAND. 357 

grew between the Protestor and the oppofite Officers Intcr-regnum. 
of the Army, both Sides keeping Guards Night and l6 59- 
Day againft one another, the Protestor having, in v -"""v~^ 1 
purfuance of the Votes of the Houfe, forbidden the Ap 
Meetings of the Officers. 

' In this divided Pofturc, Affairs continued untill 
Friday the 22d of April ; on which Morning early 
Fleetwood the Protestor's Brother, Dejborough his 
Uncle, and the reft of the mutinous Officers, carry- 
ing the greater Part of the Army after them, and the 
Protedtor's Party flinching, the Conqueft was made 
without one Drop of Blood, which, fays our Autho- 
rity, was ftrange in fo antient, hereditary, juft, and 
undoubted a Title) and the Protestor forced to con- 
fent to a Commiffion and Proclamation ready prepa- 
red, giving and others Power to dhTolve 
the Parliament, contrary to the belt Advice, and his 
ownlnterell and Promife. And accordingly, the fame 
Day, the Black Rod was fent twice to the Houfe of 
Commons (from Fiennes* Speaker of the Other 
Houfe) for them to come thither; but they admitted 
him not in, and much fcorned the Motion, having 
ever looked upon that Mufhroom Houfe as the 
Lower Houfe and their own Creature, the Language 
being to fend down to the Other Houfe, when they 
lent the Declaration for a Faft for a Trial of tranf- 
ating with them : And therefore, understanding there 
were Guards of Horfe and Foot in the Palace-Yard 9 
after fome Motions made by Mr. Knightly, Sir Ar- 
thur Hafilrigge, and others, wherein Sir Arthur ex- 
ceeded, That the Houfe ftiould firft declare itTreafon 
for any Perfons whatfoever to put Force upon any 
Members of the Houfe ; and, next, That all Votes, 
Acts, and Refolutions, parted by any Members of 
Parliament, when the reft were detained from, or 
taken out of, the Houfe by Force, fhould be null 
and void ; and other Motions becoming Englijbmen 
to that End ; judging themfelves under a Force, and 
finding they were very unanimous, though near 400 
in the Houfe, in the Things propofed, they refolved 
on no Queftion ; but adjourned till Monday Morn- 
ing the 25th of April, and attended the Speaker, in 
Z 3 

358 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Order, thorough WeJlminjler-Hall to his Coach, in 
l6 59 the Face of the Soldiery/ 

** nl * To clofe up all we can give relating to this 

ftrange and fudden Revolution, take what follows 
from the Memoirs of the Life and Death of Roger 
Boyle, Lord Brogkill, afterwards created firft Earl of 
Orrery. a 

' Richard Cromwell fucceeded his Father for fome 
Time, and called a Parliament. While the Par- 
liament was fitting, he likewife gave a Commiffion 
to Fleetwood and Dejborough, to hold a Council of 
War at Walling f or d-Houfe^ to which Lord Erog- 
bill received a Summons to come, as being a Ge- 
neral Officer in the Irijh Army. He had no fooner 
received the Summons, than his Lordfhip went to 
Richard Cromwell, to know whether he had con- 
fented to call a Council of War. Cromwell told 
him he had. My Lord replied, He feared he would 
repent it. Cromwell afked, Why? Becaufe they 
would certainly work fome Mifchief againft him 
and his Friends ; but as yet he knew not what it 
was. Cromwell then defired his Lordfhip to do 
what he could to prevent it. My Lord replied, 
He would go amongft them, and fee what might 
be done. 

' The Day of the Council of War being come, 
they all repaired to Walling j "or -d-Houfe, where were 
above five hundred Officers; and, after a long 
Prayer, (I think made by Dr. Owen) Col. Dejborough 
flood up, juft over- againft Lord Broghill^ (who, 
with the other General Officers, fat at a Table by 
themfelves) and made a Speech of an Hour long ; 
reprefenting how gracious the Lord had been to 
them, and how profperous their Arms had been ; 
which Profperity he feared would not continue, be 
caufe there were, fince their Peace and Quietnefs, 
feveral Sons of Belial crept in amongft them, for 
whofe Sakes there would be great Judgments upon. 


3 Wrote by the Rev. Mr. Mcrrice, his Lordfliip's Chaplain, and 
afterwards publiflied ia a Colle^iou of State Letters, Gfc. p. ZT, 
London, Fol, 174*. 

Of E N G L A N D. 359 

the Array : And therefore he thought it would be Jnter-regnum. 

convenient fome effectual Means fhould be made 

ufe of, to purge the Army of them ; and the Means 

that he propofed was a Teft, which every Perfon 

in the Army fhould take ; and they who refufed 

fhould be turned out. The Teft was this, ' That 

* every one fhould fwear, they did believe, in 

* their Confciences, that the putting to Death the 

* late King, Charles Stuart, was lawful and juft/ 
This was the main Defign of his Speech ; which 
when he had ended, he fat down, and a great many 
cried out, Well moved! Lord Brogbill, who was 
not to be furprifed on this or any other Occafion, as 
fbon as Dejborough had done, flood up and decla- 
red, he muft oppofe all Tefts put upon the Army, 
both as a Thing that would enflave them, and as a 
Thing they had pofitively declared againft ; for if 
they once put Tefts upon themfclves, others would 
quickly impofe Tefts upon them, and they would 
be obliged to act againft their own Liberty of Con- 
fcience, which thev had fo much fought and pleaded 
for : But he was againft the Teft in particular that 
was then propofed, becaufe it was unjuft and un- 
reafonable, to require Men to fwear to the Law- 
fulnefs of an Action, at the doing of which they 
were not prefent ; for many, betides himfelf, were 
not prefent when the late King was tried and put 
to Death ; and how could they fwear to the Juftice 
or Lawfulnefs of that which they did not, nor 
could not, know ? But if they would have a Teft to 
purge the Army, he thought he had as good a Right 
to propofe one as another ; and therefore he offered 
one more reafonable and lawful, which was, ' That 

* all fhould be turned out of the Army, who would 

* not fwear to defend the Government, as it is now 
' eftablifhed under the Protector and Parliament.' 
This was reafonable and lawful, becaufe it was to 
maintain the prefent Government. In fine, he de- 
clared, he was againft all Tefts, and for the Conti- 
nuance of the Liberty of the Army : But if they 
would be for a Teft, he was for that which he had 


360 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum. now offered ; and if they would not pafs it in that 
Council, but rather have the other, then he would 
" move ic the next Day in Parliament, of which he 
Was a Member, and there he was confident it would 
pafs. Upon this all cried, Well moved! And while 
they were in fome Kind of Murmur upon the Mo- 
tion, my Lord, having Gaffe on the one Side of 
him, and Major Wballey on the other, firft whifper'd 
one in the Ear, and then the other, knowing they 
were both of a hot Temper, and eafily moved ; 
and did his Bufmefs fo effe&ually with them, that 
they both fpoke fucceflively againft De/borcugb^ 
Teft, and declared for Lord Brog bill's. Upon 
which Fleetwood, Defborough^ and others of the 
Gang, went to confult by themfelves what was 
beft to be done; and, after a little Confultation, 
came again and told Lord Broghill, they had con- 
iidered what his Lordftiip had faid, and had not feen 
the ill Confequences of impofing Tefts on the Army, 
till he had hinted them, but were now convinced ; 
therefore they would not put it to the Vote whicli 
of the two fhould pafs, but defired both might be 
withdrawn ; which, with fome Reludlance, Lord 
Broghlll confented to. 

' His Lordfliip foon after gave Richard Cromwell 
an Account of all that paffed, at which he was 
overjoyed. My Lord then told Cromwell ', That 
certainly the Council of War would do Mifchief, 
if it fat any longer, and therefore advifed him forth- 
with to diffolve it. Cromwell aflced how he might. 
My Lord told him, if he pleafed he would draw up 
a mort Speech for him, which he fhould the next 
Morning fpeak to them : This Cromwell promifed 
he would do. My Lord then drew up a Speech for 
him to this Effect : That he accepted their Service 
with all Thankfulnefs j that he had confidered what 
did moft aggrieve them ; and that he thought the 
beft and propereft Way to rcdrefs what was amifs 
among them, was to do it in the Parliament then 
fitting, of which moft of them were Members j and 
therefore declared his Commiifion of holding that 
Council null and void, and defired them all to go 


Of E N G L A N D. 361 

to their feveral Commands. This Speech my Lord Inter-regnuni, 
gave to Cromwell that Night, who conn'd it over, 
and had his Leflbn perfedt the next Day; and 
accordingly, by Ten of the Clock, came to Wai- 
lingford-Houfei and fat in a Chair of State among 
them, which pleafed fome and troubled others; 
and wjthin an Hour he rofe up, and delivered his 
Speech ; which, though it was very mild, yet gave 
great Diftafte to Fleetwood and his Party, but it 
leems they guefled who was the Author of their 
Diflblution ; and therefore, about three Days after, 
Fleettvood and the General of the Army, with Def- 
borongh and the reft of the Gang, came in a Body 
into the Parliament, and, in the Name of the Army, 
complained how much they had been abufed and 
affronted by a certain Lord in that Afiembly, (look- 
ing ftedfaftly upon Lord Broghill) defiring that they 
might have Satisfaction ; requesting that-an Addrefs 
might be made to his Highnefs the Lord Protestor, 
intreating him to declare who it was that advifed 
him to diflblve the Council of War, during the Sit- 
ting of the Parliament, without the Parliament's 
Knowledge or Confent. All then began to look 
upon my Lord as the Party concerned, and fome 
beckoned to him to be gone ; bat he fat ftill to jet 
the Murmur be over ; and at laft rofe up, and 
moved that, at the fame Time when this Addrefs 
was made, another alfo might be prefented, to 
know who advifed the calling a Council of War, 
without the Knowledge or Confent of Parliament : 
For if he be guilty, who advifed the Diflblution of 
the Council without the Parliament's Confent, he 
muft be much more guilty, who advifed the calling 
of that Council without it. At this Motion they 
all cried, Well moved ! and Fleetwood with the others 
Went their Way. 

' Lord Erogbill finding the Army were refolved 
to ruin Richard Cromwell^ his Lordfhip advifed 
Crotmvell to caft himfelf upon the City, and declare 
for the King and a free Parliament; afluring him 
he would find the City favour him that Way, and 
by it he would make his Family for ever: But 


362 T&e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Cromwell would not comply with this Advice ; fo 
1659. went on his own Way, till the Army depofed him, 
and fet up for themfelves.' 

Thefe Accounts from various Writers, we hope, 
will fatisfy our Readers as to the main Circumftances 
relative to the Diflblution of the laft Meeting. We 
now proceed to fhew how Richard fteered his 
Courfe without them j and we find that he and his 
Council fat clofe to Bufmefs for fome Time, to 
confult what was fit to be done : Though even 
amongft thofe of his own Council, Mr. Wbitlocke 
allures us, he had many Enemies both to himfelf 
and Government. Deferted and forfaken thus by 
both his Friends and Relations, what could poor Ri- 
chard do to extricate himfelf from thefe Difficulties, 
and maintain his Sovereignty ? No, he was entirely 
laid afide, -though his Enemies were fo kind to him 
as not to call him to Account for his ill Govern- 
ment; but probably this Mercy proceeded more 
from the defpicable Opinion they had of his Abili- 
ties, than from any Mildnefs or Compaffion to him. 

Richard^ 'tis confidently faid, lived many Years 
after this in a private Station, both at home and 
abroad, and reached fo advanced an Age as only to 
to make his Exit in the Reign of the late Queen 
Anne. But fome further Notice is taken of him in 
the Sequel. 

And now, as we have faid, the Army having once 
more made themfelves Matters of the whole King- 
dom, it was expected that another Oliver would 
have ftarted from amongft them, and have govern'd 
thefe Nations by Court-Martials and Major-Gene- 
rals, as formerly. But no fingle Perfon could be 
found equal to this Work ; and therefore the Re- 
publican Party perfuaded the General Officers to 
Join with them and recall the Members of the old 
Parliament, whom they themfelves had forcibly 
turned out in the Year 1653. Mr. Wbitlocke tells 
us, ' That the Officers were advifed to confider 
better of this Defign ; for that thofe Members were 
much difcontented at their Proceedings under Crom- 

Of ENGLAND. 363 

w/v//, and whether this Step would not probably Inter-regnum, 
create more Divifions, and end in bringing in the l6 59- 

King. U "7 V T"* 

But this Advice would not prevail ; the Officers p 
were refolute to join with the Republican Party, in 
lettering the Long Parliament and another Council 
of State to their Rule and Governance, without a 
Single Perfon. How this Affair was brought about, 
the following Quotations and Abftra&s from the 
fore-cited Authors and Papers will beft fhew : 

Ludlow tells us, ' That before the Coalition was 
entirely perfected between the principal Officers of 
the Army and his Aflbciates, they had a Meet- 
ing at Sir Henry Vane's Houfe, at Charing -Crofs ; 
the Perfons of and from the Army were Major-Ge- 
neral Lambert, Colonels John Jones, Kelfey, Berry % 
C5V. Thofe of the Parliament were Sir Henry Vane % 
Sir Arthur Hafilrigze, Major Salway, and himfelf. 
The Things demanded by thofe of the Army were* 

1. c To be fecured by an A<Sl of Indemnity for 
what was paft. 

2. ' That fome Provision of Power might be 
made for Mr. Richard Cromwell, as well as for the 
Payment of his Debts, and future Subfiftence in a 
plentiful Manner, they having promifed to take 
Care of him in thefe Particulars. 

3. < That what fhould ftand in Need of Regula- 
tion, both in the Law and Clergy, Ihould be re- 
formed and amended. 

4. c That the Government of the Nation fhould 
be by a Reprefentative of the People, and by a felecl: 

' For the firjl, it was thought reafonable that 
fomething of that Nature fhould be done, as well 
to gratify thofe who (hould contribute to our Return, 
as for our own future Peace and Quiet. 

Touching the fecond Proportion, concerning a 
Provifion to be made for Mr. Richard Cromwell, we 
faid, that though the Parliament and Nation had 
been greatly injured by the Interruption they had 
received, yet feeing thofe that were at prefent in 
Pofleffion of the Power had engaged to make fome 


364 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jater-regnum, Provifion for him, we were contented, for ourfelves, 
1659. that thofe Debts which he had contracted on the 
W.-J--J Public Account fhould be paid, that fo he might be 
April, enabled to fubfift comfortably : But that we could 
by no Means confent to continue any Part of his 
)ate-aflumed Power to him ; neither could we be- 
lieve that fuch a Propofition would ever be heark- 
ened to by the Members of the Parliament, if they 
fhould come together. 

' The third Proportion was eafily agreed to, all 
of us declaring that we would ufe the utmoft of our 
Endeavours to rectify and reform whatfoever fhould 
appear to be amifs either in Church or State. 

In the fourth Propofition we found a greater 
Difficulty, not being all of the fame Opinion with 
refpedl: to that Part of it relating to the Senate. 
Whereupon finding that, out of a Defire to avoid 
any thing that might prove an Obftruftion to the 
Return of the Parliament, or poffibly from an In- 
clination in fome to the Thing itfelf, there was an 
Intention, by a general JSilence about that Matter, 
to give them Hopes of our Compliance ; therefore, 
that they might have no juft Occafion to fay here- 
after that we had dealt doubly with them, keeping 
fair in that Particular before our Admiffion, and 
after we were admitted declaring againft it, I thought 
it my Duty to let them know, that if, by a felel 
Senate, they underftood a lafting Power, co-ordi- 
nate with the Authority of the People's Reprefenta- 
tive, and not chofen by the People, I could not 
engage to promote the Eftablifhment of fuch a 
Power, apprehending that it would prove a Means 
to perpetuate our Differences, and make it neceflary 
to keep up a ftanding Force to fupport it : But if 
they propofed to eret fuch an Authority only for a 
fhort Time, and in order to proceed with more 
Vigour to an equal and juft Eftablifhment of the 
Commonwealth, I prefumed it might be very ufeful, 
and that the People would readily acquiefce, when it 
fhould be evident that it was dcfigned to no other 
End than to prevent them from deftroying them- 
ielves, and not to enflave them to any Faction or 


Of E N G L A N D. 365 

Party. After four or five Hours Debate concerning Intcr-fcgtum. 
thefe Particulars, we defired them to confider, that l6 59- 
\vhatfoever had been faid -by us in this Conference, /T^T 
ought only to be taken as proceeding from private 
Men, and that we durft not prefume to promife any 
thing on the Part of the Parliament: However, we 
encouraged them to hope that, if we four joined in 
propofing any thing in the Houfe for the Public 
Good, we might probably bring it to Effect. 

' At the Conclufion of our Converfation, Major- 
General Lambert aflured us, that he would reprefent 
to the General Council what had pafled between us 
as fairly, and with as much Advantage, as we could 

' After three or four Days the fame Company 
met again at the fame Place, where thofe that were 
employed by the Council of Officers declared the 
Resolution of themfelves, and of thofe they repre- 
fented, to be, That the Parliament mould be re- 
ftored ; and thereupon prefled us that the Members 
might meet with all poffible Expedition, being per- 
fuaded that Delays, in a Matter of fuch Importance, 
might hazard the Succefs of all : Therefore it was 
refolved that Notice mould be given to fuch Mem- 
bers as were in Town to meet, on the Thurfday 
following, at Mr. Lenthall their Speaker's Houfe, 
and that the Officers of the Army mould come 
thither, and there acquaint us with the Defires of 
the Army. 

* At the Time appointed about fixteen of us went 
to the Speaker's Houfe, and having informed him 
of the Caufe of our coming, he began to make 
many trifling Excufes, pleading his Age, Sicknefs, 
and Inability to At long. Soon after the Committee 
from the General Council came, and Major-General 
Lambert, in the Name of the reft, acquainted the 
Speaker, That, in order to reconcile our Differences, 
and to unite all thofe that were well affected to the 
Public, it was the Defire of the Army that the 
Parliament would return to the Difcharge of their 
Duty, according to the Truft repofed in them by 
the People of England -, promifing to ftand by them, 



366 The Parliamentary HISTORY 
-rtgnum. and ferve them to the utmoft of their Power. The 
1659- Speaker had been lately at Court, where they 

' h^ prevailed with him to endeavour to render this 

Defign, which they feared above all Things, inef- 
fectual ; and, on the other Hand, being unwilling 
to lofe his late- acquired Peerage, renewed his for- 
mer Excufes ; with this Addition, that he was not 
fully fatisfied that the Death of the late King had 
not put an End to the Parliament. To this it was 
anfwered, That, by a Lav/ made by an undifputed 
Authority, the Parliament could not be diiTolved 
without their own Confent, which had never yet 
been given : And therefore they defired him, as he 
valued the Peace and Happinefs of the Nation, to 
fend his Letters to fuch Members as were about the 
Town, requiring them to meet the next Morning in 
the Houfe of Lords, in order to relume their Places 
in the Houfe of Commons, fo foon as they might 
make up a Quorum. He replied, That he could by 
no Means do as we defired, having appointed a 
Bufmefs of far greater Importance to himfelf, which 
he would not omit on any Account, becaufe it 
concerned the Salvation of his Soul. We then 
prefled him to inform us what it might be : To 
which he anfwered, That he was preparing himfelf 
to participate of the Lord's Supper, which he 
refolved to take on the next Lord's Day. Upon 
this it was replied, That Mercy is more acceptable 
to God than Sacrifice, and that he could not better 
prepare himfelf for the forefaid Duty, than by con- 
tributing to the Public Good. But he refolving to 
perform fome Part of his Promife to Mr. Richard 
Cromwell? would not be perfuaded to fend Letters 
to the Members, as it was defired : So that we found 
ourfelves obliged to tell him, That the Service of 
the Public had" been too long obftrucled by the Will 
of fmgle Perfons ; and that, if he refufed to ifiue 
out his Letters to the Members, we would caufe it 
to be done by other Means : And thereupon gave 
Orders to fuch Clerks as we then had there ready 
for that Purpofe, tp draw Directions for the Mef- 
feneers who were to fummpn the Members, and to 
6 divide 

Of E N G L A N D. 367 

divide the Lift amongft them, in fuch a Manner as Inter-regnuaj. 
might beft provide for the Expedition of the Bunnefs. J 6 59- 

In the Morning about thirty Members being * ' T^T""* 
come, and the Number increafing continually, the 
Speaker, who had appointed Spies to bring him 
Word whether we might probably make up a 
Houfe or not, being informed that we wanted not 
above three or four, notwithftanding the Salvation 
of his Soul, thought it Time to come to us, and 
foon after the requifite Number was compleated. 

* About Twelve o'Clock we went to take our 
Places in the Houfe, Mr. Lenthall^ our Speaker, 
leading the Way, and the Officers of the Army 
lining the Rooms for us as we patted through the 
Painted-Chamber, the Court of Requefts, and the 
Lobby itfelf, the principal Officers having placed 
themielves neareft to the Door of the Parliament- 
Houfe, every one feeming to rejoice at our Reftitu- 
tion, and promifmg to live and die with us.' 

But this laft Author does not acquaint us, that, 
the Day before the old Members went to take their 
Places in the Houfe, the following Declaration was 
publilhed, called 

inviting the Members of the Long Parliamenty 
who continued fitting till the 20th of April, 1653, 
to return to the Exercife and Difcharge of their 
Trtijl. s 

c fT^HE public Concernments of this Common- The Army* 
1 wealth being, thro' a Viciffitude of Da 
gers, Deliverances, and Backflidings of many, 

* brought into that State and Pofture wherein they 
' now ftand ; and ourfelves alfo contributing there- 
c unto, by wandering divers Ways from righteous 

* and equal Paths ; and although there hath been 
' many Eflays to obviate the Dangers, and to fettle 

* thefe Nations in Peace and Profperity, yet all have 

* proved ineffc&ual ; the 'only wife God, in the 

4 Courfe 
* Londtn, printed by Henry Ilillt, for him and William MeunfforJ, 

368 *ffje Parliamentary HISTORY 

fflter-regnum. Courfe of his Providence, difappointing all En- 

* deavours therein : 

' And alfo obferving, to our great Grief, that the 

* good Spirit which formerly appeared amongft usj 

* in the carrying on of this great Work, did daily 

* decline, fo as the good old Caufe itfelf became a 

* Reproach ; we have been led to look back, and 

* examine the Caufe of the Lord's withdrawing his 

* wonted Prefence from us, and where we turned 
c out of the Way, that, thro' Mercy, we might re- 
' turn and give him the Glory. 

* And, amongft other Things, calling to Mind, 

* that the Long Parliament, confiding of the Mem- 

* bers which continued there fitting untill the aoth 

* of April, 1653, were eminent Aflerters of that 
' Caufe, and had a fpecial Prefence of God with 

* them, and were fignally blefied in that Work, 

* (the Defires of many good People concurring with 
' ours therein) we judge it our Duty to invite the 
' aforefaid Members to return to the Exercife and 

* Difcharge of their Truft, as before the faid 2Oth 

* of April, 1653. 

' And therefore we do hereby moft earneftly de- 

* fire the Parliament, confifting of thofe Members 
' who continued to fit fince the Year 1648, untill 

* the 2oth of April, 1653, to return to the Exercife 

* and Difeharge of their Truft, and we fhall be 
' ready, in our Places, to yield them, as becomes 

* us, our utmoft Afiiftance to lit in Safety ; for the 

* improving the prefent Opportunity for fettling and 
' fecuring the Peace and Freedom of this Common- 
' wealth ; praying for the Prefence and Blefling of 

* God upon their Endeavours. 

Signed^ by DireRion 6f the Lord Fleetwood and 
the Council of Officers of the Army, 

May 6, i6 59 . THO. SANDFORD, See. 

Which Declaration was this Day prefented to th 
Speaker by 

Lord Lambert^ Lord Cooper, 

Lord Btrry 9 Sir Arthur Hafilriggf*, 

Of E N G L A N D. 369 

Major-General Z,/Yr* f Major-General Haynes, inter-regrium. 

Colonel AJhfield, Lieutenant-Colonel Al- 1659. 

Colonel Salmon, len, ^^-^J 

Sir "Jeremy Sankey, Major Packer, ^^' 

Major-General Kelfey, Lieutenant-ColonelP;Vr- 

Colonel Obey, fan. 
Captain Blackwell, 

We have yet another old Pamphleteer to confult, 
the Writer of England's Confujion, sV. as befor 
quoted. This Writer has (drawn up, in a very 
humorous Way, a brief Account of thefe extraor- 
dinary Proceedings ; and, in as extraordinary a 
Manner, has left us the following Detail of them : tt 

' After the Officers had new modelled themfelves$ 
eamicring IVhalley, Ingoldjby, Goffe, and divers others 
of the Protector's Party, and reftoring Lambert, Ha- 
felrigge, Qkey, and others, difplaccd by Protector 
Oliver, and played with the Government for a few 
Days, and grew weary of it, the inferior Officers and 
the Pamphlets (that now flew about daily without 
Control) carrying Things beyond the Intention of 
the Chief Officers, who would have left the Protec- 
tor a Duke oiFcnice, (for his Father's Sake who rai- 
fed them, and their Relation to him, which they had 
forgotten till now) they fent to fome of their old 
Hackney Drudges of the Long Parliament, then in 
London, who they knew would do any thing, fo they 
might be fuffered to fit, and on the 5th and 6th Days 
of May had Conference with them ; the laft of which 
was at their never-failing Speaker's, the M after of the 
Rolls Houfe, in Chancery- Lane; where both Officers, 
viz. Lambert, who had already gotten his old Place, 
and others with him, and Members, viz. Sir PL 
Vane, Sir Arthur Hafelrigge, Ludlow, John Jones, 
Mr. Chalontr, Mr. Scctt, and others, to the Num- 
ber of twenty, follicitcd William Lenthall, Efq-, to 
fit Speaker again; but he objected Scruples in Judg- 

VOL. XXL A a ment 

t> This Pamphlet has for its Title England's Ccnfufion 5 or, A 
true and impartial Account of tbt latt Tra-utrftt of State in England, 
teitb tie Counfeh Itading tbtrtunto. Together -will a Dffcrifi.. 
the freftnt Power ruling there, ly the Name of Parliament, urd< - 
Mejk tftbe Good old Cauft. Load. 1659, 410, p, 14, 

370 ?$<? Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ment and Confcience, which are not yet anfwered, 
l6 59- nor never will. Neverthelefs, fifteen Articles be- 
5 """J^""""*' tween the Officers and fome of the Members (who, 
it feems, over-confidcntly undertook for the reft) 
being firft agreed on at fome of their Meeting?, they 
refolved to meet in the Houfe on Saturday the yth 
of May ; yet, that they might do it by Surprize, 
they gave out that they would not fit till Tuesday 
the roth of May. But the Itch of Ambition and 
Lording it over the People giving them no Quiet, 
on Saturday the yth of May, early, they met in the 
Painted-Chamber at JVeftminjler ; and, to make up 
their Number, fent for the two chafte Cock-Spar- 
rows, Lord Monfon and Mr. Henry Martin, out of 
Prifon, where they were in Execution for Debt, and 
honeft IVhithcke and Lijle of the Chancery Bench ; 
and with this Addition, being forty-two in Number, 
the Chancery-Mace, for Hafte, being carried before 
William Lentlall, Efq; their tender-confcienced 

Speaker, together with the faid Lord Monfon, 
Henry Martin , 
Mr. Wbitlocke, 
Mr. Lijle * 

Temperate Mr. Chalotier, 
Wife Alderman Atkin, 
Rich Alderman Pennington, 
Pedantic Thomas Scott, 
Haftily-rich Cornelius Holland, 
Single-hearted preaching Sir Henry Fane, now be- 
come Old Sir Harry, 

Prideaux, Attorney-General to all Governments, 
Smiling Sir James Harrington, 
Levelling Ludlow, 
Pembrochian Oldfwortb, that made the Earl his 

Matter's wife Speeches, 

Vain-glorious hair-brain'd Hafilrigge, with Repent- 
ance like the Armies in his Conference, and the 
Biflioprick of Durham at his Back, 
Sir Thomas Middletcn's Man Jones, 
Doting Purefoy, without Purity or Faith, 
Religious Harry Nevill, 


Of E N G L A N D. 371 

Col. mite, the Lord Fairfax' 's Secretary, got be- Inter-reguum. 
fore his Mafter, * 6 59- 

Mr. Say, the famous Lawyer, ^'"M*~' 

Mr. Elagrave, better known at Reading than here, 

Col. Bennett, Sir Henry Pane's little Second at 

Mr. Erewfler, a Cypher to make up the Number, 

Serjeant Ifyide, beft known by the Name of the 
Wild Serjeant, 

*-fohn Goodwin, alias Herb John, 

Mr. Lechmere, the Attorney-General's Second at 
all Governments. 

Auguftin Skinner, a Kentijh Chriftian, 

Mr. Downes, another Cypher, 

Mr. Dove, a Brewer of Salijbury, come to help in 
this new Brewing, 

Mr. John Lenthall, William Lenthalfs own Son, 

Salway, a fmart prating Apprentice, newly fet up 
for himfelf, 

Mr. John Corbet, fuch another Lawyer as Miles t 
and of his own Colour, 

Mr. Walton, that will never forget his Son furnim/d 
Blacks for the Protector's Funeral, 

Gilbert Milllngtan , the Church Snuffers, who defires 
no better Trade than fcandalous Minifters, 

Mr. Gould, newly married to get more, the Com- 
monwealth being poor, 

Colonels Sydenbam and Bingham, a Darfet/Jnre 
Couple, in at all Governments, who had rather 
talk than fight, and yet will venture to do any 
thing, being back'd with an Army, againft the 
naked People, 

Col. Ayre, whofe Name fills his Head, 

Mr. Smith, a Six-Clerk, that wiflies he could write 
and read, 

Col. Ingoldjby, that fought fo well lately for the Pro- 
tector againft Fleetwood, and 

Fleetwood, that holy Man, who fo fmoothly fup- 
planted die Protector, that he perfuaded him, 
three Crowns were not worthy a drawn Sword, 

ftole on a Sudden into the Houfe, the Invitation of 
A a 2 the 

372 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. the Army for the fitting of the Long Parliament, as 
they call it, being firft publifhed in Weftminjler- 

To conclude this whole Affair, and begin with 
the Proceedings of this Tail of a Parliament, we 
fhall only fubjoin what the voluminous Mr. Prynne 
has left us at the End of one of the many Pamphlets 
he published about this Time c , and is an Alphabe- 
tical Lift, &c. By comparing which with the former 
Parliamentary Lifts, the Reader may, with very 
little Trouble, find who was thought proper to be 
kept in, and who fhut out, at this Crifis. 

An exatt ALPHABETICAL LIST of all the old and 
new SECLUDED MEMBERS of the Commons tioafs 
in the Long Parliament ^ furviving May 7, l6j 
when the dijjolved Juntto began their neiv Se ~ 

Baronets, Knights, and Vifcounts. 



A Lift of the y ORD Ancram, 

ment, furviving 
in 1659. 

ohn Harrington, 
Sir Thomas Barnardifto 
Sir Robert Benloes, 
Sir George Booth , 
Sir Humphry Bridges, 
Sir Ambrofe Brown, 
Sir John Burgoin, 
Sir Roger Burgoin, 
Sir Henry Cholmley, 
Sir yohn Clotworthy, 
Sir John Corbet, 
Sir John Curzon, 
Sir Thomas Dacres, 
Sir Francis Drake, 
Sir William Drake, 
Sir Walter Erie, 
Sir Charles Egerton, 

Sir JohnEvelin of Surry, 
Sir John Evelin of Wilts* 
Sir John Fen-wick, 
Sir Edmund Fowel, 
Sir Gilbert Gerard, 
Sir Harbotle Grim/Jon, 
Sir Richard Haughton, 
Sir John Holland, 
Sir Anthony Irby, 
Sir Martin Knatchbuil 9 
Sir John Leigh, 
Sir William Lewis, 
Sir William Lifter, 
Sir William Litton, 
Sir Samuel Luke, 
Sir Nicholas Martin, 
Sir Thomas Middleton* 
Sir Robert Napier, 
Sir Robert Nedham, 


This Pamphlet is in Quarto, of 48 Pages, Ltnd. 1659, and is 
intituled, Conscientious, Serious, "Theological, and Lej?a! Queries, pro- 
founded to the ttoice-diffpated, ^elf-created Anti-Parliamentary Weft- 
tninfter JunSo, Ice. &c. &c. for he always fills his Title Pages from 
Top to Bottwn, and ends with divert Quotations from Scripture, 

Of E N G 

Sir Dudley North, 
Sir John Northcot, 
Sir Richard Onflow, 
Sir Hugh Owen, 
Sir "John Pa/grave, 
Sir Philip Parker, 
Sir Thomas Parker, 
Sir Edward Partridge, 
Sir y<7^ Pelham, 
Sir ApSftaa P/a 
Sir Nevil Poole, 
Sir 7^ P0//J, 
Sir Robert Pye, 


LAND. 373 

Sir Francis Rujfil, Inter-reg* 

Sir Beauchamp St. John, 

Sir John Seymort, 

Sir Thomas Soame, 

Sir William Strickland^ 

Sir John Temple, 

Sir Thomas Trevor, 

Sir Humphry Tufton, 

Thomas Vifc. Wenman^ 
Sir Henry Worfley, 
Sir Richard 
Sir 7^ Young. 

In all 64. 

Efquires, Gentlemen, and Lawyers. 

William Carrent, 
Col. Ceely, 
James Chaloner* 
Mr. C/, 
Commiflary Copley^ 
John Crewe, 
Thomas Crompton, 
Mr. Crowder, 
Thomas Dacre, 
John Dormer^ 
John Doyle, 
Mr. Drake, 
Robert Ellifon, 
Mr. Erijy, 
Mr. Evilin, 
Edward Fowel, 
William Foxwijl % 
John Francis, 
James Fiennes, 
Nathaniel Fiennes^ 
Sarnuei Gardner, 
Francis Gerard, 
Thomas Gewen, 
William Glanville, 
John Glynn, Serjeant at 

3* Samuel 

Arthur Annejley, 
Mr. Andrews, 
William Ardington, 
John Arundel, 
Mr. A/cough, 
Francis Bacon, 
Nathaniel Bacon, 
Edward Bainton, 
Col. John Barker, 
Maurice Barrow, 
Mr. Bell, 
James Bence, 

Edward BiJJ), 
John Bowyer, 
John Boyes, 
Major Brooks, 
Major-General Brown, 
Samuel Brown, Serjeant 

at Law, 
Francis Buller, 
John Bunklty, 
Hugh BofcQwetiy 
Mr. Button, 
Mr. Campbely 


374 ffl g 'Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. Samuel Gott, 

Alderman Nixon, 

* 6 59- Thomas Grove, 

Mr. North, 

r~ -^ Elias Grymes, 

Col. Norton, 

Brampton Gordon, 

Mr. Onflow, 

Edward Harby, 

Arthur Owen, 

Col. Edward Harley, 

Henry Oxinden, 

Major Harley, 

Mr. Packer, 

John Hatcher, 

Mr. Peck, 

John Haydon, 

Henry Pelham, 

James Herbert, 

William Pierepoint, 

John Herbert, 
Mr. Hobby ) 

Jervafe Piggot, 
Mr. Potter, 

Thomas Hodgei, 

Mr. Poole, 

Denzil Holies, 

Col. Alexander Popham, 

Francis Holies, 

Mr. Pavy, 

George Homer, 

Mr. Prtjly, 

Edmund Hojlins, 
John Hungerford, 

William Prynne, 
Alexander Pymmt, 

Col. Hunt, 

Charles Pymme, 

Mr. Jennings, 

Mr. Rain/craft, 

William Jones, 

Mr. Ratcli/e, 

George Keckwich, 

Charles Rich, 

Richard Knightly, 
Col. Lafcelles, 

Col. Edward Ro/iter, 
Mr. Scowen, 

Henry Lawrence, 


Col. Lee, 

Col. Robert Shapcot, 

Mr. Lewis, 

Col. Shuttleworth, 

Col. Walter Long, 

Mr. Spelman, 

Mr. Lowry, 

Mr. Springats, 

Col. John Lloyd, 

Henry Stapleton, 

Mr. Lucas, 

Robert Stanton, 

Mr. Luckin, 

Edward Stephens, 

John Maynard, 
Cbriftopher Martin, 

John Stephens, 
Nathaniel Stephens, 

Major-General Edward 

Mr. Stockfield, 


John Swinfen, 

Thomas Middleton, 

Mr. Temple, 

Thomas Moore, 

Mr. Terwit, 

William Morrice, 

Mr. Thijllethwaite, 

George Montague, 

Mr. Thomas, 

Mr. Najh, 

Jfaac Thomas, 

James Nelthorps, 

Mr. Thynne, 



Of E N G L A N D. 375 

.Mr. Tolfon, William Wheeler , 

John Trevor, Col. Whitehead, . 

"Thomas Iwifden, Ser- Henry Wilkes, 

jcant at Law, Capt. Wlnsatt^ 

Mr. Vajflal, Mr. Wmwood, 

Mr. raugoan, Thumps Wogan, 

Thomas Waller, Mr. Wray, 

Mr. Weft, Richard Wynne. 
Henry WeJIon, 

The Total Number > 213; befides the Houfe 
of Lords. 

the late-dijfihed JunSlo. 

John Gurdon, The Names of 

Mr. Hallowes, thofe allowed to 

Sir James Harrington, fitt 

Col. Harvy, 

Sir Arthur Hafilrlgge, 

Mr. Hayes, ' 

Mr. Herbert, the felf- 
degraded Earl of Pem- 

Roger Hill, 

Cornelius Holland, 

Col. Hutchinfon, 

Col. Ingoldjby, 

Philip Jones, 

Mr. Leachmere, 

Will. Lenthall, Speaker, 

John Lenthall, his Son, 

John Life, 

Philip VfTcount Life, 

Thomas Lifter, 

Nicholas Love, 

Col. JLudlow, 

Henry Martin, a Prifoner 
in Execution, 

Mr. Mayne, 

Sir Henry Mildmay, 

Gilbert Millington, 


Alderman Atkins^ 

illiam Ayre^ 
Mr. Baker, 
Col. Rennet^ 
Col. Bingham^ 
Daniel Elagrave, 
Mr. Briwfftr, 
William Cau'ly, 
Thomas Chaloner^ 

dcd Earl of Sali/bury, 
Robert Cecil, his Son, 
John Corbety 
Henry Darley, 
Richard Darley, 
Mr. Dixwell, 
"John Dove, 
Mr. Doivnes, 
William Ellis, 
Mr. Fielder, ' 
Mr. Fell, 

Col. Charles Fleetwood, 
Auguflin Garland, 
Mr. Gould, 
"John Goodwin, 
Robert Goodwin, 


Parliamentary HISTORY 


Jnttr-regnum. Col. Herbert JWorhy, 
4 ^ 5 lL t k r d Vifcount Monfon, a 
Prifoner in Execution, 
Henry Nevil, 
Robert Nicholas, 
Michael Old/worth^ 
Mr. Palmer, 
Alderman Pennington, 
Sir Gilbert Pickering, 
John Pine, 
Edmund Prideaux, 
William Purefoy, 
Thomas Pury, 
Robert Reynolds, 
Col. Rich, 
Luke Robinfon, 
Oliver St. John, 
Major Salway, 
Mr. Say, 
Thomas Scott, 
Major-General Skippon, 

Auguftin Skinner % 

Mr. Smith, 

Walter Strickland? 

Col. Sydenham, 

'James Temple, 

"Col. Temple, 

Col. Thompfon, 

Serjeant Thorpe, 

"John Trencher, 

Sir 'John Trevor, 

Sir Henry Vane, 

Mr. Wallop, 

Sir Thomas 

Col. Walton, 

Sir Peter Wentworth, 

Edmund Weaver, 

Mr. White, 

Serjeant Wilde, 

Sir Thomas Witherington^ 

Sir Thomas Wroth. 

The total Number, gr. 

To the foregoing Prynne adds, c That, of thefe 
Members, there entered only forty-two into the 
Houfe at firft ; that the reft came in to them by 
Degrees, either to keep their old Preferments, gain 
new, or regain the Places they had formerly loft, 
efpecially the Lawyers; who, notwithftanding their 
former Compliances, were turn'd quite out of Office, 
and dif-judged : That eight, or more of them, 
came in by new "Writs, iffued in the Name of the 
Keepers of the Liberties of England, after the King's 
Beheading, and were no Members of the Long 
Parliament : That there were never fixty of them 
together in the Houfe at once whilft they fat, and 
but fifty-feven on the iith and I2th of Oftober laft, 
upon the great Debate between them and the Army 
Officers : And fome that fat formerly with them, as 
the Lord Fairfax, "John Gary, and others, refufed to 
fit with them now, as having not the leaft Colour of 


Of ENGLAND. 377 

Lawtofit or actas aParliament. Yea, their Speaker, Inter-re|num 

Mr. Lenthall, told the Officers of the Army and l6 59- 

Members, who came to invite him to fit again, ^""7**^"*""^ 

May 6, That he had a Soul to fave ; and that he was 

not fatisfied, in Point of Law, Confcience, or Pru- 

dence, that they could fit again : But at laft, when 

he confidered he had an Euate to fave, as he told 

another Friend, that over-balanced all his former 

Objections ; and made him and other Members aft 

againft their Judgments and Confciences, and to for- 

get our Saviour's fad Queries, Mat. xvi. 26. What 

is a Man profited if be Jhould gain the whole World 

andlofe his own Soul? Or, What fo ail a Man give in 

Exchange for his Soul? 

May 7. The Journals of this Houfe of Com- 
mons now begin without any Preamble, and with- 
out any Notice taken of the laft Breaking-up ; and, 
after appointing Henry Middleton, Efq; their Ser- 
jeant at Arms, and John Phelpes, Efq; their Clerk 
of Parliament, the Speaker acquainted the Houfe, 
' That the Lord Lambert, with divers Officers of 
the Army, in the Name of the Lord Fleetwood, and 
Council of Officers, upon the 6th of May, 1659, 
came unto him, many of the Members being then 
prefent, and delivered unto him a Declaration, 
which was then read in the Prefence of the faid 
Members : The faid Declaration the Speaker now 
tendred ; which was read, and is the fame as be- 
fore given. * 

After this a Committee of five Members, Major 
Sal-way, Commiffioner Whitlocke, Sir Henry Vane, 
Secretary Martin, and Sir Arthur Hafilrigge, were 
ordered to prepare a Declaration, to the prefent Pur- 
pofe, upon the former from the Army. Likewifs 
another Committee of twelve, Scott, Haftlriggt, 
Commiffioner Lijle, Ludlow, Lechmere, Holland^ 
Fane, Martin, the Attorney General, Harrington^ 

6 Sec p. 367, in this Vyl, 

378 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-re&num. We/Ion^ and Jones, were appointed to perufe the 
Books, and other Records of Parliament, concern- 
the Members of this Houfe, who fat fmce Ja- 
nuary 30, 1648, untill April 20, 1653, and are not 
excluded by Judgment of Parliament, and to give 
this Houfe an Account of the faid Members. 

The Form of a Letter was alfo agreed upon, to 
be figned by the Speaker, and fent to the feveral 
Members that are abfent ; which Letter was in thefe 
Words : 


The Speaker's rT\ H E Parliament of this Commonwealth be- 

nfoifthe Mem- ' A m ^7 God's Bleffing, now again reftored 

bers. ' to the Freedom and Right of fitting, where they 

' were interrupted on the 20th of April^ 1653, have 

* commanded me to give you fpeedy Notice thereof, 
4 to require your perfonal Attendance forthwith, for 
' the carrying on the great Work expected from 

* them, in fettling and fecuring the Peace and Free- 
' dom of this Commonwealth, according to your 
'Duty in that Behalf. 

Your loving Friend.* 

Major Salway, according to Order, brought in a 
Draught of a Declaration, concerning the wonderful 
Providence of God, in reftoring this prefent Parlia- 
ment to the Exercife and Difcharge of their Truft ; 
which was read firft throughout, then in Parts, and 
debated, and feveral Amendments being made, on 
the Queflion, it pafled, and was as follows : 

at Weftminfter. 

* "\TC /"Hereas the Parliament of this Common- 
< y V wealth having, through the eminent 

* Favour and Mercy of God, fat many Years in the 

* Performance of the Trufts repofed in them by the 
6 People whofe Repefentatives they are ; and being, 

ment's Declara 
tion * 

Of E N G L A N D. 379 

* in the Profecution of that Duty, aflembled in Par- inter-rtgnum. 

* liament, at IVfJIminfter* upon the 20th Day of 
8 Apri^ 1653, were then interrupted, and forced 
8 out of the Houfc from that Time untill this prefent 

* Day. 

8 And whereas the Officers of the Army raifed by 
8 this prefent Parliament, calling to mind that the' 

* fame Parliament, confiding of the Members which 

* continued to fit untill the 20th of April, 1653, 

* were Aflertors of the Good old Caufe, and had a 

* fpecial Prefence of God with them, and were fig- 
' nally blefled in that Work ; did adjudge it their 

* Duty (the Defires of many good People concur - 

* ring with them therein) to invite the aforefaid 
8 Members to return to the Exercife and Difcharge 

* of their Trufts, as before the faid 2Oth of April^ 
8 1653. 

8 And for the effecting thereof, the Lord Lambert, 
8 with divers other Officers of the Army, in the 
' Name of the Lord Fleetwood and Council of Offi- 
8 cers of the Army, did, upon the 6th Day of May , 
8 1659, rafort unto the Speaker of the faid Parlia- 

* ment ; and, in the Prefence of many of the faic? 
8 Members of Parliament, prefcnted a Declaration, 
8 containing their earned Defire, that the Parlia- 
8 ment, confiding of thofe Members who continued 
8 to fit fince the Year 1648, until the 20th of /fyr//, 
8 1653, would return to the Exercife and Difcharge 
8 of their Truft ; promifing their Readinefs in their 
8 Places, as became them, to yield their utmoit 
8 Affiftance to them, to fit in Safety, for improving 
8 the prefent Opportunity for fettling and fecuring 
8 the Peace and Freedom of this Commonwealth ; 

* P ra yi n g for the Prefence and Bleffing of God upon 
8 their Endeavours. 

8 Whereupon the Speaker, with the aforefaid 
8 Members of Parliament, refolved to meet at Weft- 
8 minfter the next Morning, giving Notice to others 
8 of their Fellow- Members, of fuch their Intention. 

8 And accordingly the Speaker, with the faid 
8 Members, being aflembled at Wejlminjler the ijth 
1 of May, 1659, found it a Duty incumbent on 




380 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

them not to neglect this Opportunity, which the 
wonderful, and, as they hope, the gracious Provi- 
dence of God, hath held forth unto them, for the 
Profecution of what yet remains of their great 

* All which the Parliament taking into their Con- 
fideration, do declare, That they are refolved, 
through the gracious Afliftance of Almighty God, 
to apply themfelves to the faithful Discharge of 
the Truft repofed in them, and to endeavour the 
Settlement of this Commonwealth upon fuch a 
Foundation, as may afiert, eftablifh, and fecure 
the Property and the Liberties of the People, in 
reference unto all, both as Men, and as Chriftians ; 
and that without a Single Perfon, Kingfhip, or 
Houfe of Peers : And fhall vigoroufly endeavour 
the carrying on of Reformation fo much defired, 
and fo often declared for ; to the end there may be 
a godly and faithful JVlagiftracy and Miniftry up- 
held and maintained in thefe Nations, to the Glo- 
ry and Praife of our Lord Jefus Ckrift, and to the 
reviving and making glad the Hearts of the Upright 
in the Land.' 

The fame Day another Committee was named, 
ef much the fame Perfons, who were to repair to the 
Lord Fleet-wood^ and acquaint him of the Parlia- 
ment's good Acceptance of the Affections of the 
Officers of the Army to the Parliament and this 
Commonwealth, manifefted in their Declaration 
delivered to the Speaker, and by him communicated 
to this Houfe. That they have expreffed their In- 
tentions thereupon, in another Declaration now 
pafled, which the Parliament have appointed to be 
forthwith printed, and to be published by the She- 
Tiffs of the feveral Counties throughout the Nation. 

They next proceeded to conftitute a Committee 
of Safety, pro Tempore, which were the Lord Fleet' 
woo^ Sir Arthur Hafilrlgge^ Sir Henry Vane^ Lieu- 
tenant-General Liidlow, Col. Sydenhatn, Major 
Saliuay, and Col. John Jones, with full Power to 
take efpecial and effectual Care to preferve the 


Of E N G L A N D. 381 

Peace and Safety of this Commonwealth ; and that Jnter-rcgnum, 
all Officers, Soldiers, and Minifters of Juftice, give l6 59* 
due Obedience to the Orders of this Committee. ^""TJ*~~* 
To fit at fuch Time and Places as they, in their 
Difcretion, (hall think fit ; and are to continue for 
the Space of eight Days, and no longer. 

Ordered, That a true Copy of the Declaration, 
concerning the Parliament's being reftored to the 
Exercife of their Truft, be fent to the Lord Mayor 
of London, to be by him publiflied within the City 
and Liberties thereof. And that the Lord Mayor 
be defired to take efpecial Care of the Prefervation 
and Peace of the City. 

The Lord Whitlocke, Mr. Attorney-General, 
Lechmere, Corbet, Say, Commiffioner Lifle, Chief 
Baron Wyldt, and Mr. Martin, were made a Com- 
mittee, to confider how the Adminiftration of Ju- 
ftice may be, for the prefent, carried on in this 
Commonwealth, by Authority of Parliament, and 
to prefent a Bill for this Purpofe, on Monday next, 
if they think fit. 

Laftly, and to crown the Work of this long Day, 
it was ordered, That the Parliament meet To- 
morrow Morning, being Sunday, in that Place, to 
feek the Lord for his Guidance and Bleffing on the 
Parliament and their Proceedings; and that Dr. 
Owen be defired to be affiftant in carrying on the 
Duty of the Day. This Ceremony will beft ap- 
pear in the Words of the "Journals. 

Lord's Day, %tb of May, 1659. 

* The Houfe met this Morning, and fpent it in 
Prayer and hearing the Word, Dr. Owen praying 
and preaching before them. 

* Mr. Speaker took the Chair. 

' Ordered, That the very hearty Thanks of the 
Parliament be given to Dr. Owen, for his great 
Pains in that feafonable Word the Lord had enabled 
him to deliver, in a Sermon preached this Morning 
before the Parliament, in this Place ; and that he be 
defired to print his Sermon with all convenient 
Speed : And that Col. John JontT, and Major Sal- 

382 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

inter-regnum. way, do acquaint him therewith, and give him the 
*^59- Thanks of the Parliament accordingly.' 

Major Salway reported from the Committee of 
Safety, 'That, having endeavoured to inform them- 
felves of the State of Affairs, in reference to the Peace 
of this Commonwealth, they have received good 
Intelligence, That Charles Stuart intends a fpeedy 
Invafion, having for that Purpofe 1300 Men, al- 
ready on their March, 500 of which are come to 
Bruges : And that there are lately come over from 
Flanders into England very many of Charles Stuart's. 
Party, feveral of which are excepted from Pardon ; 
as Capt. Titus and Co-1. Maffey ; and that there 
were Endeavours ufed to draw over fome of the 
Army of this Commonwealth to theirs : That, 
upon Search laft Night, they found that Titus and 
Maffey were flipp'd away, but fome others, newly 
come from Flanders, were apprehended ; a Lift of 
whofe Names they hoped to give in the next Morn- 
ing. They defired alfo, that Lambert^ De/barougb^ 
and Col. fiury, might be added to their Committee j 
which was granted.' 

It was ordered alfo, * That it be referred to the 
Members of Parliament, that are of this Committee 
of Safety, to inform themfelves of the Powers of the 
late Council of State, by Authority of Parliament, 
and to conftder of a fit Number of Perfons of 
which the Council of State may hereafter confifr, 
and to make Report thereof to the Parliament.'. 

4 Ordered, That fuch Perfons, heretofore Mem- 
bers of this Parliament, as have not fat in this Par- 
liament fmce the Year 1648, and have not fubfcri- 
bed the Engagement, in the Roll of the Engage- 
ment of this Houfe, fhall not fit in this Houfe till 
further Order of Parliament. 

* Ordered, That the Committee to whom the 
Cafes of the Members of this Parliament, that fat 
not fmce the Year 1648, were formerly referred, do 
jevife the Journals of Parliament, and thereby in- 
/orm themfelves of the Cafes of the faid Members, 
and they do ftate the Matter of Fa&, and the fe- 

Of E N G L A N D. 383 

veral Votes and Orders of Parliament, concerning Inter-regnum. 

fuch Members, and report it to the Parliament : 

That the Cafe of the Lord Fairfax, and Sir Anthony May 

AJhley Cooper^ be referred to the faid Committee. 

The firft of thefe laft Votes was ordered to be fet 

upon the Parliament Door. 

' Refolved, on the Queftion, That all fuch who 
fhall be in any Place of Truft, or Power, within, 
this Commonwealth, (hall be able for the Difcharge 
of fuch Truft; and that they be Perfons fearing 
God, and that have given Tertimony of their Love to 
all the People of God, and of their Faithtulnefs to the 
Cauie of this Commonwealth, according to the De- 
claration of Parliament of the yth of May, 1659. 

' Ordered, That it be referred to the Committee 
of Safety, to confider of fit Perfons to be fettled in 
Civil and Military Employments, that may be qua- 
lified according to the Declaration now palled ; and 
to report the Names of fuch Perfons to the Parlia- 
ment, for their Allowance and Approbation.' 

Letters from General Monck in Scotland, and 
from the Army in Ireland, were read ; the Effe6t 
of which was, to give an Account that the Armies 
in both Places were in great Peace and Quietnefs, 
and were well pleafed with the prefent Alterations in 
the State. A new Great Seal ordered to be made, 
and a Committee appointed to infpedl into the Trea- 
furies of the Commonwealth, and the public Reve- 

May 10. Two Petitions were prefented to the 
Houfe, one from the City of London, and the other 
from Soutbwark : They were ufher'd in by formal, 
canting Speeches, congratulating the Parliament's 
Return to Power, and testifying- their 
the Good old Caufe. 

4 Ordered, That fuch of the Committee of Safety," 
as are Members of Parliament, do bring in the 
Names of fuch Perfons as they fhall conceive fit to 
be Commiffioners of the Great Seal, Judges of the 
feveral Benches in Weflminftir-Hall^ Barons of the 
Exchequer, Judges of the Admiralty, and for Pro- 
bate of Wills.' 

384 tte Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter-regtwm. Here the journals break off abruptly for this Day, 
1659. without mentioning any Adjournment to the next, 
or to an y other Time. It is therefore neceflary to 
flop here, not only to give the Meaning, if poflible, 
of this very uncommon Thing, but alfo of fome 
Jate Votes, which want Explanation. 

Wbitlocke and Ludlovo are both filent as to this 
whole Affair, and we fhould have been much at 
a Lofs, was it not for the old Pamphlet, before quo- 
ted, called England's Confufion, 5V. It feems there 
were many Members of the old Parliament then in 
Town, who would have taken their Places in the 
Houfe, at this Time, had they not been firft kept 
Out by Force, and afterwards formally precluded 
by fome of the late Votes from fitting. But as 
this whole Proceeding is at large in the aforefaid 
Pamphlet, we chufe to give it the Reader in its 
own Words : 

Some Account cf * Upon Notice of their fitting, there being double 
Mr. Prynnis their Number, Members of the fame Parliament, in 

Town ? and man y of them in the Hal1 to prevent 
the Mifchiefs of a furreptitious pack'd Parliament, 
they agreed among themfelves in the Hall, (though 
they were doubtful that Parliament was dillblved) 
that about a Dozen or fourteen of them fhould im- 
mediately go to the Houfe j and the Perfons that 
did fo were thefe, viz. 
Mr. Annefley, Mr. Gewer.^ 

Sir George Booth, Mr. Evelin, 

Mr. James Herbert, Mr. Knightlcy, 

Mr. 'Prynne, Mr. Clive, 

Mr. George Montague, Mr. Hungerford, 

Sir "John Evelin, Mr. Harley^ 

Mr. John Herbert Mr. Peck, 

Who, though with much ado they got into the 
J-obby, were not fuffered by the Officers of the 
Army to go into the Houfe, tho' they difputed their 
Privilege of fitting (if the Parliament were yet in 
being) j but ^.eafon, as well as the Laws, muft be 
jTilent amongftMen of Warj and therefore, after they 

Of E N G L A N D. 385 

had fairly made their Claim, and found the Houfe Interregnum, 
under Force, they retired, and rcfolved by Letter to ^^ ' 
acquaint the Speaker, and thofe Gentlemen a (Tern- A j ay< 
bled with him, what Ufage they had received. 

* And accordingly, on Monday the gth of May^ 
they went to fPeflminfler ; where, underftanding 
that there were no Guards upon the Houfe, Mr. 
Annefley* Mr. Prynne^ and Mr. Hnngerford went up 
to the Houfe, and had free Admittance, receiving 
the Declaration of the 7th of May at the Door, 
which was publifhed this Day; but Mr. Annejley 
walking afterwards into the Hall, (the Houfe not 
being ready to fit) to let the Members know, that, 
tho' they were repulfed by Force on Saturday, the 
Houfe was open for honeil Men this Day. At his 
Return, Capt. Lewfon, of Gaffe's Regiment, (as he 
confefled himfelf ) and other Officers, denied him 
Entrance. He afking them, Whether they were a 
Committee to judge of Members without Doors ? 
They faid, No ; but they were commanded by their 
fuperior Officers to let none in that had not fat till 
April^ 1653. After fome reafoning the Cafe with 
them, the Captain told Mr. Annefley^ That if he 
would give his Parole to return without fitting, he 
might go in and fpeak with whom he pleafed ; fo, 
upon his Parole pafled to the Captain, he was per- 
mitted to go in the fecond Time, and foon after re- 
turned, telling the Captain, as he came out, that 
he had kept his Parole, and wimed he and the SoS- 
diers would do the like. Mr. Prynne continued ftiH 
there, and refolved fo to do, fince he faw there was 
Force again upon the Houle. The Difcourfe Mr. 
Prynne had within Doors, and how he made them 
iofe that Morning, and adjourn by reafon or' his 
Prefence, without the Speaker's tailing the Chair, 
you may expect from another Pen ; and how he 
attempted to fit again in the Afternoon, but found 
there a Troop of Horfe, and two Companies of Red- 
Coats, Keepers of the Liberties of England, and fo 
bid them farewell. Immediately after which, to 
prevent further Interruption in tluir Works of 
Parknefs from honeft Mm, they barred the Door 
VOL. "XXI. B b a^ainft 

386 ^he Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. againft three Parts of four of the Members of the 
I6 59- Houfe by the following Vote : 

* Ordered, That fuch Perfons, heretofore Mem- 
bers of this Parliament, &c. as given before. ' 

' Whereupon Sir George Booth, Mr. AnneJJey, Mr. 
Knightly* Mr. Prynne, and the reft who had agreed 
on a Letter to be fent to them, finding them in their 
old Temper of trampling the Privileges of Par- 
liament Under-foot, and judging without hearing, 
refolved to make no Application to them. 

But a Copy of the Letter coming to my Hands, 
adds the Author, I judge it fo worthy of the Perfons 
that fubfcribed it, and of the public View, that I 
have here inferted it. It was directed 

To WILLIAM LENTHALL, Efq\ Speaker to the 
Members of the Houfe of Commons > now fitting at 


A Letter from * *\T|7*^' ^ c P er ^ ons fubfcribing, and others, 

the Members < yy Members of the Houfe, coming to Wefl- 

^ithiTthe ' minfter-Hall on Saturday the yth of this Month, 

Houfe. * understood that the Officers of the Army had, by 

' their Declaration, dated the Day before, invited 

' the Members of the Parliament to return to the 

' Exercife and Difcharge of their Truft, by virtue 

' of an A61 of Parliament pafled 17. Caroli, wherein 

' are thefe Words : And be it declared and ' enaffed by 

* the King our Sovereign Lord, with the AJfent of the 
' Lords and Commons in this prefent Parliament affem- 
' bledy and by the Authority of the fame, That thispre- 
' fent Parliament, now ajfembled^jhall not be dijjolved^ 
4 unlefs it be by Att of Parliament to be pajfed for that 

* Purpofe ; nor Jhall it be at any Time or Times, du- 
c ring the Continuance thereof, prorogued or adjourned; 
e unlefs it be by Aft of Parliament to be likewife 
6 pajfed for that Purpofe : And the Houfe of Peers 
' Jhall not % at any Time or Times, during this prefent 
' Parliament, be adjourned, unlefs it be by themfehes^ 

* or their own Order. And, in like Manner, that the 
' Houfe of Commons Jhall not, at any Time er Times, 

* during 

Of E N G L A N D. 387 

' during this prefent Parliament, be adjourned, unlefs Inter-rrgnum. 

* it be by themfelves, or their own Order. And that l6? j>' 

* all and every Thing or Things whatfoever, done or 

* to be done, Jor the Adjournment, Proroguing, or 
' Dijfolving of this prefent Parliament, contrary to 

* this Aft, Jhali be utterly void and of none Ejfeff. 
' And having cafual Notice immediately after, that 

* yourfelf, together with the Lord Monfon, Mr. 
' Henry Martin, Mr. Chaloner, Mr. Heningham, 
' Sir Peter IVentworth, Alderman Alkin, Sir Arthur 
Haftlrigge, Mr. Blagrave, Sir Henry Vane, Mr. 

* Purcfoy, and others, to the Number of forty, or 
' thereabouts, were privily met together in the 

< Painted-Chamber, and feen to pafs thence with a 
' Mace before you into the Houfe, we did, not 
' only out of Senfe of Duty to our Countries, if 

* that Parliament be not diflblved, but by the Per- 

< fuafion of Multitudes of honeft, faithful, and well- 

* affected People, minding us of our Truft, and 

* that you wanted Number in the Houfe for the 
1 Public Service, refolve that (in regard of the great 
' Crowd) only about fourteen of us, there being 

* many more in the Hall, mould prefently go to the 
' Houfe, where, if they found free Admittance, thd 
reft might follow; but getting with much Diffi- 
' culty up the Stairs, we found the outward Door 
' (hut, and ftri&ly kept ; yet by Degrees we got in- 
' to the Lobby, where we found the inner Door of 
the Houfe guarded by Lieutenant -Colonel Allen, 

* and other unknown Perfons, Officers, as it was faid, 
' of the Army ; who, though we prefled hard to get 

* into the Houfe, and urged their Incompatibility 
to judge of the Members without Doors, which, 

* by the Privilege of Parliament, was proper only 

* for the Houfe, and how they were all obliged to 
preferve the Freedom, Rights, and Liberties of 
' Parliament, thfe former interruption and Forcing 
c whereof they had feemingly repented; and by 

* your prefent Sitting, by virtue of the fiid Ad of 

* 17. Car. have published to the World the Injuftice 
c of their late difperfing us : Yet by no Earneftnefs 

* nor Argumens could we prevail, but were forcibly 

B b 2 hin- 

388 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

' hindered by them from going into the Houfe ; and 

* when feme of us acquainted Major-General Lam- 
' bert (whom we met in the Lobby as we returned) 

'of our Ufage by the Officers, tho' he gave us civil 
' Words, yet the Force was not removed ; wheve- 
' upon we withdrew ourfelves, refolving to give you 

* this Account thereof, that you may know, that 

* tho' to yourfelves you may feem to fit free, there is 

* the fame Force, as we conceive, continued at your 
e Doors, which excluded, interrupted, and forced 
' the major Part of the Houfe in 1648. 

* And now having laid before you the Matter of 
' Fact, and not being confcious to ourfelves of ha- 

* ving done any thing in Breach of our Truft, or 

* which may merit an Exclufion from public Coun- 

* cils ; and duly weighing the fad Condition of thefe 

* Three Nations, and that/ the Multitude of Coun- 
' fellors there is Safety ; and that of the fa id Houfe 

* there are yet living at leaft three hundred Mem- 

* bers, befides thofe that fat that Day, not being 
' admitted to difcharge our Truft, and to give our 
' faithful Council, for the Good of thefe diftra&ed 
' and divided Nations, in the Houfe, and to afiert 
' and vindicate our Innocence and faithful adhering 
' to the Good old Caule, as it was held forth by the 

* Parliament's Votes, Declarations, and Oaths, till 
< we were forcibly excluded : We have thought it a 
' Duty incumbent on us, for ourfelves, and the re- 
fpe&ive Counties, Places, and all the People for 
' which we ferve in this Way, to claim our own 

* and the People's Right of having their Reprefenta- 

* lives freed from Force, and admitted to the Houfe, 
e unlefs it be legally diflbltfed, and unlefs in a Parli^- 
' mentary Way, by a full and free Houfe, and not 

* by any without Doors, any thing can be charged 

* againft them to difabJe them, which we are ready, 
*-as Members in- our Places, to anfwer and quit 

* ourfelves of. And having no more at prefent to 

* fay, but to defire that this our Claim may be com* 
' municated to the Houfe, we remain 


a Their Nmnes not givtr.. 

Of ENGLAND. 389 

By this Account we fee plainly the Reafon for Ir.ter-regnum, 

r one of the Ute Voto>, and fixing it on the |6 59- 
Door of rhe Parliament Houfe, which \vas to ex- v M^**^ 
elude fuch Members as they did not like ; tho'they ay * 

need? -f\ not that Precaution, when their Guards were 
a much greater Security againft them : And that Mr. 
Prynne's Hipping into the Houfe one Day, and 
talking away at his ufual Rate, fo difturbed them as 
to occafion an abrupt Breaking-up, without any 
Notice being taken of" it in the ''Journals. But the 
Account of this Matter is heft given by Mr. Prynne 
himfelf j as \ve find it in a Pamphlet of thefe Times, 
written and publifhed by him, tho' he h?s not put 
his Name to the Title, called A true and per- 
feEl Narrative, &c. V/here having mentioned, 
* That he and feveral others of the fecluded Mem- Mr. Prynne' 
bir.s met and confulted together in l^eflmlnfler- ^^^- of 
Hall; and after taking fome^Refolutions, he wentto tnc 
the Lobby- Door of the Commons Houfe, accom- 
panied by Sir George Booth, Mr. Arthur AnneJIey^ 
Sir "John Evelin, Mr. Thomas Gewen, Mr. Charles 
Rich, Mr. Montague, Mr. Richard Knightly, Mr. 
Hungerfcrd, and one or two more ; which being 
Ihut to keep out the People crowding on the Stairs 
to get in, through whom they could hardly pafs, 
Mr. Prynne knock'd twice or thrice, but could get 
no Admittance, till the Door being opened to let 
out Mr. Nye, and feme other Minifters, Mr. Prynne y 
with Sir George Booth and Mr. Annejley, being fore- 
molt, preJled into the Lobby ; and then the Door 
being (hut and bolted again, Mr. Prynne unbolted 
and held it open till the reft came in, where they 
finding Mr. John and Mr. James Herbert ftanding 
in the Lobby, acquainted them with their Inten- 
tions to go then into the Houfe, who refolved to go 
in with them. Coming all up towards the Houfe 
Door, which was (hut and kept guarded, as it pre- 
fently appeared, by fomc Officers of the Army, 
Mr. Prynne required them to open the Door to let 
t'nun in, being all Members of the old 'Parliament, 
B b .5 who 

390 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. who thereupon demanded, Whether they had con- 
^ 1659^ ^ tinued fitting in it fince 1648 to 1653 ? Mr. Prynne 
M and the reft all anfvvered, That, being Members of 

the old Pailiament, they would give no Account to 
them or any others, of their Sitting, but only to the 
Houfe itfelf, whereof they were Members, being 
contrary to the Privilege of Parliament, which they 
and others were obliged inviolably to maintain : 
Upon which, demanding their Names, they faid, 
That if they would fend in a Note of their Names 
to the Houfe, and they ordered them to come 
in, theyfhould be admitted. Whereto Mr. Prynne 
replied, We yet knew not who were within the 
Houfe, nor whether they were yet fitting, nor upon 
what Account they fat ; nor was it agreeable with 
the Cuftom or Privilege of Parliament for one Mem- 
ber to fend Tickets to his Fellow-Members for free 
Admiffion into the Houfe, being all Equals, and 
having an equal Right freely to enter into it at all 
Times, as well as they ; nor was it their Duty thus 
to capitulate with Members, but obey their juft 
Commands in opening the Door : Which they ftill 
refufing, Mr. Prynne demanded, Who and what they 
were, being all Strangers to them, and by whofe 
Authority, or Order, they thus forcibly kept them 
out ? They anfvvered, They were Officers of the 
Army, and had fufficient Authority to keep them 
out, if they had not fat fince 1648 till 1653. Mr. 
Prynne demanded from whom they had their Warr 
rant, fince they could have none from thofe within, 
being but newly entered ; and none elfe could give 
them fuch a Warrant, nor they within before they 
beard them, and gave good Reafon for it; demand- 
ing them to produce their Order, if they had any, 
in Writing, that they might know by whofe Au- 
thority they were thus forcibly kept out; demanding 
their feveral Names twice or thrice, wherewith they 
refufed to acquaint them. Upon this Mr. Prynne 
told them, They doubted of their Authority, or 
Orders, thus to feclude them, becaufe they were 
either afhamed or afraid to tell them their Names, 
when as they told them theirs : That they knew net 


Of E N G L A N D. 391 

whether they were Officers of the Army or not, Inter- regnum. 

unlcfs they knew their Names, that fo they might ^5g_* 

inquire the Truth of it, or fee their Commiffions : M 
And, if they were Army Officers indeed, they had 
publiflied a printed Declaration, in all their Names, 
that Morning, inviting, as they conceived, all the 
Members they formerly fecluded, to return and fit 
again in the Houfe to difcharge their Trufts ; wherein 
they profefled their former Force upon, and Seclu- 
fion of, them, to be a Backfiiding, and wandering 
into unrighteous Paths ; which they feemingly re- 
pented of, promifing to yield their utmcft Aflirtance 
to them to lit in Safety, and praying for the Prefence 
and Bleifing of God upon their Endeavours : And 
if now, within few Hours after this Remonftrance 
publifhed, they thus highly and publickly violated 
it in the View of all there prefent, by returning to 
their former Backflidings and unrighteous Paths, 
in feel ud ing thofe who were Members afrc(h, and 
violating their own Declaration, none would hence- 
forth credit them or it. Upon which one of them 
told Mr. Prynne, He knew he was none of -them 
who fat fince 1648 till 1653; therefore they were 
not bound to let him in, being not within their 
Declaration : Who retorted, He thought their Re- 
pentance had been univerfal, not partial, of all their 
Forces upon the Houfe and Members, efpecially of 
their greatell, December 6, 1648, when they not 
only fecluded, but fecured and imprifoned him ar\d 
forty more in Hell and other Places, and forced 
away three Times as many more for difcharging 
their Trufts, and aflerting the true Good old Caufe, 
againft their Commiflions, Trufts, Proteilations, 
and printed Remonftrances ; which if they would 
look back upon, and well confider, as they proclaim 
they had done in their new Declaration, they would 
find to be one of their greatcft Backflidings where 
they firft turned out of the Way, which caufed God 
to withdraw his Prefence and good Spirit from them 
ever fince, and give them up to the Profecution of 
a new Romijh Good old Caufe, which had brought 
us into that Pofture, and occafioned thofe Vicifli- 


392 T/v Parliamentary HISTORY 

tnter-regnum. tudes of Dangers, and caufedGod, in his Providence, 
* ' to make all Eflays to fettle us utterly ineffectual, to 
My, convince them of, and reclaim them from, their 
Error, which they now purfued afrefh as vigorouily 
as ever : That, for his own Part, after his Impri- 
ibnment by them, againft both Law and Privilege, 
in 1648, in fundry Places, he was again forcibly 
feized by fome of the Arrny, in his Houfe, in 1650, 
and kept a clofe Prifoner near three Years, under 
armed Guards of Soldiers, in three remote Caftles, 
far diftant from thole then fitting ; therefore they 
could not make their unrighteous Imprifonment of 
him then, without any Caufe or Hearing, a juft 
Ground to feclude him from fitting now. But 
all thefe Expoftulations of Mr. Prynne's and others 
not prevailing, they defired all prefent to take No- 
tice and bear Witnefs of this high Affront and 
Breach of Privilege, in this their forcible Seclufion : 
And fo departing, Mr. Knightly meeting Major- 
General Lambert in the Lobby, complained to him 
of this forcible Seclufion, who gave him a civil 
Anfwer to this Effect : That Things were now in 
a Hurry, and their entering at this Time into the 
Houfe might caufe fome Difturbance ; but doubted 
not fuch Courfe would be taken by the Officers of 
the Army in a few Days, that none mould be for- 
cibly fecluded j and fo they went from the Lobby 
into the Hall from whence they came, acquainting 
thofe Members they left there with the PremifTes. 

' After fome Conference with one another, it 
was thought fit they mould meet about Four o'Clock 
in the Evening, under Lincoln' 's-Inn Chapel j and, in 
the mean Time, that every one fhould inquire 
what old fecluded, or fecured, Members were now in 
Town, and how many Members of the Long Par- 
liament were yet living, chofen or fitting before De- 
cember 6, 1648, when they were firft forcibly feclu- 
ded by the Arrny. Some met accordingly, and, upon 
Conference, found there were about eighty fecluded 
Members now in London and JVeJlminfier^ being 
near double the Number of thofe fitting that Day, 
nhd above three hundred Members of all Sorts yet 


Of E N G L A N t>. 393 

living, chofen or fitting in the Commons Houfe be- 
bH'ore December 6, 1648, over and above thofe that 
now ("at ; all which they conceived aught, in Juftice, 
to be fummoned by the Speaker's Letter, freely to 
meet and fit in the Houfe, at a convenient Time t6 
be agreed upon. In order whereunto forne ten of 
them met in the Council Chamber of Lincoln's -Ixn ', 
as the fitteft Place to write down a Catalogue of all 
the furviving Members Names, by the Help of their 
Memories and the printed Lift of them ; which 
having finished, they departed ; agreeing to meet in 
WtJltninJler-Hatt about Nine o'Clock on Mondoy 
Morning, whither Mr. Prynne carried the Lift of 
the Names formerly written, digefted into an alpha- 
betical Order, to communicate it to other Members. 
Thofe that fat at the Meeting on the Lord's Day, 
adjourned their Houfe till Ten o'Clock on Monday 
Morning ; but the Court not fitting in lVeftm\nfter~ 
Hall that Day, Mr. Prynne found the Hall very thin, 
and few Members in it : Whilft he was ftanding 
in the Hall, cxpeclirg thofe who promifed to meet 
there, he was twice informed, one afrcr another, 
That there were no Guards at a!l at the Houfe 
Door ; that any Perfon might freely go into it with- 
out Examination, there being but few Members 
within, and the Doors (landing open. Whereupon 
he fpoke to four or five Members there met, to go 
along with him into the Houfe ; and, if they were 
freely admitted, to give Notice of it to the reft to 
follow after if they pleafed. Some of them were 
unwilling to go, being formerly repulfed, thinking it 
better to make a Narrative of their former forcible 
Seclufion on Saturday, and to fignify it by a Letter 
dire&cd to the Speaker, fubfcribed with their 
Names j which Mr. Prynne conceived fupei fluous, 
fincc the Door now ftood freely open to all, with- 
out any Guards to feclude any ; and that, as he 
apprehended, in purfuance of Major-General Lam- 
bert's Promife to Mr. Knightly ; and it would be 
rdte to complain of that Force by Letter, wherewith 
they might now acquaint thofe then fitting by their 
Own Mouths, if there were Caufc. Upon which 


394 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum. Ground Mr. Prynne, Mr. Annejley, and Mr. Hun- 
1659. gerford) about Ten o'Clock went to the Houfe, 

^"^T"** where the Doors of the Lobby and Houfe were at 
ay * firft knock'd open to them by the ordinary Door- 
keepers, upon their telling them they were Mem- 
bers, (there being no Guard at either Door) deli- 
vered to each of them, as Members, a printed Pa- 
per, intituled, A Declaration of the Parliament af- 
J'embled at Wefiminfter, Saturday, May 7, 1659. 
They found not above nine or ten of thole who fat 
within the Houfe, who courteouily faluted them : 
After fome fhort Difcourfeg, Mr. Annejley and Mr. 
Hungerford leaving Mr. Prynne in the Houfe, (out 
of which he refolved not to ftir upon any Occafion, 
for fear of a new forcible Seclufion) went back into 
the Hall to acquaint the Members in it, they might 
freely enter if they pleafed. Mr. Annejley returning, 
was forcibly kept out from re-entering by fome Sol- 
diers fent thither, as he conceited, for that Purpofe. 
Wherewith he acquainted Mr. Prynne by a Note, de- 
firing to fpeak with him at the Houfe Door ; which 
being opened, Mr. Annejley preffed to go in to fpeak 
with him : but was denied Entrance, unlefs he would 
give his Parole prefently to come out again, and not 
flay in : \Vhereupon he faid, Tho' they had often 
broken their Paroles with them, yet he would not 
break his Parole, but would come forth fo foon as 
he had fpoken with Mr. Prynne; which he accord- 
ingly performed. After this Mr. Prynne had Con- 
ference with divers Members as they came in, who 
faid they were glad to fee him in Health, and meet 
him there again. The Houfe being thin, Mr. 
Prynne turned to the Statute 17. Caroli, cap. vii. 
reading it to himfelf j and after that to two other 
Members, telling them it was a Doubt, whether 
the old Parliament was not determined by the King's 
Death, notwithftanding that At ; which was fit to 
be firft freeiy debated in a full Houfe, before aught 
elfe was done. Upon which they demanded, Why 
he came amongft them, if he made a Scruple, or 
thought it to be dificlved ? Who anfwered, To have 
it fully debated and refolved in a full and free Houfe. 


Of E N G L A N D. 395 

Ai'tcr which, Sir Arthur Hafilrigge coming in, Mr. Inter r^num. 
Prynne ialutcJ and told him, He was glad to meet 
him again in this Place : Who prefentiy anfwered, 
He had nothing to do to lit there as a Member, 
being formerly fecluded. Whereto he replied, He 
had as good a Right to fit there as himfelf, or any 
other Member whatfoever, upon the Account of the 
old Parliament, if in Being, having adted, written, 
and fufter'd more in Defence of the Rights and Privi- 
leges of Parliament, than himfelf, or any fitting with 
him. Upon which Sir Henry Vane coining in, and 
ftepping up to him, faid, in a menacing Manner, 
Mf.f.tyniu, What makes you here? You ought 
not to come into the Houfe, being formerly voted 
out: I wifh you as a Friend quietly to depart hence, 
elfe fome Courfe will be prefentiy taken with you 
for your Preemption : Which Sir Arthur feconded, 
telling him, If he refufed, that there would be a 
fpeedy Courfe taken, and a Charge put in againft 
him, for his Meetings on Saturday, and A6tings 
againft the Houfe. To which he replied, He had 
as good, if not a better Right to fit than either of 
them : That he knew of no Vote to feclude, nor of 
any there who had Right or Power to vote him out, 
being equally intrufted with themfelves for the whole 
Nation, and thofe he reprefented : That he was 
never convicted of any Breach of his Parliamentary 
Truft, and hoped they would have both the Juftice 
.and Patience to hear before they voted him out : 
And then he doubted not to make it appear them- 
felves were greater Infringers of their Trufts, and 
more worthy to be voted out, than himfelf: As for 
their Charge and Menaces, he was no way affrighted 
with them, it being as free and lawful for him and 
other Members to meet and advife together, both 
as Members and Freemen of England^ for Prefer- 
vation of themfelves, the People's Rights, and the 
Parliament's Privileges, when forcibly fecluded, as 
they did on Saturday ; as for themfelves, or the 
Army Officers, to meet privately and publickly, both 
in and out of the Houfe, to deprive them of their 
Privileges, as they had oft Times done of late : 


396 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-Tegnum. That thefe high menacing Words were a very ill 
^J^ } *^ Performance of their new-publiflied Declaration, 
Alay7~^ deliver'd him at the Door: That they were refolv'd, 
by the gracious Afliftance of Almighty God, to 
apply themfelves to the-faithful Difcharge of their 
legal Truft; to a/fort, eftablifh, and fecure the Pro- 
perty and Liberty of the People, in reference unto 
all, both as Men and Chriftians ; which if they 
Ihould publickly violate and null, by any unjtift 
Charge or Proceedings againft him who had fuf- 
fered ib much, both as an Englijb Freeman, Chri- 
ftian, and Member too, (by their three Years clofe 
Imprifonment of him, without Caufe or Hearing) 
under their new Free State, when firft erected, 
and now again upon their very firft reviving of it, 
though a Member, only for coming into the Houfe, 
and meeting with other Members, to claim their 
Rights, it would highly reflect upon their intended 
new Free State, and make all out of Love with it. 
After which, they going up with other Members 
into the Committee- Chamber, to confult how to 
difpofe of, or get him out of the Houfe, about Half 
an Hour after they all came down into the Houfe, 
where Mr. Prynne continued fitting. The Speaker 
being come in the Interim, they firft concluded to 
go to Prayers, then to fit as an Houfe : Whereupon 
all taking their Places, Mr. Prynna took his Place 
too, where he ufually fat before, refolving not to ftir 
thence ; which Sir Arthur and Sir Henry obferving, 
after fome Whifperings with the Speaker and others 
next them, though the Cufliion was laid, and Order 
given to call in the Chaplain to pray, yet they 
countermanded it, telling the Speaker, It was now 
ibmewhat late, and they could difpatch little before 
Dinner; therefore they would, by Agreement, 
without any Adjournment, prefently rife and go to 
Dinner, and then fit in the Afternoon about One 
o'Clock ; and the Speaker, in the mean Time, 
might difpatch a Bufuvefs he faid he muft needs 
do : Upon which they all fifing, Mr. Prynne 
continued in the Houfe till moft of them (being 
about forty-two with tymfelf, in his Computation) 


Of E N G L A N D. 397 

were gone out, left they ftiould return and fit fo Inter-egiwu 
toon as he was gone, his Prefencc there being the 
iole Caufe of their not fitting. Mr. Prynne then 
voing out after them, found a Guard of Soldiers 
with Halberts at the Door, and a Troop of Horfe 
in the Palace-Yard, which were purpofely fent for 
to keep out the other Members, and Mr. Prynne^ 
if he icturned, as the Sequel proved. Mr. Prynne 
having acquainted fome fecluded Members in the 
Hall with thefe PaiTages in the Houfe, who agree- 
ing to fend a Letter to the Speaker, touching their 
forcible Scclufion on Saturday, he returned to Z,/- 
colris-Inn, where he dined in the Hall. Imme- 
diately after Dinner he repaired to Weftminjler^ with 
a Refolution to go into the Houfe, if admitted j or 
proteft againft the Force, if fecluded by the Army 
Guards there placed. He found a whole Troop of 
Horfe in the Palace-Yard^ and a Company of Foot 
on the Stairs and Court of Requefts, drawn thither 
to keep him and other Members out; whereupon he 
walked in the Hall till part Three o'Clock, expecting 
the Speaker's coming, with whom he intended to 
enter. At laft, being informed that he went the 
Back-way without the Mace, and was gone into 
the Houfe, Mr. Prynne^ to avoid a Tumult, (a 
Company of unknown Perfons in the Hall going 
after to fee the IfTue) went purpofely forth towards 
the Abbey, till all were gone from the Steps ; and 
then going up only with one of his Acquaintance, 
no Member, he found the Door and Stairs before 
the Lobby ftri&ly guarded with Red-Coats ; who, 
with their Halberts, eroded the Door and Steps fo 
thick that none could pafs : Whereupon Mr. Prynne 
demanded Entrance, faying he was a Member; 
and they, being ignorant who he was, permitted 
him to pafs through their Pikes into the Lobby, but 
fecluded his Friend from going up with him. When 
he came at the Houfe- Door to enter, feveral Offi- 
cers of the Army there placed, one of them fitting 
in a Chair, told him, That he muft not enter, and 
that they had fpecial Order to keep him out of the 
Houfe : Whereupon he protdted again/I this their 


398 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. forcible double Seclufion of him as an high Con- 
1659* tempt and Breach of Privilege, contrary to their 

^- ***** ** own and the Sitting Members Declaration publifh'd 
a ^* that Day ; demanding, in the Name of all the 
Commons of England, and thole for whom he was 
elected, free Admiflion for himfelf and other Mem- 
bers they kept out by a vifible Force of Horfe and 
Foot; which was a worfe and more real Levying 
of War againft the Parliament, than the beheaded 
King or his Party were guilty of.' 

After this he goes on with a long Dialogue he 
teld with the Officers that were of the Guard in 
the Lobby, which we omit ; having given enough to 
fhew, that his enthufiaftic Zeal got the better of any 
Fear, and made him face the greateft Dangers. 

But to proceed with our Journals : 

May II. This Day a Bill for enabling and au- 
thorizing certain Perfons to be Juftices of the Peace 
and Sheriffs, was read a third Time j and, with 
fome Amendments, paffcd. This Bill was, at the 
fame Time, ordered to be printed and publifhed, 
but we are not able to learn the Purport of it ; for 
tho'it was then ordered to be printed and publifhed, 
yet fmce the Acts of this Seffion were never collected 
together, after the Manner of Scobell, we have not 
been able to meet with any of them. 

Upon Report from the Committee of Safety, of 
renewed Information given them of Endeavours, 
by difaffected Perfons, to raife Disturbance in feve- 
ral Parts of the Nation, it was fii ft ordered, ' That 
the faid Committee do take Care for fearching, fei- 
zing, and fecuring fuch Perfons, and their Horfes 
and Arms, for the preventing of the prefent Danger, 
and Security of the Commonwealth.' Auxiliary 
Forces were alfo ordered to be raifed, and a Militia 
conftituted in each County, and Arms to be put 
into fuch Hands as had given Teftimony of their 
Faithfulnefs to the Parliament and Commonwealth. 
And now 


Of E N G L A N D. 399 

Col. Jones, from the Committee of Safety, pre- Inter-regnum. 
fented a Draught of an A5l for conftituting a Coun- ^659* 
cil of State, with Inftructions ; together with the M 
Opinion of the faid Committee, That the Number 
thereof fhould be only twenty-four Perfons. 

May 13. Mr. Scott reported from the fame, the 
Names of the following Perfons, who were to be 
Commiffioners for nominatingCommiffion-Officers, 
in the Army, viz. Lord Charles Fleet-wood, Lord 
John Lambert, \\ Arthur Ha filrigge, Major-General 
De/boruitgh, Col. James Bury, Sir Henry Vane, arid 
Lieutenant- General Ludlow. And that Lord Charles 
Fleetwood be Lieutenant-General and Commander 
in Chief of the Land Forces in England and Scotland. 
All which were agreed unto by the Houfe ; and the 
Time for the Continuance of the faid Commiffioners 
be limited for one Year j and that the Commtffion 
to be Lieutenant- General, &c. be from the Parlia- 

The Houfe being informed that there were di- 
vers Officers of the Army at the Door, the Speaker, 
by Direction of the Houfe, ordered them to be cal- 
led in. Whereupon General Lambert, Col Def- 
borough, and divers other Colonels and Officers of 
the Army, being come to the Bar, Lambert expref- 
fed himfelf thus : 

Mr. Speaker, 
* "IT T E are commanded, by the Officers of the 

V V Army, to prefent before you thefr Humble 
Petition and Addrefs. There are feveral Things 
contained in it, which have been a long Time upbn 
their Hands, and no vifible Way of Redrefs. Find- 
ing, to their great Joy and Satisfaction, that you 
are returned, in Difcharge 'of their Trull, they 
thought fit not to neglect this Opportunity, but have 
commanded us to prefent this Petition.' 

He then exhibited a Petition, which, when the 
Officers were withdrawn, was fead ; and, being cal - 


4QO 7& Parliamentary HISTORY 

JacJ in again, the Speaker, by Direction of the Par- 
lament, gave them the following Anfwer : 

' TAm commanded by the Houfe to tell you, 
[ That they have read your Petition, the Peti- 
tion and Addrefs that you have made here to us : 
They have commanded me likewife to tell you, 
That, as they found your Affections before they 
came hither, fo they find that Affection continuing. 
For the Things contained in the Petition, they are 
Things of great Weight ; and many more Things 
of great Weight are lying before the Houfe. And 
jit is concerning that Settlement, for which the Di- 
vine Providence of God hath brought us hither, 
who, we hope, ihall never depart from us. The 
Houfe find in your Advice much Love and Affec- 
tion ; and have commanded me to acknowledge that 
Love and Affection you have fhewn, and to give 
you Thanks, very hearty Thanks, for your Love and 
Expreifions of it : And accordingly, in their Name, 
J do give you very hearty Thanks.' 

There is no further Notice taken of this Petition 
in the Journals; and we ihould have been intirely 
in the Dark, as to the Purport of it, if another old 
Pamphlet had not reftored it to our View. We 
ihall now fee, therefore, what thefe Lords an4 
Matters wanted to be done at this Time, and it 
will explain, alfo, much of pur connective Hiitpry 
which is to follow : 

OFFICERS of the ARMY, to tie Parliament of 
the Commonwealth <?/"England> C5V. 

/ft Petition from' ^""^ Ailing to Min<J th? former Preparations of 

hf Aimy to the < \^ Parliament, and the Grounds therein inv.i- 

' ting us tp take up Arms, and thofe many figna] 

* Providences wherein the .Lprd hath owned you 

* and your Forces both by Sea and Land, in aflert- 

* ing that righteous Caule, wherein the Civil and 
Religious Liberties pf the People of thefe Nations 

tPefaien was beat- 

Of E N G L A N D. 401 

R en down before you : And likewife weighing inter-regnum. 

* with ourfelvcs, how, in the fcveral late Changes in l6 59- 

* Government, that public Spirit which appeared " 

* in that Work hath lince that Time been difcou- 
c raged, and another raifed up, drawing back to the 
' lame Things you had contended againft, even to 

* the hazarding the Eflentials of that Caufe ; we 
' did, upon ferious Thoughts of Heart, think it our 

* Duty once more to appear againft thofe backfliding 
4 Ways ; and Providence having brought the State 
4 of Affairs to the Condition they were in fome few 

* Days before your Sitting, we found it neceflary to 
' aflert, amongft ourfelves, fbme of the Fundamen- 
4 tals of our Good old Caufe, with fome other Things 
4 conducing to the Prefervation thereof, with a full 

* and fixed Refolution, thro' the Affiftance of God, 
4 effectually, even to the Hazard of our Lives, to 
4 endeavour the Recovery and Security of the fame. 
'And the fame good Providence holding forth an 

* Opportunity to us, to open unto you a Way for 
4 the further Difcharge of your remaining Truft in 

* Parliament, we did, by our Declaration of the 6th 

* of this Inftant May y numbly defire you would be 

* pleafed to return to the Exercife and Difcharge 

* thereof, as before the 20th of April^ 1653. 

4 And having, to our great Rejoicing, feen your 
4 Declaration of the jth Inftant, (hewing, That you 
are refolved, thro' the gracious Afliftance of Al- 
' mighty God, to apply yourfelves to the faithful 

* Difcharge of the Truft repofed in you, and to 

* endeavour the Settlement of this Commonwealth 

* upon fuch a Foundation as may aflert, eftablifh, 

* and fecure, the Liberties of the People, in refer- 

* ence unto all, both as Men and Chriftians, and 

* that without a Single Perfon, Kingfhip, or Houle 
' of Peers, refolving vigoroufly to endeavour the 

* carrying on the Work of Reformation, fo much 

* defired, and fo often declared for, to the end there 

* may be a godly and faithful Magiftracy and tvli- 

* niftry upheld and maintained in thefe Nations ; 

* which fo fully anfvvers what our Hearts were drawn 

* forth to defire, that we could not any longer for- 
-VoL. XXI. C c bear 

402 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter -regnum. c bear to exprefs our Thankfulnefs for this Door of 
1659. Hope, again opened towards the obtaining a Con- 
~~ * f umRlatlon or " thofe Things, fo much breathed 
' after by the good People of this Commonwealth. 
And however we find ourfelves, in ibme Mea- 

* fure, prevented, by the late Declaration and Re- 
4 folves of this Parliament ; yet, never thelefs, we 

* have judged it our Duty to reprefent what was 

* chiefly and unanimoufly upon our Hearts, when 

* we engaged in that which made Way for your 
' Return, which we humbly, as becomes us, Jay 
4 before you. 

I. * That the Liberty of the Perfons, and Pro- 

* perty of the Eftates, of all the free People of thefc 

* Nations, be maintained, preferved, and kept in- 
' violable, according to Law, under the Govern- 
' ment of a Free State and Commonwealth, without 

* a Single Perfon, Kingfhip, or Houfe of Peers. 

II. ' That there may be fuch a juft and due Re- 
' gulation of Law, and Courts of Juftice and Equity, 
' as that they may be a Protection, and not vexa- 

* tious or oppreflive, to the People of thefe Nations. 

III. That, by an Ad of Oblivion, all and every 
Perfon and Perfons, who have, fmce the igth of 

* April) 1653, mediately or immediately, advifed, 

* afted, or done, or commanded or apppointed to 

* be acted or done, or by Command or Appoint- 
' ment, have a<ted or done any Matter or Thing 
' whatfoever, in reference to the feveral Changes or 
* Alterations in the Government of thefe Nations, 
' fince the faid igth of April ^ 1653, or in order to 
' the Public Service, Peace, or Safety of thefe Na- 
' tions, be indemnified and faved harmlefs to all In- 

* tents and Purpofes whatfoever. 

IV. That all Laws, Ordinances, Orders, De- 
' clarations, and Eftablifhments made in the feve- 
' ral Changes and Alterations of Government that 
' have been in thefe Nations, fince the i9th of April 
' aforefaid, and not as yet particularly repealed, be 
' deemed good in Law, untill particularly repealed. 

V. * That fuch Debts as have been contracted 
4 for the Public Service and Affairs of this Com- 

4 monwealth, 

Of E N G L A N D. 403 

8 monwealth, and for the Charges of the Govern- 
c mcnt, fince the 2Oth of Jprt/, 1653, be carefully 
' paid and fatisfied. ~Ma 

VI. That all Pcrfons who profefs Faith in 

* God the Father, and in Jefus Chrijl^ his Eternal 
' Son, the true God, and in the Holy Spirit God 
' co-equal with the Father and the Son, one God 
' blefled for ever, and do acknowledge the Holy 

* Scriptures, of the Old and New Teftament, to 
' be the Revealed or Written Word or Will of 
' God, (hall not be reftrained from their Profeffion, 
' but have due Encouragement and equal Protec- 

* tion in the Profeffion of their Faith, and Exercife 

* of Religion, whilft they abufe not this Liberty to 

* the Civil Injury of others, or Difturbance of others 

* in their Way of Worfliip ; fo that this Liberty be 
1 not extended to Popery or Prelacy, nor to fuck as 
' (hall prac~life or hold forth Licentioufnefs or Pro- 
' fanenefs, under the Profeffion of Religion : And 

* that all Laws, Statutes, Ordinances, and Claufes 
' in any Laws, Statutes, or Ordinances to the con- 
' trary, may be declared null and void. 

VII. * That a godly, faithful, and painful Go- 
c fpel-preaching Miniitry be every where encoura- 
' ged, countenanced, and maintained. 

VIII. * That the Univerfities and Schools of 
' Learning be fo countenanced and reformed, as 
c that they may become the Nurferies of Piety and 
' Learning. 

IX. ' That fuch Perfons as have, at any Time, 

* fince the 20th of Afay, 1642, aided, or affifted, or 
' adhered to the late King Charles Stuart, his SOB, 

* or any other Perfcn or Perfons whatfoever of that 
' Party, againft the Parliament or Commonwealth 
' of England', and all other Pcrfons whatfoever, 
' that have made Ufe of any Authority or Power, 
4 under Pretence of Law or otherwife, to deprive 
4 or abridge any of the good People of thefe Nations 
' of their ChrHtian Liberty, or have, or (hall exprefs 
c themfelves in any way Mockers, Scoffers, or Re- 
Vilers of Godlincfs, or of the ProfeiTors thereof, 
4 tr are otherwife fcandalous, or loofe in their Con- 

C c 2 * verfations, 

404 2^ Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' verfations, or have not given good Satisfaction of 

1659- e their AfFe&ion and Faithfulnefs to this Caufe, 

^* e ~\~~'+J may be fpeedily removed out of all Places of Power 

May> * or Truft in the Magiftracy, or other Management 

' of the Public Affairs of thefe Nations ; and that 

' no fuch Perfons may be admitted unto any fuch 

' Place of Power or Truft for the future. 

X. ' And forafmuch as no godly or other good 
c Inteieft can be preferved or maintained, unlefs the 
Perfons, who are chiefly interefted with the Ma- 
' nagement and Exercife of Government, be of 
6 fuitable Spirits to thofe Interefts ; that thofe who 
' are or {hall be intrufted therein, be fuch Perfons 
' as (hall be found to be moft eminent for Godlinefs, 
Faithfulnefs, and Conftancy, to the good Caufe 

* and Interefts of thefe Nations. 

XI. c That to the end the Legiflative Authority 
c of this Commonwealth may not, by their long Sit- 

* ting, become burthenfome or inconvenient, there 

* may be effectual Provifion made for a due Succef- 
fion thereof. 

XII. ' And for the better Satisfaction and more 
' firm Union of the Forces of this Common wealth, 

* in this Juncture of Affairs, for prefei ving and 
f maintaining the Principles, and other Matters 

* thereunto fubfervient, we do unanimoufly acknow- 
' ledge and own the Lord Charles Fleet-wood, Lieute- 

* nant-General of the Army, to be Commander in 

* Chief of the Land-Forces of this Commonwealth. 

XIII. * That, in order to the eftablifhing and 

* fecuring the Peace, Welfare, and Freedom of the 
6 People of thefe Nations, for the Ends before ex- 

* prefied, the Legiflative Power thereof may be in z 
* Reprefentative of the People, confifting of aHoufe, 

* fucceflively chofen by the People, in fuch Way 
and Manner as this Parliament fhall judge meet, 

* and of a felecl: Senate, co-ordinate in Power, of 

* able and faithful Perfons, eminent for Godlinefs, 
' and fuch as continue adhering to this Caufe. 

XIV. That the Adminiftration of the executive 
c Power of Government jnay be in a Council of 


State, confifting of a convenient Number of Per- Inter-regnum. 

< fons, qualified in all Refpefts as aforefaid. 

XV. * That ail^ Debts, contraded by his late 
c Highnefs, or his Father, fmce the i5th of Decem- 
' ber, 1653, may be fatisfied j and that an honour- 
' able Revenue ot io,OOO/. per Annum, with a con- 
c venient Houfe, may be fettled upon him and his 
' Heirs for ever; and 1 0,000 /. per Annum more 
' upon him during Life ; and upon his Honour- 

* able Mother 8000 /. per Annum during her Life; 
' to the end a Mark of the high Kfteem this Nation 

* hath of the good Service done "by his Father, our 

* ever-renowned General, may remain to Pofterity. 

* Thefe having been the Thoughts and Defires of 
' our Hearts, unanimoufly agreed upon before your 
' returning to fit, and finding the Spirits of divers 

< of the honeft faithful People of this Common- 
' wealth led forth for the fame Things, and yaur- 

* felves, by your late Declaration and Refolutions, 

* in a great Meafure aflifting them, we thought it 

< our Duty to the Nations, to you, and to the honell 
4 People, humbly to prefent thefe ; and beg the 
4 Blefling and Prefence of the Lord with you, in the 
Profecution and Bringing^forth fuch a Settlement 

< as may be for the Honour of God, the Union, 
Joy, and Rejoicing of all the peaceable People of 

* this Commonwealth, And wejhallpray^ &c. 

Signed in the Name, and by the Appointment, 
of the Council of Officers, the 1 2th Day of 
May, 1659, 

THO. SANDEFORD, Secretary. 
Prefented to the Parliament by 

Lord Lambert, Col. Sankey, 

Lord Dejbartugb, Col. AJhfield, 

Col. Bury, Maj. Gen. 

Col. Hewfon, Col. Prittie, 

Col. Bark/lead, Col. Salmon^ 

Col. Lilburne, Col. Clarke, 

Col. Cooper, Col. Fitch y 

Col. Hacker, Lieut. Col. Mo/e, 

Col. Okey, Lieut. Col. Mafon, 

C c 3 To. 

40 6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

er-re^num. To proceed with the Journals : 


I - V -^_J Sir Henry Vane* from the Committee, reported 

May, the State of foreign Affairs in regard to England^ 
and that they were Matters of great Confequence 
fit for the Confideration of the Houfe. 

Fir ft) ' That this Commonwealth was in Amity 
with all States except Spain : That there had been 
an annual Treaty with France, but expired hfi: Lady- 
Day : That there was alfo a Treaty with Flan- 
ders: That Dunkhk was yielded to England for their 
Affiftance to France : That there is no Peace be- 
tween Spain and France, but two Months Truce, in- 
cluding Dunkirk within that Truce : That the Eng- 
lljh Fleet in the Sound arrived there a Month fmce, 
to whom Inftru&ion had been given on the Ground 
of Amity between this Commonwealth and the two 
Kings of Sweden and Denmark, to be as Mediators 
between both : That Treaties have been between 
England and Holland in this Affair ; that fo, when 
the Fleets of both Commonwealths meet in the 
Sound, they may meet as Friends : That the Hol- 
land Fleet is now gone likewife to the Sound, but 
with Direction to (hew all fair Refpecls and Adlions, 
of Kindnefs to England; but it is not difcerned 
that a Peace is concluded between the two King- 

Thefe Confiderations moved the Houfe to pro- 
ceed fpeedily in fettling their new Council of State ; 
and the Bill for conftituting of it, with Inftru&ions, 
was then read a firft Time; and fome Alterations 

, being made, it was refolved, ' That the Time foi 

the Continuance of the Council of State be till the 
firft Day of December next; and that the Number 
of them confift of thirty-one.' But a Queftion be- 
ing propofed, That ten of the faid Number be or" 
Perfons that are not Members of Parliament ; the 
Houfe divided, and it was carried in the Affirma- 
tive, 25 againft 19. And Thomas Lord Fairfax, 
Major-General Lambert, Col. 'John Defvorough, 
James Bury, John Bradfliaw Serjeant at Law, Su- 


Of E N G L A N D. 407 

Anthony Ajhlcy Cooper, and Sir Horatio Townflxnd, 
were immediately named of this Number; the other 
three were refcrved for a general Ballot, which was 
ordered to be got ready againft next Day. 

Accordingly, May 14, after fome other Bulinefs 
done, of fina'il Moment, the Houfe proceeded in 
the Election of the Twenty-one to be chofen of 
the Members of the Houfe, and of the remaining 
Three of the Ten, to be chofen of thofe out of the 
Houfe, to be of the Council of State. 

* Mr. Speaker appointed Colonel Sydney and Sir 
Arthur Haftlrlgge to tell the Number of the Houfe ; 
which is by them reported to Mr. Speaker, and by 
him publifhed to the Houfe, to be Seventy-feven j 
and Dr. Palmer came in after the Report made, 
which made up Seventy-eight. 

' Two GlafTes were prepared ; the one, for each 
Member to put in his Paper of the Names of 
Twenty- one Members of the Houfe, whom he 
would have to be of the Council of State ; the other, 
for each Member to put in his Paper of the Names 
of the Three Perfons, which are not of the Hoafe, 
to be elected Members of the Council. 

' The Clerk thereupon went to each Member, 
with one of the GlafTes, and received from him, in 
the Glafs, his Paper of Names for the faid Twenty- 
one Membeis ; and the Clerk- Affiftant went to the 
fame Members, and received from each of them, 
in the other Glafs, a Paper of Names for the Three ; 
and fo they both brought their feveral GlafTes, and 
fet them upon the Table. 

4 Mr. Speaker appointed Sir Arthur Hafilrigge^ 
Mr. Scoff, Mr. Raleigh, and Mr. Sydney, to count 
the Papers in the Glaffes of Twenty- one Members i 
which being done, they report the Number of the 
Papers to agree with the Number of the Houfe. 

* And the four Members open'd each Paper in the 
Glafs, for the Twenty- one Members, and caufed 
the Clerk to read each Name diftinclly, and to 
write down each Name ; and with a ftreight Line 
drawn againft that Name, to give one Stroke of the 


408 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter- regnum, Pen crofs the faid Line ; and as often as any Name 
- 5 was re P eatec ^> t ^ ie Clerk did make another Stroke 
~~ crofs the faid Line : And all the Names being read, 
Mr. Raleigh^ Sir Arthur Hafilrigge, Mr. Scott, and 
Col, Sydney, reported, That there are, in the faid 
Papers, thefeOne-and-twenty Perfons, who have the 
greateft Number of Subfcriptions ; viz. Sir Arthur 
Hajllrigge, Sir HenryVane, Lieutenant- General Lud- 
low, Lieutenant-Generai Fleetwood, Major Salway, 
Col. Morley, Mr. Scott, Mr Wallop, $vr James Har- 
rington, Col. Wanton, Col. John Jones, Col. Sy den- 
ham, Col. Sydney, Mr. Nevill, Mr. Thomas Cha- 
loner, Col. Downes, Lord Chief Juftice St. John, 
Col. Thompfon, Lord Commiflioner Whltkcke, Col. 
Dixwell, and Mr. Reynolds. And the Queftion being 

put upon every one of them diftin&ly, they were 
all confirmed by the Houfe ; and fo the former 
Committee of Safety was diflblved. We think 
proper to mention here, That, two Days after, the 
Lord Warrijion, Sir Robert Honeywood, and Mr. 
Jofeas Earners, were elected, by Ballot, to make 
up the Number Ten, of thofe who were not Mem- 
bers of this Parliament. 

The feveral Characters of all thefe worthy Men 
are, again, ludicroufly given in the Pamphlet of 
England's Confujion, &c, which take in its own 
Words, as follows : 

Sir Arthur Hafilrigge, Fleetwood, 

Sir Henry Vane, Sir James Harrington^ 

udlow, Col. Walton, 

Jo. Jones, Nevill, 

Sydenham, Chaloner^ 

Scott, Downes, 

Salway, Whitlocke, 

Whofe feveral Characters you have before; 
Hab. Morley, Squib-maker of the County o 

Sydney, vt\\o hath nothing of SirP/;/7// but the Name; 
Col. Thompfon, as wooden a Head as Leg ; 
Col. Dixwell, better known in Kent than trufted ; 
}tfr. Reynolds^ Half-Bifhop of Winchejler, and 
Whole- Sollicitor to the Infant Commonwealth ; 


Of E N G L A N D. 409 

Oliver St. John, late Sollicker to the King, now Imer-regnum. 
Sollicitor to the Commonwealth, to be Chief Ju- l6 "> 
itice again ; hut they hold him to befanflus Nomine **-~~v~~~* 
non Re, and too great a Patron of the Law ; 

Hafilrig^c remembers his and Co/lingibti>tPs Cafe ; 

Mr. JVallop, a filcnt Hampjkirt Gentleman, much 
in Debt ; fit indeed to be Counfellor, if he could 
advife the Commonwealth how to get out of Debt; 
Of Perfons without the Houfe, Ten, viz. 

BraJJhaw, Prefident at the formal Murder of the 

Lambert^ a Yorkjkire Gentleman, not born to Wim- 
ble ton- Houfe , but too crafty for them all now old 
Oliver is gone ; 

Dejlorough^ a Country Clown without Fear or Wit; 

Lord Fairfax, an Allay for Lambert's brittle Metal; 

Bury, the worft of Major- Generals, except Butler ; 

$ir Anthony Afoley Cooper ; a Gentleman too wife 
and honeft to fit in luch Company ; 

Sir Horatio Townjkend, a Gentlemen of too good an 
Eftate to be hazarded with fuch a Crew ; 

Sir Robert Honeywood, Sir Henry Fane's Brother-ih- 
Law ; 

Sir Archibald Johnfon, Lord Warriflon, never ad- 
vanced before the Marquis of Argyle till he came 
for England ; 

Jofi<ib Earners, Fool of the Play. 

This Day the Houfe alfo parted an Aft for the 

Continuance of the prefent Eafter Term, and it; 

was ordered to be forthwith printed and publifhed. 

The late Great Seal, made by Oliver , was brought 

into the Houfe and broken, and a Bill, for eftablilh- 

ing a new Great Seal, was read three Times toge- 
ther ; and, upon the Queftion, parted. . This fliort 

Acl: is entered in the Journals, and runs in thefe 

Words : 

An ACT for the GREAT SEAL of England. 
"Ok i f Enadled by this prefent Parliament, and A rew Great 
< > the Authority of the fame, That the Seal, SealonJerc<1 ' 
' on the one Side whereof is engraven the Maps of 
Ireland, and the Ifles of Jerfey, Guern- 

4 Jo 'The Parliamentary HISTORY 

y, and Man, with the Arms of Englan 
reland, and this Infcription, viz. The Great Seal 

Jnter-regnum, * fey, and Man, with the Arms of England and 
' Ireland, and this Infcrip 
of England, One thoufand fix hundred fifty- one ; 

' and, on the other Side, the Sculpture of the Par- 
c liament fitting, with this Infcription, viz. In the 

* third Tear of Freedom, by God's BlcJJing reft or ed, One 

* thoufand fix hundred fifty-one, fhall, from hence - 

* forth, be the Great Seal of England, and none 
c other ; and fhall be, and is hereby authorized and 
4 eftabliihed to be, of the like Force, Power, and 

* Validity, to all Intents and Purpofes, as any Great 
' Seal of England hath heretofore been or ought to 

Lenthall, their Speaker, was made Keeper of 
this Great Seal for the Space of eight Days only -, 
four Judges were created ; and a large Committee 
appointed to bring in an Act of Indemnity and Par- 
don for what hath been acted or done during thefe 
late Times, with fuch Qualifications as fhall be fit 
for the Confideration of Parliament. 

We fhall here ftop again a little to review the 
late Tranfadtions of this Piece of a Parliament, in 
a different Light from what the Journals (hew them 
in ; and a Piece, or Fagg End, of a Parliament they 
muft be allowed to be, fince their whole Number, 
when collected together, at the late Election of 
their Council of State, did not amount to more than 
78 Perfons : However, they muft be allowed to 
have been hitherto very active and induftrious, fince, 
in the Space of one fingle Week, they feem to have 
fortified and barricaded themfelves againft all At- 
tacks of their Enemies, both at home aod abroad. 
But yet they were far from being thoroughly eafy 
in their Stations ; they had a Viper in their Bofoms 
of a moft malignant Nature, the Bite of which they 
had great Occafion to dread ; this was the Army, 
who, by their late Addrefs to them, plainly fhewed 
they thought themfelves their Mafters, and that they 
were raifed, and fat where they did, only by their 
Power and Authority. But hear what Mr. Lud- 
low himfelf fays on this Occafion ; when, after gi- 


O/ E N G L A N D. 411 

vini; a particular Account of the Members who lotcr.ifgn 
compofcd the Council of State, he proceeds to tell l6 S9- 
us, ' The Officers of the Army were not all plea- ^""7. ~" 
fed with this Election, perceiving they fliould not 
be permitted to act arbitrarily, as they defired, and 
therefore feldom came to the Council ; and when 
they condefcended to come, carried themfelves with 
all imaginable Perverfcncfs and Infolerice. They 
fcrupled to take the Oath to be true and faithful to 
the Commonwealth , in Opposition to Charles Stuart, 
or any Single Per/on, which the Parliament had ap- 
pointed to be taken by every Member of the Coun- 
cil before he took his Place : And becaufe they 
were afham'd to own themfelves diflatisfied with the 
Subftance of the Oath, they pretended to be unwil- 
ling to take any ; yet profeffing a Readinefs to pM- 
mife as much as the Oath required. This Diftinc- 
tion feemed very nice to molt of us ; but that there 
might be no Difference about Ceremonies, the Par- 
liament was prevailed with to grant Liberty to the 
Council to alter the Engagement into fuch a Form 
as might give them Satisfaction. Notwithftanding" 
all which^Condefcenfion they were hardly perfuaded 
to take it j and when they had done it, they feldom 
came to difcharge their Duty at the Board. Things 
being in thisPoiture, the Enemies of the Government 
thought it a proper Time to attempt fomething, be- 
fore a good Agreement might be made between the 
Parliament and Army j in order to which great 
Numbers of Arms were bought up by them in Lon- 
don, whereof Notice was given to a Committee of 
the Council of State.' 

May 1 6. Col. Sydenbam, from a Committee, re- 
ported the Exigencies of the Army for Want of Pay, 
and the great Arrears now due to them. As it was 
the fole Intereft of this Parliament to keep well with 
thefe Locufts, they immediately came to a Refohi- 
tion to take effectual and fpeedy Care to pay off all 
Arrears due both to the Army and Navy j and to 
afcertain the better Payment of them for the future. 
In order to this it was referred to the fame Com- 

412 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. mittee to make Inquiry where, and in whofe Hands, 
l6 59- any Monies belonging to the Commonwealth are ; 
****+&*& an( j to require them forthwith to bring all fuch Sums 
May * into the Public Treafury. 

< Ordered, alfo, That Whitehall and Somerfet- 
Houfe, with all their Appurtenances, be forthwith 
cxpofed to Sale for the Advantage of the Common- 
wealth, and towards the Satisfaction of the great 
Arrears of Pay due to the Army.' 

All this Time we hear no News what was be- 
come of Richard Cromwell; till this Day, we are 
told by the Journals, a Committee was appointed 
to take into Confideration the prefent Condition of 
the eldeft Son of the late Lord-General Cromwell; 
and to inform themfelves what his Eftate is, and 
what his Debts are, and how they had been con- 
tracted : Likewife how far he doth acquiefce in the 
Government of this Commonwealth, as it is now 
declared by Parliament ; and to offer, upon the 
whole, what they conceive expedient, in his Behalf, 
to the Houfe. 

May 1 8. The ftrongTown of Dunkirk had now 
been in Pofleflion of the Englijh for fome Time. 
It was taken from the Spaniards by the French ; 
and, by Treaty, delivered to the Englijh in the 
Time of Oliver the late Protector. Lockhart, the 
Governor of it, who was made one of Cromwell's 
Lords, had been fent to for his Recognition of the 
prefent Powers in Parliament ; and this Day his 
Anfwer was reported to the Houfe by Sir Henry 

' That my Lord Lockhart declares his Freedom, 
and promifes his utmoft Induftry to maintain and 
defend Dunkirk, and the Forts thereupon depending, 
for the Commonwealth of England, till further Order 
from thofe that adminifter the faid Commonwealth : 

* To keep the Officers and Soldiers thereof, as 
alfo of the three Englijh Regiments now in the 
French Service, in due Obedience and Submiffion 
to the prefent Government, fo long as he fhali 
remain in'Command over them : 


Of E N G L A N D. 413 

' To deliver up the (aid Place and Forts, with Inter-repinm. 
nil Things thereto belonging, to fuch Perfon or 
Perfons as the faid Supreme Power fliall appoint, 
whenfoever it (hall be judged convenient fo to dif- 
pofe thereof. 

' Hoping this State will keep Dunkirk, wherein 
the Honour and Intereft of England is fo much 
concerned, he further promifes, That if ever it be 
in Danger, in what other Condition foever he be, 
he will readily accur to its Defence, though only as 
a private Man, with a Mufket on his Shoulder. 

' He humbly defires that fufficient Ammunition 
may be forthwith fupplied to that Place and Forts, 
together with Provifions for one whole Year ; that, 
while the old is fpending, the Magazines may be 
conftantly repleniftied with new : 

* That fome fundamental Courfe may be taken 
to continue the Soldiers Subfiftence, and keep up 
the Spirits of the Officers, {with fome Refrefliment 
of Arrears at prefent, and Aflurance of the reft in 
due Time, according to the Eftablifhment made in 
December laft. 

' He will fend the Accounts of the Garrifon, with 
the juft State of the Officers Arrears, whenfoever 
demanded ; together with his own Advances for 
paying the Soldiers, carrying on neceflary Works, 
and recruiting the Horfe; alfo his Engagements for 
furnifhing the Garrifon with Coats, Hay, Oats, &V. 

4 He makes it his earneft Requeft, that his Salary 
as Ambafiador (run in Arrears to near upon 5000/.) 
may be paid ; his Debts, upon that Account, being 
very great, and his Credit almoft funk. 

* For the better fecuring Dunkirk, and the Forts 
thereabout, from all Attempts during this Inftability 
of Things, he hath prevailed that the three Regi- 
ments at Amiens may be placed in fome French 
Quarters near Dunkirk. They were ordered to 
march towards Flanders, Monday the ifth of May 

* The Truce for two Months between France 
and Spain, beginning the firft of May\ wherein 


414 T& e Parliamentary Hi s T o R Y 

Inter-regnum. Dunkirk is alfo comprized, (if the State of England 
1659* pleafes) he will obferve till further Order. 

-v-*-' ' Laftfy, He humbly intreats that two Bills of 
**' Exchange he was lately forced to draw, to fupply 
the Neceffities of the Garrifon, amounting to ijooL 
may be difcharged.' 

4 Ordered, That the Confideration of this Re- 
port, for fo much thereof as concerns the Safety 
and prefent Supply of the Garrifon, be referred to 
the Council of State, to do therein as they fhall 
think fit : And, for the Refidue of the faid Report, 
that it be alfo referred to the Council of State, to 
examine the Bufinefs, and to report their Opinion 
therein to this Houfe.' 

The fame Day, alfo, a Letter from General 
Monke^ and other Officers of the Army, in Scotland^ 
xvas read in the Houfe ; when it was ordered, ' That 
the Council of State, or any five of them, fhould 
prepare a Letter of good Acceptance and Thanks 
from this Houfe, to be figned by the Speaker, irt 
Anfwer to the faid Letter from Scot/and-, which was 
ordered alfo to be printed and publilhed. Wbitlocke 
has preferved a Copy of this Letter, probably as a 
Teitimony againft Monke and his Army, for their 
Defection afterwards ; but we (hall give it in its 
own Words, as taken from a Pamphlet of thofe 
Times, printed by Authority of Parliament. 

For the Honourable the Speaker of the Parliament of 
the Commonwealth of .England, fitting at Weft* 

Right Honour able i 

The firft Letter* fT^ H A T a Nation may be born in a Day, is a 
f jo the Army Truth which this Day's Experience wil- 

der GerT^i/ neffeth unto us a S ainft al1 the ^^^ of human 
to the Parlia- 4 Reafon ; and that a glorious Caufe, whofe Intereft 
mem. < was i a ' I( i j OWj even m j ne Duft, fhould be in one 

4 Day reft.ored to its Life and Luftre, when almoft 
all the Aflertors of it had fo manifeftly declined it, 
' by a Defection pf many Years, cannot be imputed 
* to lefs than the greateft and moft powerful Mani- 

* feftatioji 

Of E N G L A N D. 415 

6 fcftation of the Arm of God, that ever they, or Intcr-regnum. 
' former Generations, faw or heard of. In the 
' Senfe of this, (the greateft of our Temporal Mer- 

* cies) we now come to addrefs to your Honours, 
' as thofe whofe Prefence we have fo long wanted, 

* that had you (laid but a little longer, it might have 
' been left to be inquired what England was : We 
6 mean, what was become of that People, by whom 

* God, for fo many Years, fill'd the World with fo 

* much Admiration and Terror. But though this 

* great Work be (as moft juftly it ought to be) 
' wonderful in our Eyes; yet, when we confider its 

* Author, who calls Things that are not as if they 
' were, bringeth down to the Pit, and raifeth up 

* again, we fee that nothing is difficult to Faith, 

* and the Promifes of God are fure and ftable, even 

* then, when, in the Eye of Man, no lefs than im- 
' poffible. We cannot but acknowledge, to our ex- 

* ceeding great Sorrow and Shame, That ourfelves 
' (tho' we hope moft of us, through our Weaknefs 

* and Frailty, not out of Defign) have very much 

* contributed to thofe Provocations, which have 
' caufed God to depart from our Ifrael, And we 

* could heartily wifh, that even amongflr thofe that 

* help to make up your own Number, there had not 

* been an helping Hand to this fad and deplorable 

* Work : But we fee, when God's Hour is come, 

* and the Time of his People's Deliverance, even 

* the fet Time at Hand, he cometh, fkipping over 
6 all the Mountains of Sin and Unworthincfs that 

* we daily caft in his Way. We are not willing to 

* detain your Honours too long upon this Subject, 

* and therefore, befeeching the God of all Mercies 

* to heal the Backflidings of his People, and not to 
charge unto their Account, in this his Day of their 
Deliverance, their Mifcarriages, whilft they were 
' wandering in dark and flippery Places, after the 
4 Imaginations of their own Hearts ; we, with all 
' Humility and AfFe<ftion, in the firft Place, con- 

* gratulate you in this your happy Rcftoration to 

* the Government of thefe Nations, which God was 

* one- pleafed fo to own in your Hands, as to 


41 6 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

rnter-regnum, * make you both the Praife and Wonder of tho 

1659. Earth, the Glory and Rejoicing of his People, and 

^ fv ' the Terror of your Adverfaries ; and we acknow- 

* ledge it a fingular Condefcenfion in you, in this 

* Day of fo great Difficulties, to take upon you fo 
heavy a Burthen. And feeing his late Highnefs 

* hath been pleafed to manifeft io much Self- denial 
' and Love to his Country, in appearing for the 

* Intereft thereof againft his own, we humbly 

* intreat that fome fpeedy Care may be taken for 

* him and his Family, together with her Highnefs- 
6 Dowager, that there may be fuch a Provifion 

* fettled upon them, and fuch other Dignities, as 
' are fuitable to the former great Services of that 
' family to thefe Nations. 

' And, in the next Place, we cannot but humbly 
' befeech you, now you have an Opportunity, than 
' which your Hearts did never pray for, to finifb. 
4 the Work of Reformation that hath been fo long 
c upon the Wheel, and met with fo great Obftruc- 
' tions, that you would not heal the Wound of the 
c Daughter of God's People fiightly, but make fo 

* fure and lafting Provifion for both their Chriftiaa 
' and Civil Rights, as that both this and future 
e Generations may have Caufe to rife up, and call 
8 you BlefTed ; and the blackeft of Defigns may never 
' be able to caft Dirt in your Faces any more : 
' And, as helpful to thefe two great Concernments, 

* Religion and Liberty, we humbly propofe unto 

* your mature Confideration thefe two Defires : 

4 Firft, That you would be pleafed to counte- 
' nance Godlinefs, and all the fmcere Profeflbrs 

* thereof; encourage an able and laborious Mini- 
e ftry, and fuffer no other Yoke to be impofed upon 

* the Confciences of God's People, than what may 

* be agreeable to the Word of God ; and that you 
' would be a Terror to all impious, profane, and 

* licentious People whatfoever. 

' Secondly^ That you would fo vindicate and aflert 
c the native Rights and Liberties of thefe Nations, in 
c and by tfre Government of a Free State, that there 

* may not be the Voice of an OppreiTed-one in our 

Land ; 

Of E N G L A N t>. 417 

* Land; but that all may enjoy the blefled Fruits of 
e your righteous and peaceable Government. And 
' for the Prevention of all Poffibility for ambitious 
c Spirits ever to work their Ends againft you, we 
' humbly defire you to be very careful, as well what 
' Perfons you entruft with the Management of the 
* % Armies and Navies of this Commonwealth, as of 
''the Meafure of that Power and Authority you 

* depart with to them, or fubftitute in them. 

* Touching the Qualifications of the Perfons, we 

* defire they may be truly godly and confcientious ; 

* touching the Meafure of their Authority, that it 
' may be^adequate to the Nature and Being of a 

* Commonwealth. 

* And whilft you are thus pleading and averting 

* the Intereft of God and his People, you may reft 

* affured, with greateft Confidence, that we fhall 

* appear in your Defence, and the Vindication of 
' your Authority, againft the Oppofition of all ar- 

* bitrary Powers whatfoever. 

' And to that blefled and all-powerful God, who 

* is able to fpirit you for this great Work, you arc 

* and fhall daily be recommended in the Prayers of 

Your moft loyal and mcft obedient Servants 9 













May 19. A Vote was pafled this Day, to refer 

to the Council of State the Confuleration of How 

VOL, XXI. D d far 

4i 8 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. far this Commonwealth is concerned, either in 
l6 59- Peace or War with foreign Nations, by the Tranf- 
*~~~ V ~~ J actions that have happened fince the Interruption 
ay ' of this Parliament, April 20, 1653; and to take 
Care in what is done, from Time to Time, by the 
Council, in purfuance of their Inftructions, in re- 
ference to foreign States ; that this Commonwealth 
be not engaged in a War, without the Confent of 

The Act for fettling a Council of State was read 
a third Time, with fome Amendments > and, upon 
the Queftion, pafled. 

May 20. A Faft-Day was appointed to be kept 
in the Houfe, on that Day Se'nnight ; and that Dr. 
Owen y Mr. Adderley^ and Mr. Griffith ', be defired 
to affift in carrying on the Work of Humiliation 
and Prayer, and feeking the Lord, for a Blefiing 
upon the Councils of this Houfe on that Day. 

4 Ordered, That it be referred to a Committee to 
prepare a Declaration, to fatisfy the Nation how 
Affairs flood with the Commonwealth, when this 
Houfe was interrupted, and how Affairs ftand at 
prefent j* and a Committee was named accordingly. 

May 21. The Bufinefs of the Army's Petition 
and Reprefentation was this Day, and not before, 
debated in the Houfe j it was firft read altogether, 
and afterwards Paragraph by Paragraph ; and every 
Article of it agreed to by the Houfe, except the gth, 
1 3th, I4th, and I5th, of the Petition, which were 
referred to a grand Committee of the whole Houfe. 

May 23 and 24. Nothing done thefe two Days of 
any Moment, except giving Audience to a Dutch 
Ambaflador, in the Houfe, in the fame Form and 
Majiner as before related, and before Oliver turned 
the Parliament out of Doors. 

May 25. But what was acted by the Father, was, 
in fome Meafure, returned upon the Son ; for thisDay 
we find the following Entry made in the Journals : 


Of E N G L A N D. 419 

e Sir Gilbert Pickering acquainted the Houfe, That Intcr-regnum. 
he and the Lord Chief Juftice St. John did, accord^ 6 59- 
ing to the Command of this Houfe, repair to the eld- * 7/~ 
eft Son of the late Lord -General Cromwell^ and ac- 
quainted him with the Senfe of this Houfe touching 
his fubfcribing a Paper fent by him to the Commit- 
tee, formerly appointed to communicate to him a 
Declaration and Order of this Houfe : And that he 
did thereupon, in their Prefence, fign the faid Paper 
with his Name, which was as follows : 

* T Have perufed the Refolve and Declaration,.R/<rW Crom- 

* J. which you were pleafed to deliver to me the Vltl1 s Ac q | J'- 
4 other Night; and, for your Information touch ingJ 

* what is mentioned in the faid Refolve, I havemenc, 

* caufed a true State of my Debts to be tranfcribed^ 

* and annexed to this Paper; which will (hew what 

* they are, and how they were contracted. 

' As to that Part of the Refolve, whereby the 
' Committee are to inform themfelves how far I do 
4 acquiefce in the Government of this Common- 

* wealth, as it is declared by this Parliament, I truft 

* my part Carriage hitherto hath manifeftcd my 

* Acquiefcence in the Will and Difpofition of God; 
4 and that I love and value the Peace of this Com- 

* monwealth much above my own Concernments : 
4 And I defire that by This a Meafure of my future 

* Deportment may be taken ; which, through the 

* Afliftance of God, (hall be fuch as mall bear the 

* fame Witnefs ; having, I hope, in fome Degree, 

* learned rather to reverence and fubmit to the Hand 

* of God, than to be unquiet under it : And, as to 
4 the late Providences that have fallen out amonglt 

* us, however, in refpeci of the particular Engage - 

* ments that lay upon me, I could not be active in 
4 making a Change in the Government of thefc Na- 
4 tions ; yet, through the Goodnefs of God, I can 
4 freely acquiefce in it, being made; and do hold 
c myfelf obliged (as, with other Men, I expe<5r, 
4 Protection from the prefent Government) fo to 

* demean myfelf with all Peaceablencfc under it, 

D d 2 4 and 

420 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. ' and to procure, to the uttermoft of my Power, 
1659. i t hat all j n w hom I have any Intereft do the fame. 


By the Schedule annexed it appeared, that, ort 

the Death of Oliver, his Father, there was due unto 

feveral Perfons 28 > oco/. which he had reduced to 

His Debts, and23,55O/. but that there had been advanced for 

the Ordeis upcnQ oat hi n g of the Soldiers, out of the Monies affign'd 

to the Family, 3700 /. and borrowed by him, upon 

his Perfonal Security, for the Supply of Dunkirk^ 

6090/. which made the Total of his Debts amount 

to 29,640 /. 

His Real Eftate, by the Schedule, appeared to 
be, after paying his Brother Henry 200 1/. lyj. yd. 
on his Marriage, his Sifter Frances I200/. his Mo- 
ther 2000/. and other Annuities, 8i8/. he had only 
remaining: I299/. I2s. ^d. which was incumber'd 
with a Debt of 3000 /. contracted by him in his Fa- 
ther's Life-time, and yet unpaid. 

The Parliament having read and confidered the 
above Paper, wherein Richard Cromwell expreffed 
his free Acquiefcence in the prefent Government 
of thefe Nations ; expecting, with other Men, Pro- 
tection from the fame; and holding himfelf obliged 
not only to demean himfelf with all Peaceablenefs 
under it, but to procure, to the utmoft of his Power, 
that all in whom he had Intereft do the fame ; they 
thereupon declared, that they accepted in good Part 
what was exprefled in the faid Paper ; and, in Te- 
ftimony thereof, put in Oblivion all Matters pafled 
in reference to Richard Cromwell, and took upon 
them his juft Debts, not exceeding the Sums con- 
tained in the above-mention'd Schedule, and thought 
it fit that he fhould retire from Whitehall^ and dif- 
pofe of himfelf as his private Occafions (hould re- 
quire, demeaning himfelf peaceably under the Pro- 
tection of the Parliament; and ordered that it be 
referred to the Committee for Infpection of the 
Treafury to confider in what Manner his Debts 


Of E N G L A N D. 421 

fhould be paid : They alfo refolved that 2000 /. be Inter-repnim. 
forthwith advanced for his prefent Occafion; and ^J " 
that it be referred to a Committee to confider what ^ay. 
was fit to be done as to a Settlement of a comfort- 
able and honourable Subfiflence upon him. 

May 26. Several Petitions, from Counties, were 
prefented to the Houfe j which, by the Anfwers to 
them, are fuppofed to be no more than Addrefles of 
Recognition of the Parliament's Sovereignty, and 
fuch, mutatis mutandis, as were carried to Richard 
but a few Months before. 

The Houfe had been alfo about a Bill for Com- 
miflioners for ordering and managing the Affairs of 
the Admiralty and Navy ; and this Day a Queftion 
was put, That the whole Number of them, nine, 
be Members of that Houfe : On a Divilion, it 
parted in the Negative, 32 againft 23. So it was 
agreed, That fix of thefe Commiffioners fhould be 
Members, and the reft not. Commiffioners for le- 
vying and bringing in the Arrears of the Cufloms, 
Excife, and Prize-Goods, were alfo appointed. 

Mayij. This was their Faft-Day; when, be- 
fules praying and preaching in the Houfe, there was 
little elfe of Moment done upon it. The Minifters 
had Thanks returned them for their great Pains- 
taking, cffc. 

This Month concluded without doing any more 
Bufinefs of Confequence ; except on the three 
laft Days of it, when the Houfe went into a grand 
Committee on the remaining Articles of the Army's 
Petition and Addrefs, and on the Bill of Indemnity 
and Oblivion, without coming to any Refolution 
about them. 

It was alfo ordered, That Mr. Speaker do, 
every Morning, conftantly take the Chair by Eight 
of the Clock ; and that the Council of State and 
Committee of this Houfe do forbear to fit in Coun- 
cil after Eight, and do then give their Attendancp 
on the Service of this Houfe. That the Houfe do 
D d 3 rife 

422 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regmim. rife every Day at Twelve of the Clock ; no Motion 
to be made after that Time j but the Speaker was 
hereby enjoined to rife.' 

As all thefe laft Affairs fufficiently explain them- 
felves, there needs lefs connective Hiftory to do it 
after them, fome Matters relating to foreign Tranf- 
acYtons excepted. In the preceding Pages there is 
an Account that a Dutch Ambaflador had had Au- 
dience of the Parliament;, between whom and the 
Council of State a Treaty was fet on Foot to main- 
tain a good Correfpondence between the two Com- 
monwealths, in order that their different Fleets, now 
fent up into the Sound, might, by their Interpofition, 
make an Agreement between the two Kings of 
Denmark and Sweden upon equitable Terms, or elfe 
to impofe them upon the Refuier. This, Mr. Ludlow 
writes, they were in hopes to accompliih, the ra- 
ther, becaufe neither the Dutch nor they pretended 
to any more than a Freedom of pafling and repafling 
the Sound ; which could not well be, if the Com- 
mand of it was folely in the Hands of either of thofo 

The Englljh Fleet was large and well provided, 
and the Command of it given to Admiral Montague. 
It was fitted and fent out under Richard's Govern- 
ment ; but the Parliament had difpatched a Meflen- 
jrer to acquaint the Admiral and the reft of the Of- 
ficers with the DifTolution of the former, and the 
Reftitution of the Parliament. Upon which the 
Officers aflembled, and fent an Acknowledgment 
of their Authority, with all poflible Demonftration 
of Satisfaction. Notwithftanding this, we find they 
equipped another fmaller Fleet, under Pretence of 
preventing an Invafion from Flanders, from the 
Cavalier Party, and gave the Command of it to 
Law/on, as Vice-Admiral ; but it was, in Reality, 
to be a Check to Montague, and his Party in the 
Fleet ; who, LudLow fays, they all knew was no 
Friend to the Commonwealth. This Mark of Jea- 
loufy, and another, which the faid Author elfe where 
hints at, on General Monke, where he ftiles him 
* of an ambitious and covetoMs Temper j of Joofe 7 

Of E N G L A N D. 423 

or rather no Principles, and of a vicious and fcan* 
dalous Convcrfation,' plainly (hew, that the Parlia- 
ment had fet a Stamp on thofe two Perfons at this 
Time, who proved fuch Inftruments, afterwards, in 
the King's Reiteration. 

It will not be amifs to give the Reader a Lift of 
the whole Navy of England in thofe Days, the 
Names of the Ships and Captains, with the Number 
of their Men and Guns, in order to compare, if he 
pleafes, with the State of the Navy in our own Time ; 
confidering this, that the Nation was then at Peace 
with all the World, except a flight War with Spain. 

Katet. Ship*. 
I Nareby, 


Roger Guttance, 


Gu A Lift of the 


Vice- Admiral Godfon, 


64 at this Time. 

2 London, 

Sir Richard Stayner, 




Edward Blague, 




Robert Clarke, 




Anthony Young, 



3 Speaker, 

Euftus Smith, 


5 s 


William Whithorn, 




Eward Whithidge, 




Robert Blake, 




John Harman, 


5 2 


Anthony Haning, 




Thomas Tindeman, 




Robert Nixon, 




John Lambert, 




Charles Wager, 




John Haward, 



4 Leopard, 

James Pool, 

1 80 



Edmond Cuftis, 

1 80 



Jofeph Amos, 

1 80 


Ruby, _ 

Robert Kerby, 




Francis Parkes, 




Robert Rabinfon, 




Robert Suntum, 



Robert Blumleigh, 

1 60 



Thomas Sparling, 




John Simond, 




Francis Allen, 

1 60 



Barnard Gilpone, 

1 60 



John Groneditch, 




Philip Holland, 




William Tutwcll, 





424 *be Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnter.regnum. & Shift. Csmmandert. Men. 

Great Charity, . Keether, 1 70 40 

Maidftone, Thomas Pencote, 160 36 

Elias, MarkHunfon, 150 38 

Expedition, Edmond Thompfon, 130 38 

5 Tagons Richard Parked 120 22 

Torcefter, Anthony Archer, 110 29 

Bradford, Peter Bowen, no 28 

Succefc, Thomas Floor, 140 34. 

June. Some of the firft Days of this Month feem 
to have been almoft wholly taken up in debating a 
Bill, then before them, for an Act of Indemnity 
and Oblivion j but no Refolution yet made upon it. 
Two Plenipotentiaries J were appointed, and full 
Power given them to treat about, and conclude, a 
Peace between the two Northern Kings. The 
Cuftody of the Great Seal was given to the Serjeants 
Bradjkaw, Tyrrill, and Fountain, as Commiffioners, 
to the 20th of Qftober next ; but Eradfaw being, 
about this Time, fallen into a very ill State of 
Health, the Houfe difpenfed with his Attendance 
on the faid Office. An Act was pafled for making 
Charles Fleetwood, Efq; Lieutenant-General and 
Commander in Chief of all the Forces in England 
and Scotland. The Clerks of the Council of State 
were ordered to write out Commifuons for all the 
inferior Officers of the Army and Navy, to be fign'd 
by the Speaker, and delivered to the Colonels, &c. 
in the Houfe. Laftly, the Parliament did refolvo 
and declare, ' That the Continuance of this Parlia- 
ment {hall not exceed the 7th Day of May, 1660.' 

June 8. Another St&e of the Public Debts was 
prefented to the Houfe by Col. Dowries, from the 
Committee of Infpection, whereby it appeared that 

The public Debts There was owing to the Land 1 /. s. d. 
4ga fitted. Forces of England, Scotland, and 600944 1 6 6 
Ireland^ to the 20th of June, 1659 j 
And to the Navy, to the 28th ) / , 

/ i r t DQ 2.0.O.O O O 

1659, incluuve 5 ' 


d Col. Algernon Sydney, and Col. Edward Montague. 

Of E N G L A N D, 425 

That the growing Charge to 1 /. t. d. Inter 

the ift of December, 1659, for V 447236 12 8 
the Land Forces, amounted to 3 

AndfortheNavy,tothefamel 6 6 
Time 5 ' 1 

Making in all 2348466 9 2 

1641973 19 


whereof the moft that can be 
expected out of the Exciie and 
Cuftoms, eftimated by fix > 706492 9 Il| 
Months, ended the 28th of May 
laft, and the Arrears thereof, 
\vill not exceed the Sum of 

So there will require to ba- " 
lance, befides the Charge of 
Ships lately relolv'd by the Par- 
liament to be let forth < 

Ready Csfh, there is none 

So that, admitting there be,^ 
according to the prefent Order j 
of the Houfe, railed, by way of V 60000O O O 
Afleflment, upon the Three | 
Nations, the Sum of J 

There will yet reft to be pro- \ , * A 
vided the Sum of f lo6 ^ 9 "I 

Towards the raifmg which there was no Way in 
View to the Committee, but the Arrears of Prize 
Goods j Sale of fuch Forefts as are not already en- 
gaged; Sale of the Remainder of Lands and Eftates 
forfeited to the Commonwealth for Treaibn, and 
of the Monies which might come in upon Difco- 
veries, fome whereof were already offered, viz. a 
Duty, or Rent Charge, called Procurations and 
Synodals, formerly payable by Minifters to Arch- 
deacons ; Monies fuggefted to be due to the Com- 
monwealth by the Sale of Lands formerly conveyed 
to Sir Allen Apfley by the late King; fome Advan- 
tage pretended to the Commonwealth, by difcover- 
ing Pcrfons who have embezxled Prize Goods ; 
and Eiiatcs of Delinquents, for which Savings were 


426 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

later-regnum. granted, and which were not compounded for : 
1659. Which Ways, or fome of them, though they might 
y tf -J j n Time produce Monies, yet there could be no 
June, Expectation from them of a timely Supply for ac- 
commodating thefe preffing Occafions of the Com- 
monwealth; and as it did not appear to the Com- 
mittee that the Public Revenues of the Three Na- 
tions, befides Cuftoms, Excife, and Aflefiments, 
could produce above 150,0007. for the current 
Year, it was therefore offered to the Confideration 
of the Houfe, by what other Ways Monies might be 

The fame Day, according to former Order, the 
Speaker began to deliver out Commiffions to the 
Officers of the Army and Navy ; and a long Lift of 
Officers Names next follows, which muft needs be 
fo, when they are all mentioned, either on this or 
the fucceeding Days, from a Lieutenant- General 
and Vice-Admiral, to the loweft Commiffion Offi- 
cer in the Land or Sea Service. This Precaution, 
we are told, they took, as well to make thefe Offi- 
cers own who were their Mafters, as to fecure them 
the more to their Interefts, by giving away all thefe 
Commiffions gratis, not fo much as taking any 
thing for the Tranfcripts of them. 

It was almoft the whole Bufmefs of the Houfe for 
fome Days following, to give out thefe Commif- 
fions ; but in the midft of them a Letter from Gen. 
Another Letter Monke was read in the Houfe. The Letter itfelf, 
from .General ^^ b e j n g entered in the Journals^ we know not the 
Purport of; but by the Anfwer to it, which is 
there, we imagine it was to know what they were 
then doing witti the Southern Army, for it was in 
thefe Words ; 

SIR, Weftminjieri June 10, 1659. 

* "W" OUR Letter was read in Parliament : It is 
' j[ true, the Parliament have under their Cou- 
e fideration the Officers of the Armies, it being of 
' high Concernment for the Settlement of the Na- 

* tions, to truft fuch as they are aifured will be truly 

* and 

Of E N G L A N D. 427 

and really faithful to the Parliament and Com- inter-regnum. 

monwealth. There hath been, in thefe late 

Changes, great Difcoveries of Men ; and perad- 

venture fuch Things are known to the Parlia- 

ment, that are not fo to yourfelf. The Parliament 

hath commanded me to acquaint you, That they 

look upon yourlclf as their faithful Servant, and 

lhall not forget your Fidelity : And be aflurcd I am, 

Sir, Tour affectionate Friend^ 


We (hall leave this fecming artful Letter to the 
Reader's own Comment, and proceed. The Jour- 
ua/s are now ftuff'd full of Officers Names, and lit- 
tle or nothing elfe in them, except mere Petitions 
or Addrefles, from different Places, with the Anfwers 
to them from the Houfe. Judges were appointed 
to go the different Circuits ; the Council of State 
were ordered to nominate fuch Perfons, in different 
Counties, as were fit for Juftices of the Peace, and 
then to apply to the Commiflioners of the Great 
Seal for their Commiffions. Some Embafladors and 
Envoys from foreign States had alfo Audience ; 
which was all the Bufmefs of this Parliament, till 

June 1 8. When the Bill for laying an Affeff- 
ment or Tax upon the whole Nation, was read a 
third Time, and pafled ; immediately upon which a 
a Committee was appointed to confider how, upon 
the Credit of this Bill, or any other Way, Money 
might be borrowed towards the prefent Pay of the 
Soldiery, and to treat with fome monied Men of 
the City, or elfewhere, for that Purpofe. Other 
Ways and Means were propofed j as, ordering their 
Commiffioners and Collectors of divers Duties to 
pay in their Arrears fpeedily ; enforcing an old At 
for the Sale of the Caftles, Houfes, Parks, Lands, and 
Hereditaments, belonging to the late King, Queen, 
or Prince, which, tho' exempted from Sale by a 
later Ac~t, were now all ordered to be difpofed of, 
and the Profits arifing; from the fame to be refer-- 
yed for the Ufe of the Commonwealth. 


428 'The Parliamentary HISTORV 

Inter-regmim. There appears to be a very great Want of Ma- 
l6 59' ney at this Time j for this Day, June 20, Sir Ar- 
*- v J ibur Hafilrlgge reported from the Council of State, 
June. < That they found the Commonwealth likely to be 
greatly inconvenienced for want of Monies, the 
Neceffities both of the Army and Navy being very 
great, and the Weekly Income bearing no Propor- 
tion to the conftant Charge : That there was not 
Money in the public Receipt of the Exchequer, fuf- 
cient to anfwer the Charge of fending the Plenipo- 
tentiaries to the&>zW,notwithftanding great Arrears 
are in the Hands of particular Perfons, due to the 
Government; therefore they defired the Parliament 
would pleafe to take into their Confideration the 
fpeedy bringing in of all Monies due, and give fuch 
Orders therein as may be effectual.' 

Upon this Remcnftrance from the Council, the 
Parliament refolved, ' That five Commiflioners be 
appointed to manage the whole Revenue of the 
Commonwealth, and to take Care the fame be duly 
brought in, and to give Allowances as they fhould 
fee Caufe. Four of thefe Commiflioners to be Per- 
fons out of the Houfe, and one within. Laftly, 
That it (hould be referred to the Council of State 
to draw up Inductions for thefe Commiflioners, for 
managing the Revenue ; to confider of their Sala- 
ries, and to report all thefe to the Houfe.' 

This is all we can pick out of the Journals rela- 
tive to the more public Tranfaclions of this Month. 
The Bill of Indemnity was flill on the Anvil ; but 
it took a great deal of hammering Work before it 
could be brought to Perfection. Litdhw write?, 
* That divers warm Motions were made for except- 
ing fome Perfons from the Benefit of it, who had 
gotten great Eftates by their Compliance with the 
Ufurpation of Oliver Cromwell, and abetting the 
Advancement of his Son : Likewife to except thofe 
who had fold Places, and got the Money for them. 
So that tho' the Houfe was as defirous to difpatch 
this Bill as their Affairs would permit, yet the ne- 
ceflary Time fpent in the Debate and Confideration 


Of E N G L A N D. 429 

of all thefe Particulars, was made ufe of to inccnfe inter-regnctn. 
the Army againft the Parliament. 6 59- 

July i. This Month begins with the Bill of In- Juli '* 
demnity again, which was debated, in a grand 
Committee, on the firft Day of it ; but no Refolu- 
tion come to, but defiring Leave to fit again. They 
went on alfo with delivering out Commiffions as 
ufual ; the Plenipotentiaries for the Northern Courts 
were alfo difpatched with their Letters of Credence ; 
and William Lockhnrty Efq; Governor of Dunkirk y 
was made Agent, by the Parliament, to the Court 
of France* 

July 4. Sir Arthur Hafilrigge^ from the Council 
of State, reported the humble Opinion of that 
Council, ' That the Parliament would be pleafed* 
by their Order, to exempt and fecure the eldeft Son 
of the late Lord-General Cromwell, for the Space of 
fix Months, from all Arrefls from any Debts; to 
the end fomeCourfe might, in the mean Time, be 
fettled concerning the Payment of the faid Debts, 
according to a Declaration of Parliament.' Which 
was agreed to, and an Order made accordingly. 

A Queftion being put, That it fhould be referred 
to a Committee, to confider what was due for 
Mourning for the late Lord General Cromwell - 9 
and how the fame might be paid, without Prejudice 
er Charge to the Commonwealth, the Houfe di- 
vided into Noes 19, and Yeas 36 j fo a Committee 
was appointed for that Purpofe. 

Lieutenant-General Flettwood acquainted the 
Houfe, That Col. Henry Cromwell wa in Town, 
and attended to give them an Account of the Ma- 
nagement of Affairs in Ireland. Hereupon it was 
ordered, < That it fhould be referred to the Council 
of State to hear Col. Henry Cromwelfs Relation as 
touching the Management of the faid Affairs ; and 
to do therein as they fhould think fit.' By the fame 
Order, Col. Henry Cromwell had Liberty given him 
to retire himfelf into the Country, where he (hould 
think proper, on his own Occaflons ; and he went 


430 The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. into Cambridgejhire z , (probably to Huntingdon, 
I<5 59- the Place where his Father was born) for that Pur- 

i- "T^P* J pk* 

Here is fuch an Inftance of a fudden Fall, of z\- 
moft as fuddenly raifed Greatnefs, as fcarce ever was 
heard or read of before. Oliver, that Tyrant of 
this Nation, and Bully to all the reft, was no fooner 
dead, than his very Funeral Expences were difputed 
the Payment of; and, indeed, never were paid. His 
eldeft Son Richard outed of his Prote6lorfhip, and 
forced to have an Order of Parliament to fecure 
him from Arrefts ; his youngeft Son Henry recalled 
from his Lieutenancy in Ireland, difmifs'd, and fent 
to wander where he pleafed ; and all this in lefs than 
a Twelvemonth's Time. 

July 5. The Houfe read a third Time a Bill for 
fettling the Militia of London. The Sale of Hamp- 
ton-Court was fufpended till further Order; and 
Ludloiv tells us, that Somerfet- Houfe was actually 
fold for io,000/. but we find, by the Journals, the 
Chapel there was ordered to be kept for the Ufe of 
the French Proteftants. Whitehall was not yet dif- 
pofed of; but ordered to be fitted up for the Recep- 
tion of the feveral Committees of Parliament, &c. 
The Site of it was valued at 60,000 /. for building 

July 7. The Houfe refolved, That, for eight 
Days then next enfuing, no Bufmefs fhould be 
meddled with but the A<5t of Indemnity, fettling 

Militia's, and raifing Monies. A Bill pak'd for 

appointing Commifftoners for managing the Affairs 
of Ireland ; and a Queftion being put, That Lieu- 
tenant-General Ludlow be one of thefe Commiffion- 
ers ; it palled in the Negative, 26 againft 22. a 

July 8. On this Day, according to Order, the. 
Amendments to the Bill of Indemnity were report- 
ed -, 

* Mercurius Politicus, July, 1659. 

a This Vote too much concerning Mr, Lt/J/tv?, he paffes it over 
in Silence in his Mwnoirs, 

Of E N G L A N D. 431 

ed ; and, after much Debate on fcveral Claufes and inter-refuum. 
Provifoes being offered, the Bill, as amended, was l6 59- 
ordered to be engroffed. * 

July 9. The Houfe began with fending out the 
Judges with Commiffions and Inftru&ions to keep 
the Summer Affixes in different Counties : And 
then proceeded with delivering out Commiflions 
to Officers, as before ; and this Day they ordered, 
That their own Life-Guard, which they had ever 
fince they fat, (hould be reduced to one Troop 
of 1 20 Horfe, at 3*. per Diem each Man, over 
whom proper Officers were then appointed. 
Lieutenant-Gcneral Ludlow received his Commif- 
fion as Commander in Chief over all the Forces 
in Ireland ; and when he had put the Affairs there 
in good Order, Leave was given him to come back 
to England, and fettle his private Concerns at 

This Gentleman, in his Memoirs, acquaints us 
with this Preferment ; and, on his preparing for his 
Journey to Ireland, he gives an Account of his ta- 
king Leave of his Friends here, which is too remak- 
able to be omitted, and we {hall infert it in his own 
Words : 

' And now I began to think it Time to haften 
my Journey to Ireland, where my Station was af- 
ftgned to me for fome Time ; and, in order to my 
Departure, I received four Commiffions from the 
Hands of the Speaker, as the Parliament had di- 
rected. By the firft I was appointed Commander 
in Chief of all the Forces in Ireland ; the fecond 
was for a Regiment of Horfe ; the third was for a 
Regiment of Foot j and by the fourth I was made 
Lieutenant -General of the Horfe: Which laft 
Commiffion being read before the Committee or' 
Nominations by Sir Arthur Hafilrigge^ who, in this 
whole Affair of regulating the Army, had ferved the 
Parliament for Secretary without any Salary, Col. 
Defborough defired that it might be explained how 
far it fhould extend, fufpe&ing that it might intrench 


432 The Parliamentary His TORY 

Iatsr-:-nuin. upon the Command of the Horfe in England and 
* 6 39- Scotland, which fome thought he ddigned for him- 
But Sir Arthur Hajilrigge declined to give 
him any other Anfwer, than that it was well enough. 
In this Commiffion a Claufe was inferted, which 
had been omitted in the other three, becaufe not 
thought of before, requiring me to obey not only 
fuch Orders as I ftioul J receive from the Parliament 
and Council of State, but alfo all fuch as fhould be 
fignified to me, from Time to Time, from the 
Commiffioners of the Parliament for the Affairs of 
Ireland. This I was fo far from difliking, that I 
procured another Order to be made, that the Pay of 
the Army fhould be iflued out by the Commiffion- 
ers ; and that no Money, except only for Contin- 
gencies, fhould be iflued out by the Commander in 

' Having prepared myfelf for my Journey, I 
took Leave of the principal Officers of the Army ; 
and, on that Occafion, moft earneftly requefted of 
Lieutenant -General Fleetwood^ Major -General 
Lambert, Col. Defborougb, Col. Sydenbam^ Col. 
Bury, and others, that, as they valued the Good of 
the Public and their own Safety, they would be care- 
ful not to violate the Authority of the Parliament ; 
who I perfuaded myfelf were more ready to do any 
thing that might tend to the Prefervation of our 
Liberties, than we were to afk it : And, at my part- 
ing with Sir Arthur Hafilrigge, Sir Henry Vans, Mr, 
Henry Nevill^ Mr. Scott , Major Sahuay, and the 
reft of my good Friends that were Members of the 
Parliament, I took the Liberty to beg of them not 
to put any unneceflary Hardfhips upon thole of the 
Army; but rather to' gratify them in whatfoever they 
could ; that if, after all the Condefcenfions and Fa- 
vours of the Parliament to them, they fhould be fo 
unjuft and ungrateful as to ofter Violence to the 
Houfe, they might be left inexcufable in the Sight 
of God and Men/ 

We (hall take Leave of Mr. Ludlow* till his Re- 
turn from Irtland) with gbferving, That this frric"t 


O/ ENGLAND. 433 

Commonweahh's-Man did not act without Self- Jnter-itgnum. 
Interefr, or ferve the State without any lucrative 
Views to himfelf, as he would have us to believe 
by many Hints in his Memoirs ; lince, on his going 
away this Time, he received from the Hands of the 
Speaker, in the Houfe, a Commiflion to be Lieute- 
nant-General ofHorfe, and Commander in Chief 
of the Forces, raifed and to be raifed, in Ireland ; a 
Commiflion to be Colonel of a Regiment of Foot, 
and Captain of a Company of Foot in the faid Regi- 
ment ; and alfo another Commiffion to be Colonel 
of a Regiment of Horfe, and Captain of a Troop of 
Horfe in the fame Regiment, the Pay of all which 
muft amount to a very great Sum. But to proceed : 

The nth and I2th Days of this Month were The Bill of in. 
wholly taken up in debating'the Indemnity Bill, and dcmnit > P affed * 
Abundance of Provilbes were offered to it, fome of 
which were taken, and others, on the Queftion, re- 
jected. Till, on the latter of thefe Days, the Bill, 
fo amended, being read a third Time, and put to 
the Queftion, palled, and was ordered to be printed 
and publifhed. 

It is Pity we have no Copy of this extraordinary 
Act of Grace left us, which took fo much dreffing 
up, and bringing to Perfection. We prefume it was 
tofs'd up and chang'd like a French Difh, till no 
one could tell what to make of it ; the Heads of the 
numerous Provifoes in the Journals, offered and 
added, importing no lefs. By one of thefe Provi- 
foes, which was taken into the Bill, all the Royal 
Party were entirely cut out from making any Benefit 
of it : For, by this, it was enacted, ' That no Per- 
fon, who fhould claim or demand Benefit of In- 
demnity, or Pardon, by Virtue of this Act, be ad- 
mitted thereto, untill it appear to fuch Perfon or 
Perfons, before whom fuch Claim or Demand is 
made, that the faid Perfon, fo claiming, hath made 
and fubfcribed,or (hall then fubfcribe, this Declara- 
tion following : 

/ do declare, That, thro' the Jjjijlance of Almighty 
God, I will be true, faithful, and coajlant to this 

VOL. XXr. E c Com- 

434 tt* Farfjatnenfary HISTORY 

Jnter-regnum, Commonwealth , "without a Single Perfon^ King/lAp, or 
l6 59- Houfe of Peers. 

After the fini&ing of this laft tedious.Affair, there 
is little to be pick'd out of the Journals^ except their 
going upon Bills for fettling Militias in divers Places ; 
giving Audience to ;ui Ainb.afiador from the Queen 
of Portugal; authorizing the Council to take up 
fome njfpicious Perfons , and ifluing out a Procla- 
mation, prohibiting all Horfe-Races, Cock-Matches, 
Bull-Baitings, Out-Hui lings, public Wreftjings, and 
other Meetings yf fuch like Nature, till the ift of 
Ofiober next. 

The Parliament had appointed a Committee to 
inquire into the State of Richard Cromwell, to whom 
they yet paid fome Regard ; for we find, by the 
"Journals of this Day, July 16, that Colonel Jones 
reported from the Committee appointed to confider 
what was fit to be done for the Settlement of a 
comfortable and honourable Subfiftence for Richard 
Cromwell-^ that they were of Opinion, that the 
prefent clear yearly Revenue of Richard Cromwell, 
(which, according to the Schedule prefented to Par- 
liament, amounts to I2Q9/. 12 s. ^.d. over and 
above the Jointure and Annuities mentioned in the 
faid Schedule) be made up unto him 10,000 /. per 
Ann. during his Life : And, in order thereto, that the 
Sum of 8700 /. per Ann. be fettled upon the faid 
Richard Cromwell during his Life, to be iffued and 
paid to him monthly, by equal Portions, out of the 
Revenue of the Letter or Packet-Office ; and that 
the whole Revenue of the faid Office be charged 
with the Payment thereof: That Lands of Inherit- 
ance, of the Value of 5000 /. per Ann. of the Lands 
in the Difpofal of the Commonwealth of England 
and Ireland^ be fettled upon the faid Richard and 
his Heirs, in Fee : That when the faid Richard 
(hall be in actual PofTeffion of the faid Lands of 
Inheritance, that then the Sum of 5000 /. per Ann. 
Part of the forefaid 8700 /. per Ann. charged on the 
Packet -Office a* afereftid, be abated, and the faid 


Of E N G L A N D. 435 

Office discharged thereof for the future ; That the 
firft monthly Payment be made unto the faid Richard 
upon the 6dl Day of "June* 1659, commencing 
from the 6th Day of May latt ; and that the faid 
monthly Payments continue to be made every 6th 
Day of every Month for the future : That as the 
Jointures and Annuities in the forefaid Schedule 
mentioned fliaJl abate, by the Deceafc of any of fh 
refpeclive Perfons to whom the fame are refpec- 
tively payable, whereby the Income of the faid 
Richard Cromwell fhall be increaf<*d, the (ai<J yearly 
Charge of 8/OO/. be proportionably abated. 

Then it was refolvcd, That the Debt {rated > 
end undertaken to be paid by the Parliament for 
Richard Cromwell, be 29,640 /. which was ordered 
to be fatisfied by the Sale of the Plate, Hangings* 
Goods, and Furniture in Whitebait and Hawptottr 
Court, belonging to the State, which (as the jour- 
nals fay) may be conveniently 1 pared ; and the 
Committee were ordered to examine what Goods 
in. Whitehall, Hampton-Court , &c. belonged to tlje 
State, and what were bought with the State's Mp- 
ney ; and that they bring iui aa A& for the Sale o/ 
the faid Plate, &c. in Whitehall and Hampton-Court : 
And Lt was .referred to the faid Committee to take 
a true Survey, of the Manors and Lands of the faid 
Richard Cromwell $ and to report the true Valye 
thereof, together with the Act for the Sale of tte 
Plate and Goods on Tburfday Mprning next.' 

Then it was alib refolvcd, * That the faid Ri- 
chard Cromwell be abfoJutely difcharged from the 
Payment of the faid Debt of 29,640 /. and frora-aji 
Adions, Suits, or Demands on account thereof j 
and that the State will fatisfy the Perfons to 
the fame is due.'- 

About this Time we find, by the Entr^s i 
'Journal*, that the Parliament began to be alarmed 
with the breaking out of fome Plot, or an Infurrec- 
tion. The rft Notice given of it is the Hint before- 
mentioned, That the pouncil of State bad uken up 
e 2 fomc 

1 '' 

The public Re 
venue ftated. 

436 The Parliamentary HISTORY?- 

fome fufpecled Perfons ; which the Parliament ap- 
proved of. Next, we find Orders were given to 
raife fix Troops of Horfe within the City of London ; 
and a Notification made to the Citizens, That the 
Parliament expected the Magiftrates and other good 
People of the City would give all Encouragement 
and Furtherance to what might conduce to the 
Safety and Good of this Commonwealth, in this 
Time of imminent Danger. 

But we hear no more of this Plot for fome Time ; 
in the mean while the Journals are filled with no- 
thing but the Names of Officers of the Army and 
Militia, who received their Commiifions from the 
Parliament. The famous Prefident Bradjhaw was 
fo well recovered of his late Illnefs as to appear in 
the Houfe, take the Oath appointed for a Keeper 
of the Great Seal, and accept of that Office. 

July 28. Sir Henry Vane reported, from the 
Council of State, the State of the Revenue as it 
then ftood within View, for the prefent Pay of the 
Armies and Navies of the Commonwealth, unto 
the ift of December, 1659 j which was read as fol- 
lows : 

To pay ofTthe Army in Eng- 
land^ including their Increafe of 
Numbers and their additional 
Pay, amounts to 33038 7. 9*. ^d. 
a Month, for four Months; 
which, with the two Months 
Pay already affigned to the faid 
Forces out of the twelve Months 
AflefTment, makes up fix Months 
Pay, and comes to 

The Pay of the Army in Ire- 
land for fix Months, being efti- 
mated at 256077. 19 s. 
Month, amounts to 

The Pay of the Army in Scot- 
land for fix Months, at 20818 7. 
i.s. 2ef. the Month, amounts to 


198230 i 6 o 

fre- 1 



124912 5 o 


Of ENGLAND. 437 

Remains to be applied to the ~l 

v will balance this > 503941 18 10 

Navy, which 


980732 15 10 

The Monies for the Navies will thus arife : 
Out of the Afiefiments upon 

By growing Cuftoms, if conti- 1 
nued till the firft of December V 130000 
next, eftimated at 3 

By the growing Excifc in Eng- ^ 
land, if continued till the firft of 205964 
next, eftimated at 3 


o o 

o o 

The net Aflcflment of Eng- 
land for twelve Months, com- 
mencing June 24, 1659 

The C'uftom for England, in 
cafe they be continued as now 
they are, (but, in cafe they expire 
the firft of Otfohr, then there 
muft be a proportionable Defal- 
cation to be confider'd) eftimated 

The Excife for England, in 
cafe it be continued as now com- 
puted at, to the firft of Decem- 
ber ; but, if it expire the firft 
of Ofiober, then there muft be a 
proportionable Defalcation to be 

The twelve Months AflefT- 
ment for Ireland, at 9000 /. a 
Month, commencing June 24, i 
1659 J 

The Excifc and Cuftoms for J 
Ireland, if continued till the firft V 28000 
of December 3 

E c 3 


1 8- 10 


15 10 

> I 30000 

o o 


o o 


108000 o o 



438 ffie Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jnt?r-reghum. The twelve Months for Scot- 1 

1659- land) at 6ooo/. a Month, com- > 72000 o o 
*~-~v~~*J mencing June 24, 1659 3 

W* The Excife and Cuftoms forl 

Scotland, if continued till the firft 1 2 - 000 o o 
of December, 1659 ; otherwife a > -> 
proportionable Defalcation muft I 
be had j 

980732 15 10 

Memorandum, That neither the Revenue, which 
comes into the Exchequer by Delinquents and 
Papifts Eftates, by Pott-Fines, Port-Office, 
Wine-Licences, Sheriffs Aecompts, and other- 
ways ; the Arrears of Farms of Excife, the 
Monies arifmg by Sale of Somerfet-Houfe, and 
other Lands, are not included in this Ac- 
compt ; but are to be confidered towards the 
Council's Contingencies, Dunkirk, the Payment 
of thofe Warrants which are charged upon the 
Farmers of Excife of Beer and Ale, and upon 
the new Buildings, and are not yet fatisfied, 
the Militia Troops, and foreign Negotiations. 

He alfo reported an Eftimate of trie Arrears of 
the Army and Navy to the ift of December ', 16593 
which was read as follows : 

There is due in Arrear to the"} 
Treafurers at War, of the Mo- J 
ney charged by Warrants on the )> 52747 16 
Farms of Excife and new Build- 
ings, the Sum of 

The Pay of the Army in Eng-~ 
land, including their additional 
Pay and Increafe of Numbers, 
over and above the Sum of 

1886317. 5*. id. required to 

6 8 

pay them up to the i8th of July^ \ 
jr. 659, will, for five Months', '[ 
ending the 5th of December, \ 
1659, amount to, j 

Of ENGLAND. 439 

The Pay of the Army 

over and above the Sum 
166549 /. 13 s. Afd. being ei 
Months Arrtar unto the iBth'of \ 

m Scct-^\ 

Sum of 

r, 1 659, will, for five Months, 
to wit, from the faid iBth of 
July to the 5th of December, 
1659, amount to 

The Pay of the Army in Ire- 
land, over and above the Sum 
of 3329037. us. Sfd. beirrg 
thirteen Months Arrears, efti- 
mated to the 1 8th of July, 1659, 
will, for five Months, to wit, 
from the faid i8th of July to the 
5th of December, 1659, amount 

The Debts of the Navy, to 
the ift of July Inft. eftimated at 

The growing Charge of the 
Navy, if continued to the Force 
and Number of Shipping they 
now are, untill the ift of Decem- 
ber next, eftimated at 

104093 10 10 



>i28o39 16 8 

703703 1 6 9 

^549490 o o 

1703267 7 6[- 

Allowed for the Pay of the 
Forces in England, out of the 
twelve Months Afleflment in ^198230 16 Q 
England, commencing July 24, " 

Allowed for the Pay of the 
Forces in Ireland, viz. 

Their own Af 


feflments ofEng- C ^7647 16 O 

Out of the 
Cuftoms and Ex- v 28000 O O 
cife for Ireland j 

In all, the Sum of ......... > 153647 16 o 



44O The Parliamentary HISTORY 

Inter-regnum. Allowed for the Pay of the 
* 5 J Forces in Scotland^ viz. 

Out of the Af- l 

feflhients in - [-27912 5 o 
/*</ } 

The Cuftoms ~\ 

and Excife in 25000 o o 
Scotland J 

In all, the Sum of - . 124912 5 o 

Allowed to the Navy, out of 1 
the twelve Months Afleflment > 167977 18 10 
upon' England 3 

^J edoutoftheCuftomsof l I3 oooo o o 
'^ 1-5964 ^ 
980732 15 10 

Remains to balance this Ac- 7 , $ , 

compt, and to be provided $?- 

Thenjt was refolved, c That it be referred to the 
Council of State to take Care how the Affairs of the 
Armies, Navy, Incidents, and Contingencies may 
be equally diftributed out of the Monies already in 
Arrear, fo as may beft confift with the Public 
Service ;' and it was referred to the Council of State 
to confider of the foregoing Eftimate j and what 
they find wanting therein of the Debts owing by 
the Commonwealth to ^he Army and Navy, or 
othervvife, and prefent the fame to the Parliament 
the next Morning j when the Debate was ordered 
to be taken up. 

On the laft Days of this Month we have fome 
further Intimation of the Plot, by fome Perfons of 
Diftinction being apprehended, and others fought 
after. A Proclamation was publifhed againft John 
Mordaunt, Efq; Spri to the late arl of Peterborough, 


O/ ENGLAND. 441 

fummoning him to render himfclf to Parliament, 
Major SaJwav reported to the Houfe, from the 
Council of State, That they had received Inform a-- 
tion of a Rifmg in Herefordjbire^ and of fome Per- 
ibns being taken Prifoners there. By other Intel- 
ligence, alfo, the Council had caufed Lady Mary 
Howard^ Daughter to the Earl of Berk/hire, and 
Mrs. Sumpner, to be apprehended, and had comr 
mitted them, in order to their Trial. The Houfe 
approved of the Commitment of thefe Ladies ; and 
appointed a Committee to confider how, and in 
what Manner, they might be brought to a fpeedy 
Trial ; and all the Gentlemen of the Long Robe to 
be of this Committee f . Six Troops of Dragoons 
were ordered to be forthwith raifed and mounted, 
out of the feveral Regiments of* Foot in the City of 

Augujl. This is all the Intimation the Journals 
give, as to a defigned Infurrection, which about this 
Time actually happened under Sir George Booth^ in 
Chejhire and Lancafo'ire. Little of the Affair is en- 
tered in the Journals ; it is faid, indeed, that a good 
many Letters of -Intelligence, from Gloucefter* 
Chejhr Caftle, Marpte, Hereford, &V. were com- 
municated by the Council of State to the Houfe; 
but none of their Contents are given. 

Augufl 6. This Day, alfo, Care was taken by the 
Houfe to provide Prifons for the great Number of 
Perfons which were daily brought up to Town. 
Thefe were only fufpcdred, and not acluallyengaged 
in the Affair ; but an Order was made for the Pre- 
fident of the Council of State, by Warrant under 
his own Hand and the Seal of the Council, to com- 
mit any of them, that were fo brought up, for a Fort- 
night's Time. The Houfe alfo ordered fourteen 
Regiments of Foot, confiding of 1000 Men each, 
to be forthwith raifed, as a Guard to the refpeftive 
Counties where they were to be enlirted. 


f They were never brought to any Trial : But Mr. Wbjtlockt h)s 
he did this Lady Mary UoioarA great Service in the Council, which 
Va ill requited by her and Father afterwardi. 

44 2 The Parliamentary HISTORY 
Jnter-rcgnum. Auguft 9. This Day Sir James Harrington reported^ 
from the Council of State, That it be humbly offer'd 
to the Parliament, that, by Intelligence which the 
Council received Yefterday, and by Examination* 
taken laft Night by the Lord Mayor of the City of 
London^ it doth appear, that there is aDefign carrying 
on in the City of London^ to the Difturbance of the 
Public Peace, and in Favour, as is to be fufpe&ed, 
nf the late Infurrec~lion and Rebellion in Chejbire^ and 
thofe Parts ; and, for this Purpofe, the very Time and 
Place of Riftng in this City, as alfo thg Word which 
is to be given, are agreed upon ; and, unlefs pje- 
vented, the Time is to be this Evening at Five of 
the Clock : That, as well by Letters as Meflengers 
exprefs, that are come out of Chejhire, the Council 
hath certain Information that Charles Stuart^ by the 
Name of Charles the Second, hath been proclaimed 
at WrexbaTK) a Market-Town, and other Places 
jnear Chefter ; and that many of the Cavaliers in the 
iirft War are joined with Sir George Booth in the 
late Infurre&ion ; and do already fall to their wonted 
profane Courfes of drinking Healths openly toCharles 
Stuart upon their bare Knees, and declare themfelves- 
in the Principles of the old Cavaliers, whatever 
other Difguifes for the prefent are put upon their 
Defign, to the mifguiding of many good People : 
The Council do therefore humbly offer to the Par- 
liament, that, by fome declaratory Votes of theirs 
forthwith to be publifhed, the good People of thefe 
Nations, and in the City of London^ may be unde- 
ceived, and be warned of the Danger of adhering 
unto, or abetting, the laid Infurrections, and be en- 
couraged to mew their good Affections to this Coai- 
?nonwealth in fupprefling the fame. 

4 Refolved, That Col. Randolph Egerton, Robert 
JVerden^ Sir George Booth^ and Sir Thomas Middle- 
ton^ being now in Arms againft the Parliament and 
Commonwealth, and all their Adherents and Par- 
takers, are Rebels and Traitors to this Common- 
wealth, and fhall be proceeded againft as Rebels 
and Traitors j' and a Proclamation was ordered out 
accord in dv. 

Of ENGLAND. 443 

20. To make an End of this Affair, this 
Day a MefTenger was fent by General Lambert^ to 
acquaint the Houfe with the Succefs the Lord had 
given their Forces in Cbtjhlre^ by z total Rout <Jf 
the Enemy. 

jfa/ft/' 22. The next Day rtf their Sitting, ievefal The cbejhire In 
more Letters were read in the Hdufe, particularly J""$ n j. 
one from Latr.bcrt himfelf, with a Confirmation of^ r r. f 
his Victory ; for which the Thanks of the Houfe 
were ordered to be ient him for his great Service at 
this Time. Thefe Letters arc printed in a Pam- 
phlet of thofe Times, anc^we give them from that 
Authority, s And firft Lord Lambert's Letter : 

%7jf Lord LAMBERT'* Letter to the Right Hon. 
the Speaker of the Parliament. 

SIR, Cbefltr, Juguft 21, 1659. 

' "O^' n S according to thofc Refolutinns I laft 

* X5 acquainted you with, upon our March tO- 
' wards Chejier^ we were met by two Perfons from 

* that City, who were inftrudted to offer fome Terms 
' of Surrender thereof; I iuppofe upon Fear, left 
' the Town fhould become a Prey to the Soldiers. 
' Having heard what they had to lay, 1 called togti- 
4 ther divers of the Officers, and acquainted them 

* therewith, who advifed me to this Anfwer : That 
' if they would fet open their Gates on the Morrov, 
' by Ten o' Clock, fubmitting themfelves wholly tq 
' the Parliament, and receive In fuch Forces as 

* fhould be appointed, I would engage that no Sol- 

* dier, by Violence, fhould take any thing from 

* them. And, laftly, That I would attend for their 
' Anfwer till Eight o'Clock the next Morning, with- 
' out any further Adlion. Whereupon the Enemy 

* finding themfclvej incapable to ftand upon their 
own Defence, and the City declining all further 
< AfTiftancc, thatNi^ht, inConfufion and fmall Par- 

* ties, they left the Town; and, about Ten o'Clock, 

* finding 

? LenJon, printed by Thomat Newcoatb, ovcr-ag^inft Bainard's 
Cq/l/e, in Tbaiact -firtet, 1659. 

444 %% e Parliamentary HISTORY 

Jater-Ytgnum. finding the Gates open, we march'd in with one 

^S9> ' Regiment of Foot, and two Troops of Horfe. 

v ""'" v '"""""' ' Upon my March thither, I met with two Inhabi- 

ug * tants from Liverpool, and one Mr. Brown, who 

* had formerly been in your Service ; who, upon 

* the Rout of the Enemy, got fome Well-affected 

* together, and took divers Prifoners of the routed 

* Forces, which had fled that Way. They inform 
' me that that Town hath continued very faithful to 

* your Service, and that the Governor appointed by 

* the Enemy did allure them, before-hand, That he 

* would keep that Place for your Service, and hath 

* now declared for you. Before I had this Inform a- 

* tion, I fent Major Hoarc with three Companies of 

* Foot, of Col. Hewfon's Regiment, and three 
' Troops of Horfe, to reduce that Place, whom I 

* have ordered, notwithftanding this, to proceed 
' according to his former Inftrutions ; and having 

* fecured that Place, by putting in fome of his Men, 
' to march up to a Conjunction with the reft of that 
' Regiment in Lancajhire, in cafe they ihould meet 
4 with any Oppofition there. It is the earneft De- 

* fire of thofe Perfons that the Caftle may be demo- 
' limed, which I humbly conceive may be for your 
' Service, and pray your Directions therein. I have 
' fent a Summons to Harding Caftle, which I hope 

* will be delivered. It is likevvife the Defire of fome 
' of the Well-affeaed in thefe Parts, that that Caftle 
' may be demolifhed, which I likewife fubmit to 
' your Confideration. Sir Thomas Middleton Ye- 
' fterday pafled over the Ferry at Ronckhorne^ and 
' came to this Town ; and, as I am informed, is 
' gone to Chirk Caftle. I have fent thither a Sum- 

* mons, and have accompanied it with three Troops 
' of Horfe and four Companies of Foot, under the 
' Command of Col. Bifcoe, and intend (if it pleafe 
' God to give a Bleiling to your Forces gone into 
'Lancashire) to go thither myfelf To-morrow ; I 
c doubt not but the Infurreclion in thefe Parts will 

* be wholly broken. 

4 I have no more at prefent worthy your Know- 

* led ye v and therefore {hall onlv, on their Behalf, 


Of E N G L A N D. 445 

1 define that the Forces may be fupplied with fome Inter-regnum. 
Proportion of Pay, whereof, at this Time, they 

* ftand in great Need. Sir, I (hall humbly fubfcribe 
myfelf Tour ^ ^^ 

and mojl bumble Servant, 


The Lord LAMBERT'J LETTER to tie Right Hon. 
the Lord Prfftdent of the Council of State. 

My Lord, Ckejler, Augujl 21, 1659. 

c T Take the Freedom to refer your Lordfhip to- 
' JL mine to the Parliament of the 2ift Inftant, for 

* an Account of our Proceedings with the City of 
' Chejler, which is now pofTefled by your Forces. 

* I find this City hath (hewn itfelf very malignant, 
c and thofe few Friends you have are in great Ex- 

.' peculations that you will put the Power of this 
f Place, as well Civil as Military, into fuch Hand? 
c as may be faithful to you, and a Security and Pro- 
' tection to them ; in which I humbly offer that 
' fome effectual Courfe may be fpeedily taken. If 
c there be any Thing in thefe Parts which may re- 

* quire my further Service and Attendance, I fhaJJ 
' defirc your fpeedy Commands therein, which fliall 
c be moft readily obferved by 

My Lord, 
Your Lord/hip's mojl fmtlfnl 

bumlle Servant, 

The Governor of Shrewfbury'x Letter to the Right 
Hon. the Lord Prefident of the Council of State. 

Shrew/bury, Aug. 21, 16^9, 
Right Honourable, Ten at Night. 

c "^T fooner was the Poft gone hence Yefter- 

* J. i| day, but a Party of my Troop returned 

* from my Lord Lambert, who went to convoy him 

' fome 

446 he Parliamentary HISTORY 

e fojjie Money from this Town, and were prefeht 
< j n t h e jrjght about Northwicb, and gave me Affu- 

* rance t ' !iat ni 7 Lord had difpatched away an Ex- 

* prefs to your Honour, with an Account of that 
* Affair, to which I humbly refer your Honour. 

* Juft now the Meffenger, that I fent your Letter 
6 by, directed to Coi. Croxtm, this Day Fortnight, 

* returned back, who came forth of Chefter laft 

* Night at Ten of the Clock j and before he left the 

* City, Sir Thomas Middieton^ the Lord Kilmorreyy 

* with other Gentlemen, with five Colours of Horfe, 

* made no fmall Hafte to Chirk Caftle from Chejier. 

* The Foot that were in the Town mutinied, threw 

* open the Gates, tore their Colours, and Sir George 

* Booth fled out of the North Gate ; they only kept 
a flight Guard at the Gates, being drawn from 
' the other Guards in Confuflon, and left them in 

* the Caftle to their pwn Liberty. He aflures me, 

* when he came from thence, the Enemy were re- 
6 folved to fhift for themfelves j I held it my Duty 
c to haften this Account. I have fent the Horfe 1 

* from this Garrifon, flnce Yefterday Noon, who arc 

* not yet returned. By the Letter I received from. 
6 my Lord Lambert this Day, for Cover to one, 
' which I difpatched from him to Col. Zankey, I 

* was given to know, That he had divided his Army, 

* and intended to march -one Part towards 

6 the other for Warrington. Juft now at Writing, 

* a Boy of this Town, now fled home, confefleth, 

* he was under one Capt. Shenton^ who difmifs'd 
' his Company laft Night at Cbefter^ and bad them. 
6 fhift for themfelves. I crave your Favour for my 

* rude Lines, remaining engaged to ferve you.' 


Soon after Chefter and Liverpool, and fome other 
places the Infurgen^s had taken, were delivered up 
to the Parliament; Lambert had iopo/. oidered 
to buy him a Jewel ; and thus this Attempt was 
qua(h'd, the Parliament being rendered more flrong 
and formidable by it than ever. And, as in all thefe 
unfucpefsful AiFairs ; the whole Nation Is to pay for 


Of E N G L A N D. 447 

the Faults of a few, fo this Government thought 
proper to order in a Bill for laying on an Afleftment 
of 20,000 /. a Month, to continue for one Year, and 
a Committee was appointed for that Purpofe. 

Befides the afore-mentioned Affair, the Houfe 
had been bufy in canvafling two great Bills j the one 
was for uniting Scotland with England" ; and the 
other for fettling the Government ef thefe Three 
Nations on fo folid a Bafis that it (hould be im- 
moveable. The Parliament, in grand Committees, 
Lad debated both thefe Affairs for feveral Days, this 
Month, without coming to any Resolution in cither 
of them ; except that, in the Debate on the Go- 
vernment, they one Day ordered, That Mr. Scobell^ 
late Clerk, fhould fearch for a former ingrofled A& 
for a new Reprefentative of the People^ which was 
pafled in one of Oliver's Parliaments * : Bv which we 
may guefs they were going to form Elections un the 
like Model. 

Ai4gujl a j. But, to make the beft of the. late great 
Victory, the Parliament firft began with ordering a 
Declaration to be drawn and put forth, to invite al! 
the good People of thefe Three Nations, .is God 
fhall jet it upon their Hearts, to give Thanks to the 
Lord for his unfpeakable Mercy tor this great Deli- 
verance wrought out by bis mighty Arm for the 
Parliament ana Commonwealth, and in overthrow- 
ing the Forces, and defeating the Defigns, of their 

The fame Day they ordered the Bill for laying the 
Tax afore-mentioned, on the Three Nations, to be 
brought in the next Morning : And read a Bill twice,, 
intituled, An Act for feizing and Jtqvcftering the 
Eftatff of the Perfom couctrncd in. the lati Rebellion^ 
and committed it. 

The fame Day aifo in Account was brought to 
the Houfe of the taking of Sir Gesrge Bcotb, at 
Newport-PagneJ) the Night before, who committed 
him clofe Prifoner to the Tower for High Treafon, 
in levying War againft the Parliament and Com- 

h IFbitloclt telli us, That he brought in this the 3Oth of Juh. 
i Sec the Lift of Parliament, 1654, Vol. XX. p. 397. 

448 *Tb'e Parliament dry Hi TOR ^ 

Inter -regnum. monwealth j no one to be fuftered to fpeak to him; 
l6 59- and to be debarred the Ufe of Pen, Ink, and Paper. 
Sir Art